E. coli (Escherichia coli, E. coli) is a rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the group of optional anaerobes (lives and multiplies only in the absence of direct oxygen).
It has many strains, most of which belong to the natural microflora of the human intestine and help prevent the development of harmful microorganisms and synthesize vitamin K. However, some of its varieties (for example, O157: H7 serotype) can cause serious poisoning, intestinal dysbiosis and colibacillosis.
Normal intestinal microflora includes many microorganisms, among which are lactobacilli, enterococci, streptococci, and so on. The strains of these bacteria are in balance, but if the latter is in any way disturbed, the pathogenic microorganisms will begin to multiply vigorously. At the same time, fermentation and rotting processes are activated, causing the development of serious diseases.
Some strains of E. coli cause not only diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, but also affect the urogenital system, provoke colpitis, cystitis, prostatitis, meningitis in infants, sometimes cause the development of hemolytic-uremic syndrome, peritonitis, mastitis, pneumonia and sepsis.
Functions of E. coli in the human body
Bacteria of the colibacillus group are essential for human life. In this group there are various microorganisms, which are called coliform bacteria.
They make up only one percent of the intestinal microflora and solve a number of important tasks:
- perform a protective function, preventing the development of diseases
- their presence contribute to the reproduction of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli,
- participate in the metabolism of fat and cholesterol,
- are involved in the production of vitamins B (the whole group) and K,
- improve the absorption of compounds with iron and calcium,
- strengthen the nominal system of children (up to 7 years).
The impact of beneficial E. coli is invaluable throughout life, but pathogenic strains of these bacteria provoke diseases, cause poisoning, destroy the intestinal beneficial environment, destructively affect the immunity of adults and children. In the latter case, it is doubly dangerous, since the fragile children's organism becomes defenseless against the aggressive environment.
Attention! E. coli during pregnancy is very dangerous: an infection is able to penetrate the fetus, develop pathology and lead to miscarriage.
Intestinal sticks are fairly stable, they are able to survive for some time, even if they leave the human body. It helps in medical research and treatment, information gathering with the help of feces, urine, etc.
When an intestinal infection occurs, the method of diagnosing the disease is crucial, which will help determine the specific type of bacteria, find the right method of treatment and take timely action.
- The method of bacteriological research, which is carried out by sowing various materials
- if the intestine is injured, analyze feces or vomiting,
- with urinary tract damage, analyze urine,
- in the case of infection of the genital organs, a smear is taken or scraped from the mucosa.
Materials are placed in special environments in which microorganisms multiply, then they are tested for sensitivity to antibiotics. This helps the doctor to prescribe the most effective drugs for treatment.
- The method of research with the help of special medical preparations involves the use of ultrasound, urography, etc.
- The method of general clinical research is widespread. It does not detect pathogenic bacteria, but can confirm the presence of inflammation in the feces, urine, pus, or blood. Used as an additional method of diagnosis.
In the urogenital system, microorganisms occur during anal sex and failure to follow basic hygiene rules. Bacteria enter the urinary tract from the intestine, are fixed in them and are not completely washed out when urinating.
Bacteria of the colibacillus group when they are in the urine are not a sign of infection. This may be a manifestation of pathological changes in the urinary system.
E. coli in a smear in women is a consequence of:
- wearing tight underwear,
- unprotected anal sex,
- non-compliance with the rules of hygiene.
During pregnancy, the presence of pathogenic bacteria is risky for the baby. E. coli in the vagina is able to go to the child during childbirth and cause meningitis.
Attention!The mother’s immune system cannot enter the fetus through the placenta and protect it. Before childbirth, women need appropriate and careful treatment.
Causes and signs of infection
Diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain - signs of E. coli
The reasons for the ingestion of pathogenic Escherichia coli, as a rule, are clear and simple. This is usually the oral-fecal route. The bacterium enters the digestive tract through dirty hands, the use of unwashed vegetables and fruits, non-fried meat (pets are often infected with E. coli).
Escherichia if quite resistant to negative environmental factors. It can withstand both low and high temperatures, stay out of the body for a long time and survive, I become more active only after getting into the intestine.
Contact-household transmission is rare. More often it can be observed during an outbreak of eshechiriosis in a separate room (maternity hospital, hospital, school, etc.). One of the most dangerous ways of infection with E. coli is the transmission of infection during childbirth from mother to child. The newborn has a weak immunity, so the Escherichia calmly spreads throughout the body, can reach brain cells and provoke meningitis.
More information about E. coli can be found in the video:
Symptoms of infection with E. coli differ depending on what kind of disease was provoked by the bacterium and where it was localized:
- Diarrhea. E. coli, getting into the intestines, begins to produce a toxin that retains water and makes the stool more liquid. This is the most characteristic symptom for colibacillosis. Diarrhea appears about 2-3 days after infection and can last long enough until the bacteria are completely eliminated. In diarrhea, a person begins to actively lose fluid, which worsens his condition, leads to weakness, drowsiness, and decreased appetite.
- Nausea and vomiting. Most nausea is observed when infected with E. coli in children. In the case of newborns, frequent and copious regurgitation is observed, which resembles vomiting. With prolonged vomiting, the patient loses fluid even more actively, so the symptoms must be stopped as soon as possible.
- Blood in the stool. A stool mixed with blood appears in the hemolyzing species of Escherichia coli, which damages the vessels of the large intestine, causing minor bleeding.
- Stomach ache. Diarrhea can cause lower abdominal pain, cramps, flatulence, rumbling and other unpleasant sensations.
Since these symptoms may be signs of many intestinal disorders, no diagnosis is made on their basis. The doctor will collect anamnesis, carefully listen to all complaints and symptoms, and then prescribe treatment.
Diet and traditional treatment methods
During treatment it is very important to adhere to dietary nutrition.
Any intestinal infections are accompanied by a diet. In most cases, the diet has a therapeutic effect, helps to reduce inflammation and relieve non-intestinal stress. First of all, it is necessary to abandon spicy and fatty foods, any dishes that will irritate the stomach or intestines. At the time of treatment, it is desirable to stop consuming fried, fast food, alcohol, black coffee, carbonated drinks.
Part of the diet is drinking mode. A person actively loses fluid, so in the period of exacerbations of intestinal infections it is recommended to drink at least 2-2.5 liters of fluid per day. It is advisable to drink pure non-carbonated water and sweet black tea.
If the disease is severe, the doctor recommends a diet number 4.
Food should be liquid or semi-liquid, not too hot. Steamed dishes are preferred. Nutrition fractional, 5-6 times a day, in small portions. After stabilization, the patient is allowed to eat stewed food or lightly fried, but without a lot of oil.
Among the popular methods of treatment of colibacillosis emit:
- Curd whey. This tool acts as a prebiotic and helps to restore the damaged intestinal microflora. Prepare the serum is very simple. You need to take an ordinary kefir, heat it so that it divides into two parts: whey and cottage cheese. Serum should be drunk every day. You can also make yogurt, which has useful properties.
- Jerusalem artichoke. Jerusalem artichoke, or earth pear, has a beneficial effect on the intestines and the entire gastrointestinal tract as a whole. This is not only a medicine, but also a full-fledged tasty dish. Jerusalem artichoke is boiled in boiling milk, then separately drained milk is boiled with flour and butter, it turns out the sauce. Sauce is watered with Jerusalem artichoke and eaten.
- Herbs. The most useful for the intestines are silverweed, train, sweet clover. They have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial action. From herbs make a decoction or infusion and drink during the day. Herbs also help to normalize stools and reduce gas formation.
Before starting treatment, you should consult with your doctor. Some products may cause an allergic reaction. Especially careful to treat the popular methods of treatment for pregnant women. If the infection is severe, it is not recommended to abandon drug therapy.
Complications and consequences
Proper drinking regimen will prevent dehydration
Most often, the disease is mild and benign. With proper nutrition and timely treatment, colibacillosis disappears completely without any consequences and complications.
Problems can begin with weakened immunity and lack of proper treatment. The most common complications of E. coli include:
- Infectious and toxic shock. If the level of toxic substances secreted by the stick becomes very high, the patient's blood pressure drops, which can lead to a coma. This condition begins with dizziness, nausea, vomiting and is perceived as worsening of escherichiosis, but then coma may occur. Infectious toxic shock is life-threatening and requires the immediate hospitalization of the patient.
- Acute renal failure. This condition is characterized by an acute cessation of renal activity due to an inflammatory process that has affected most of the renal tissue. When E. coli kidney failure is usually reversible. At first, the amount of urine excreted becomes very small, and then increases sharply, but at the same time, urine only removes water, but not toxic substances.
- Dehydration. With diarrhea and vomiting, dehydration begins fairly quickly. The degree of dehydration is determined by the color and amount of urine. If the urine is low and it is dark, the body does not have enough fluid. If dehydration is not stopped, it will lead to even more serious consequences: fainting, weakness, confusion.
- Pneumonia. Pneumonia against E. coli begins if the infection has entered the bloodstream and has spread throughout the body. With pneumonia, the patient's temperature rises, a hacking and prolonged cough and weakness appear. In children and the elderly, pneumonia without treatment often leads to other pulmonary complications.
- Meningitis. Inflammation of the lining of the brain occurs when sepsis and infection in the blood. In an adult, this complication is less common than in a child. Meningitis is accompanied by headaches, vomiting, nausea, loss of consciousness.
E. coli in the urogenital system can lead to inflammation of the testes and prostate in men, colpitis and infertility in women. E. coli in the urinary system leads to various inflammatory diseases such as cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis.
Prognosis and prevention
Good hygiene is the best prevention of colibacillosis
With timely and proper treatment, the prognosis is usually favorable. The disease is completely cured within a few weeks, the work of the intestines and the bladder is normalized within a few months.
Consequences are also rare. But if untreated, young children may be fatal. Adults from E. coli die extremely rarely (for example, if it is a complication of AIDS).
Measures of prevention of colibacillosis are quite simple:
- Hygiene rules. It is very important to wash your hands after visiting the street or toilet. You need to wash with soap every time you come home. It is also advisable to wash your hands before cooking and eating.
- Thorough washing and proper cooking. Vegetables, fruits and berries should be washed well. Meat is also recommended to rinse with water. It is recommended to refrain from eating meat cooked with blood. The less meat is fried, the more likely it is that there are any pathogenic microorganisms in it.
- The use of disposable diapers and other means in hospitals and maternity homes. It is necessary to use disposable diapers, masks, gloves, personal hygiene products. In the maternity homes in each ward there is a sink and soap, where you can wash your hands.
- Pasteurization of milk. Drinking raw milk is not recommended without checking it. The safest is boiled or pasteurized milk. After careful processing, it does not remain E. coli.
- Caring for animals. Small children can become infected by pets, so the health of pets also needs to be monitored, cleaned and taken to the veterinarian regularly.
The best preventive measures are cleanliness and living conditions for children. If you follow the rules of prevention, the probability of infection is reduced to a minimum. When the first symptoms appear, you should consult a doctor for diagnosis and examination.
What is E. coli?
Infection is a type of rod-shaped bacteria that belong to the group of those that live and multiply in the absence of direct oxygen. They have many strains that are contained in the intestinal microflora of people, help get rid of harmful microbes and synthesize vitamins. Some types of sticks can cause:
- intestinal dysbiosis,
- inflammation of the genitourinary system, cystitis,
- meningitis in newborns.
In rare cases, inflammatory diseases can cause complications:
How is it transmitted
The disease is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. The cause may be dirty hands, poor hygiene when cooking, unwashed fruits and vegetables, polluted water, or uncooked (underdone) meat. The carrier may be livestock that is grown to produce milk and meat. Animals can transport bacteria or excrete them into the environment through faeces.
There are two types of intestinal infection - non-pathogenic and pathogenic. The first live in the human body, protecting it from germs and infections. The second cause various infections and diseases of the intestines. The following pathogenic species are distinguished:
- Enteropathogenic, provoke inflammatory infectious diseases of the small intestine in children. At the same time temperature rises, the liquid chair and vomiting is observed.
- Entero-invasive ones are manifested by acute food poisoning, which resembles dysentery.
- Enterotoxigenic characterized by acute diarrhea.
- Enterohemorrhagic may develop in the child a colitis and an increase in uremic syndrome.
With intestinal dysbiosis, there are different symptoms. They are similar in women, men and children, so they are not difficult to determine. Observed constipation, diarrhea, nausea, bloating, abdominal pain, vomiting. In patients with fecal masses, they change their odor to unpleasant, which also happens in the oral cavity. There is rapid fatigue, weakness, drowsiness, or vice versa, insomnia, no appetite.
With the disease in women, the infection can penetrate the vagina or urethra, provoke urethritis and colpitis. If it is not cured in time, the strain remains in the genital tract and urethra. The stick is attached to the mucous membrane, not washed out during urination (even if the jet is strong) or vaginal secretions. If she stays there, then in time she rises to the organs of the urinary and genital systems. There it can develop, causes inflammatory or chronic diseases, such as:
These symptoms occur:
- burning in the vagina
- heavy discharge with unpleasant pungent odor,
- itching in the genitals or inside.
In men, the wand penetrates the urethra after anal sex without a condom or during vaginal sex with an infected woman. It penetrates through the urethra to other organs of the urogenital system, when urinating is not washed off, and fixed on the mucous membrane. The symptoms triggered by the wand are as follows:
- vomiting with green impurities
- severe diarrhea,
- discomfort of the abdomen,
- high temperature
- loss of appetite,
- general weakness
Infection is a danger to infants and children over 12 years old: the wand affects them with low body mass. The strain is transmitted from sick adults or carriers of the pathogen, can get to the child at birth. At the same time, the infection tends to the organs of urination, fixing itself on the mucous membrane. With this disease, the following symptoms are observed:
- yellowish orange diarrhea,
- weight loss,
- diarrhea with plenty of water
- the appearance of purulent foci,
- reduced immunity
- fetid stool.
Cows, goats can tolerate pathogenic strains that manifest the above symptoms. The reasons for reproduction among can be:
- unwashed fruits and vegetables,
- unwashed hands (violation of the rules of hygiene when cooking),
- using waste or polluted water for watering or drinking,
- consumption of lightly roasted pig or sheep meat,
- drinking unboiled milk.
What does detecting E. coli mean in various analyzes?
It is important to know what the presence of a microorganism means (these include Escherichia coli) in certain fluids or secretions. Consider the main signs of the presence of a pathogenic organism, the consequences and causes of reproduction. In the presence of sticks in the urine or smear disease can be recorded as a pathology of the urinary tract and kidneys. With the first symptoms of the disease is recommended to consult a doctor.
The presence of sticks in the urine may appear when hygiene is not followed, unprotected anal intercourse. It adheres to urinary tract epithelial cells and is not washed out. The analysis is carried out as follows: the urine is collected, which is collected during the catheterization of the bladder. If the patient's symptoms coincide with acute pyelonephritis, 1 ml of fresh urine contains about 104 sticks in a liquid.
In a smear for women
If non-compliance with the rules of hygiene, wearing close or synthetic underwear or unprotected vaginal-anal sexual contact, the appearance and reproduction of the stick in the genitals is possible. In men, this leads to inflammation of the testicles and its appendages; in women, inflammation of the vagina, ovaries and uterus occurs. A smear is made from the wall of the uterus, vagina or urethra. If there are 20 leukocytes in the field of view, the analysis may indicate an inflammatory process.
Treatment of E. coli in gynecology
It’s necessary to know how to treat E. coli in gynecology. The treatment process helps to remove the inflammatory process of the female genital organs. Treatment is carried out combined, with an emphasis on local therapy. To get rid of E. coli, it is recommended:
- perform ablution of the external genital organs with herbs decoctions,
- perform therapeutic douching
- insert vaginal suppositories with Nystatin,
- to visit ultraviolet radiation (physiotherapy on the genitals).
In severe cases, prescribe medication:
- drugs that strengthen the immune system.
In order not to get infected with harmful sticks, it is necessary to improve sanitary conditions (clean products, decontaminated water, high-quality hand soap). Children should thoroughly wash their hands and the products from which meals will be prepared. It is recommended to use wet wipes and get rid of antibacterial soap: it reduces immunity by killing beneficial germs. Try to change towels, bathrobes often, wash dishes often.
Causes of diseases caused by E. coli
Digestive disorders, reproduction of pathogenic serotype of Escherichia coli and dysbacteriosis can occur due to many diseases of the digestive system, especially the pancreas (pancreatitis) and intestines (colitis, enterocolitis).
In addition, disruption of the normal intestinal microflora can take some antibiotics that suppress those microorganisms that are responsible for preventing the reproduction of pathogenic flora.
To avoid dysbacteriosis and digestive disorders, it is necessary to properly select antibacterial drugs, their dose and those medicines that will protect the normal intestinal microflora.
Infection with pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli occurs predominantly through the faecal-oral route. Contributes to the development of diseases violation of the rules of hygiene of cooking, the use of dirty fruits and vegetables, the use of water for irrigation, polluted or waste. It is also dangerous to eat poorly roasted meat or drink unboiled milk, because cows, goats, pigs and sheep can be carriers of pathogenic strains of E. coli.
Symptoms of E. coli
Food poisoning caused by certain strains of E. coli are dangerous because of the toxins secreted by them. Some of these toxins are potentially deadly. Pathogenic microorganisms are detected in the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract and inflammatory tissues (foci of inflammation).
The symptoms of Escherichia coli becomes an expanded clinical picture of intestinal dysbiosis: in addition to stool disorders (constipation, diarrhea), the patient has nausea and vomiting, bloating and abdominal pain. The smell of fecal masses changes, an unpleasant smell from a mouth appears. Symptoms of general intoxication include fatigue, weakness, drowsiness, and lack of appetite.
Freedom from E. coli
Treatment of E. coli consists in taking specially selected antibiotics. Most often, these are drugs from the group of aminoglycosides. To make the treatment more effective, the patient is recommended to sow the contents of the intestine. If E. coli caused diarrhea, it is necessary to restore water and electrolyte balance through rehydration. In general, treatment depends primarily on the strain of E. coli.
Expert Editor: Pavel Alexandrovich Mochalov | D.M.N. general practitioner
Education: Moscow Medical Institute. I. M. Sechenov, specialty - “Medicine” in 1991, in 1993 “Occupational diseases”, in 1996 “Therapy”.
How to treat E. coli?
Treatment of intestinal infections caused by the stick is usually complex and includes the following points:
- Antibiotics. Antibacterial therapy is the basis of treatment of E. coli. A particular drug is prescribed after determining the sensitivity of microorganisms to it. Most often, antibiotics of the cephalosporins group are recommended: Cefelim, Cefalexin, Levofloxacin. Preparations are taken in courses of 5-10 days. The course can not be interrupted or exceed the dosage without the permission of the doctor.
- Bacteriophages. These are drugs that destroy bacteria more gently and safely than antibiotics, but they are not always effective. In fact, bacteriophages are viruses that live and multiply only in the presence of certain bacteria. These viruses exist at the expense of bacteria, destroying them. Carry out bacteriophages Sekstafag, Intes-bacteriophage, etc.
- Painkillers. If the pain in the abdomen is strong, painkillers such as No-Spa, Took, Spazmalin, Nurofen are prescribed. However, they can not be taken for a long time.
- Probiotics. Probiotics (Linex, Bifidumbacterin, etc.) help restore the normal balance of pathogenic and beneficial microorganisms in the intestine.
Treatment and dosage should be prescribed by a doctor. Self-medication can be dangerous, especially during pregnancy or at an early age.
Escherichia coli can also cause diseases in organs other than the intestines. In the urinary tract, this bacterium can also cause inflammation. For girls and women, this risk is higher than for men, because they have a short way from the intestines to the urethra.
In addition, the bacterium is often the cause of respiratory infections, the cause of neonatal meningitis (inflammation of the brain), etc. These conditions mainly relate to people who are weak and long-term bedridden.
The treatment of intestinal infections often consists only in replenishing the fluid, dieting and adding suitable bacteria that prevent the multiplication of E. coli. It was found that antibiotics increase the secretion of toxin from bacteria, so it is sometimes difficult to make a choice in favor of a particular treatment option. In the case of inflammation of other organs and tissues, treatment always involves the use of antibiotic drugs.
E. coli has several features that are beneficial to humans:
- synthesizes vitamin K, the sufficient content of which in the body ensures the correctness of the blood clotting process,
- inhibits the development of harmful bacteria in the intestines.
It should be noted that these beneficial properties are realized only under the condition that the “good” wand lives in the intestinal tract. If it gets into other organs, inflammation develops in them. The most striking example is infection of the urinary tract in women with Escherichia coli, leading to cystitis and vaginitis (inflammation of the bladder and vagina, respectively).
Characteristics of the microorganism
E. coli belongs to the family of enterobacteria, which also includes Klebsiella and several other microorganisms. Unlike many of its relatives, E. coli does not form a spore, grows well on nutrient media, which makes it possible for bacteriologists to easily isolate it from human faeces and study it in every way. High temperatures and disinfectant solutions adversely affect the microorganism in question.
Most non-pathogenic Escherichia Escherichia coli synthesize enzymes that decompose lactose, so they are called lactose-positive. If this property is not detected, E. coli is considered to be lactose-negative.
Hemolytic (hemolytic) E. coli - what is it? Some E. Coli, in addition to enzymes, produce hemolysins (substances that destroy blood). On nutrient media containing red blood cells, such bacteria form colonies, around which hemolysis zones gradually appear.
Intestinal sticks are:
- non-pathogenic (normal).
Pathogenic Escherichia coli is a microorganism that can trigger the pathological process when it enters the human intestine.
Types of pathogenic E. coli:
- enterohemorrhagic - secrete toxic compounds that cause bloody diarrhea,
- enteropathogenic - I damage intestinal microvilli, provoking a long-term breakdown of stool,
- entero-invasive - are embedded in the surface epithelial cells of the intestinal wall, contributing to the development of a pronounced inflammatory process.
It should be noted that almost always pathogenic Escherichia coli are lactose-negative or hemolytic (hemolyzing) in their properties.
Diseases caused by E. coli
The disease provoked by intestinal pathogenic bacilli is commonly called colibacillosis (the term “coli-infection” can also be found). In most cases, it is manifested by acute intestinal disorders. In children and weakened adults, E. coli can also affect the urogenital and nervous systems, causing the development of serious diseases:
- pyelonephritis (inflammation of the kidneys),
- meningitis (inflammatory process in the meninges).
In the most severe cases, E. coli penetrate through the damaged intestinal wall into the bloodstream. The body responds to this by a generalized inflammatory response, which is called sepsis.
Symptoms of infections caused by E. coli
How does pathogenic E. coli manifest? The symptoms of E. coli are determined in the majority by the type of pathogen infected by the patient. Thus, enterohemorrhagic escherichia provoke repeated diarrhea and the appearance of blood in the stool. Bloating, rumbling in the stomach, chronic diarrhea is the result of infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Entero-invasive E. Coli cause severe pain and profuse watery diarrhea.
In addition, the age of the patient affects the clinic of colibacillosis. The child, as a rule, intestinal infection is more severe.
In infants, pathogenic Escherichia coli is manifested by the following symptoms:
- colic - severe pain in the abdomen, which can be recognized by crying and constant anxiety of the baby,
- poor weight gain
- rapid stool,
- changing the smell of feces,
- admixture in the feces of blood
- loss of appetite.
In an older child, “bad” E. coli causes severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, cramping abdominal pain, general weakness, nausea, and headache. If the patient loses a lot of fluid with feces, dehydration also develops.
In men, the colonization of the pathogenic Escherichia coli of the digestive tract in most cases becomes the cause of acute enteritis - by type of poisoning. That is, there is vomiting, recurrent diarrhea, abdominal pain, general intoxication and dehydration. Chronization of the pathological process is also possible. At the same time, these symptoms appear and then pass on their own. If the infection penetrates the reproductive organs, an inflammatory process may occur in the prostate and testes.
Symptoms of colonization of the colon by pathogenic Escherichia coli in women are similar to those in men. If the pathogen enters the hematogenous (through the blood) or ascending (through the external genitalia) pathways into the internal genital organs, inflammation of the endometrium and uterine appendages is possible. This may affect the ability of women to conceive.
In addition, non-observance of banal hygienic rules by representatives of the weaker sex quite often leads to the spread of intestinal sticks from the intestines to the vagina and urethra. In these organs, under its influence, acute, rarely chronic inflammation develops.
To find out which drugs will be effective against pathogenic Escherichia coli, the patient is tested for the sensitivity of the selected bacteria to antibiotics. If there is no time to wait for the result of this analysis, the doctor prescribes an antibacterial agent that acts on many microbes, for example, something from cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones.
After a course of antibiotic treatment, patients are shown to restore the intestinal biocenosis with special medications called probiotics.
A bacteriophage is a virus that kills bacteria, and E. coli is also afraid of it. Therefore, if pathogenic E. coli is found in the patient’s feces, the doctor may prescribe one of the following drugs:
- Bacteriophage if liquid.
- Coliprotein bacteriophage
Features of the treatment of children
How to treat harmful E. coli in a child? If such a bacterium is found in children, the treatment will have its own characteristics:
- The fight against Escherichia if pediatricians try to start not with strong antibacterial agents, but with bacteriophages and probiotics.
- Many antibiotics are absolutely contraindicated in infants, so doctors sometimes have to wriggle out to help the little patient.
- Due to the rapid development of dehydration, with repeated diarrhea, children are required to undergo rehydration therapy.
In addition, it is very important that when infected with the intestinal bacillus the patient keeps to the prescribed diet, otherwise no medicine can help get rid of intestinal disorders.
So far, only 1 comment
I suffer from cystitis 25 years. In August 2016, there was a sharp exacerbation with a temperature of 39 for 3 days. They did the sowing and found an infested wand. Now they said that it is impossible to cure. Is there really no doctors and means that can cure?
What is this pathology
The bacteria Escherichia coli usually live in the gut of healthy people and animals. They are part of the normal microflora, the main optional inhabitant of the colon.
The genus of microorganisms is named after Theodor Escherich, the doctor who first described E. coli. Bacteria are gram-negative bacilli that exist individually or in pairs.
E. coli are facultative anaerobes with a type of metabolism that is both enzymatic (fermentation in the absence of oxygen) and oxidative. They either do not have the ability to move, or are mobile because of the presence of flagella.
Most varieties (serotypes, strains) are harmless or cause relatively short diarrhea. But some aggressive subspecies, such as E. Coli O157: H7, can cause severe abdominal cramps, upset stool with blood and vomiting.
These microorganisms are one of the most common causes of many common bacterial infections, including cholecystitis, bacteremia, cholangitis, urinary tract infection and traveler's diarrhea, as well as other clinical infections such as neonatal meningitis and pneumonia.
Effective treatment - how to get rid of E. coli
How to get rid of E. coli? The amount of medical care depends on the severity of the infection. В дополнение к антибиотикам, необходимо обеспечить поддерживающий уход: восполнение потерь жидкости, адекватную оксигенацию (лечение кишечной палочки кислородом) и поддержку артериального давления, если это требуется. Хирургическая обработка может быть произведена у пациентов с внутрибрюшным абсцессом, холециститом или холангитом.
Meningitis requires antibiotics such as third-generation cephalosporins (for example, ceftriaxone).
In case of colibacillosis pneumonia, respiratory support (supply of a humidified oxygen mixture) and antibacterial drugs (fluoroquinolones) are necessary.
Cholecystitis and cholangitis require antibiotics such as third generation cephalosporins. For an abdominal abscess, antimicrobial agents should also include ampicillin and sulbactam or cefoxitin. In severe infections, piperacillin tazobactam, imipenem-cilastatin or meropenem can be used.
Intestinal colibacillosis infections require replacement therapy - the introduction of parenteral fluids with solutions containing the necessary electrolytes. Antibiotics include doxycycline, trimethoprim, fluoroquinolones, and rifaximin. They reduce the duration of diarrhea by 24-36 hours.
Patients with comorbidities (for example, diabetes) need to undergo a course of taking levofloxacin or aztreonam for 7-14 days.
How is the analysis performed?
The final diagnosis is based on the isolation of the microorganism in the bacteriological laboratory from the patient's biofluids. The latter may be feces, blood, urine, sputum, or other fluids, such as cerebrospinal, biliary and peritoneal. A sample of stool is most commonly examined.
Gram stain results determine whether the microorganism is gram-negative, but the bacteria themselves do not differ among other aerobic gram-negative bacilli that cause similar infectious diseases. E. coli grows well on commonly used nutrient media, such as blood agar.
An analysis of E. coli will allow you to accurately establish the diagnosis.
These microorganisms usually live in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract of people and animals. Most bacteria of this type are harmless and in fact are an important part of a healthy human intestine.
However, some serotypes are pathogenic - which means that they can cause disorders, such as diarrhea or diseases of other organs of the gastrointestinal tract.
Escherichia consist of a diverse group of bacteria.
Pathogenic strains are subdivided into six subtypes, which are associated with diarrhea and are collectively called diarrhea-inducing bacteria:
- Shig-toxin-producing (STEC) - can also be referred to as microorganisms that produce verocytotoxin (VTEC) or enterohemorrhagic (EHEC). They are the most common type of bacteria that causes food poisoning.
- Enterotoxigenic (ETEC).
- Enteropathogenic (EPEC).
- Enteroagregantny (EAEC).
- Entero-invasive (EIEC).
- Diffusely Dependent (DAEC).
Bacteria of the colibacillus group are often found in the everyday environment of people.
The appearance of the pathogen in the prostate in men
The defeat of the urogenital system often manifests itself in the form of low-grade fever and dysuria. Urinary disorders in men are characterized by their increased frequency and pain.
Patients with acute colic prostatitis or prostatic abscess complain of chills, sudden fever (> 39 ° C) and pain in the perineum or back. Palpable sensitive to touch, swollen, hard and hot prostate gland.
Acute prostatitis also manifests itself in the form of dysuria, urgent and frequent urination. Some people may have myalgia, urine retention, malaise and arthralgia. If the patient does not respond to antibiotics, a gland abscess is possible, which can be detected through various studies.
How to treat E. coli in the prostate? Treatment consists of open surgical or skin drainage. Patients with an abscess of the prostate organ caused by E. coli have a high temperature, despite adequate antibiotic therapy and gland mobility during rectal examination.
In patients with concomitant bacterial pyelonephritis, localized pain in the side or lower back, high temperature (> 39 ° C) and dysuria are present.
The condition may be complicated by a necrotizing abscess that does not respond to antibiotics. Patients with diabetes or urinary tract obstruction may develop bacteremia and sepsis. No less dangerous disease of the digestive tract.
Manifestations in children
Manifestations of Escherichia coli infection may be minor and nonspecific in infants and toddlers. Even in older children, symptoms may be similar to signs of common viral diseases, leading to erroneous or delayed diagnosis.
A detailed medical history, including previous urinary tract infections, may help further diagnostic testing.
Middle-aged children with bacterial enteritis may experience fever, vomiting, abdominal pain or diarrhea with or without blood and mucus. Constipation predisposes a child to a urinary tract infection and can complicate treatment. In cases of diarrheal disease, attention should be paid to stool frequency in the last 12-24 hours, appearance (for example, loose, watery) and the presence of blood or mucus.
Particular symptoms are affected by the type of bacteria:
- Enterotoxigenic diarrhea is watery without blood, mucous or fecal leukocytes. Varies from mild to severe.
- Enterohemorrhagic disease manifests itself from a simple stool disorder to hemorrhagic colitis, often with abdominal cramps and vomiting. Fever is present in about one third of cases.
These pathogens are pathogenic bacteria.
If the child has abdominal pain, it is necessary to evaluate their possible characteristics:
- place of origin,
- severity and character
- strengthening and weakening factors.
In newborns and infants with colibacillosis of the urinary tract, bacteremia or sepsis, the following symptoms may be present:
- poor nutrition
- respiratory distress,
Meningitis in newborns caused by E. coli can occur without obvious signs of CNS damage. Often there is lethargy or abnormal neurological symptoms and intermittent episodes of apnea.
Infants younger than 4 weeks will have irritability, lethargy (lethargy), vomiting, anorexia and cramps. In children older than 4 months, there is stiff neck, tight springs and fever. Adolescents develop headache, vomiting, confusion, lethargy, seizures, and fever.
What is dangerous disease
Most E. coli strains are harmless, but the O157: H7 subtype is the key exception, because this serotype causes severe diarrhea, resulting in kidney damage and other serious complications, including death.
Bacteria are susceptible to people of all age groups, but immunocompromised persons, elderly and young children are at higher risk. Especially susceptible organism of pregnant women. The wand affects the internal organs of the future mother, which is dangerous for her and the unborn baby.
Therefore, in gynecology, many methods are aimed at identifying the pathogen. Therefore, it is obligatory to cure the disease under the supervision of a physician; it is not recommended to choose medicines on your own.