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Educational activities for a child from birth to 3 months

Here he is, no - HE. Big letters - only a part of the importance with which the baby comes into our lives. He was born, you look at him, about whom so many have thought, with whom you have been talking for a long time. Now HE is here, apart from you, and you are overwhelmed with a feeling of tenderness.

Congratulations, you're lucky! You are an idyllic picture of mother and baby. But it happens that tenderness and joy, such natural for a young mother, are replaced by bewilderment and confusion.

Do not worry, it happens very often, especially at the birth of the first child.

Your first impressions after giving birth

And if it seems to you that next to you is just a small meaningless lump that only fulfills its natural needs, do not cling to your head in horror and shout: “I am a bad mother, completely devoid of maternal feelings!”

Keep calm! You have full order, it happens, you are not the only mother in the world who has thought of such a sedition. The first experience of motherhood is always unique, because what is happening now has never happened to you before. Your breast was not bursting with milk, SUCH fatigue you never knew, no one ever demanded from you complete submission to the routine of another person. Yes, and how to seriously call the person of this karapuz, baby, slider. How to interact on equal terms with the host of such nicknames? Somehow awkward.

Yes, the task is not easy: you have to get through the rubble of ignorance and inexperience, other people's advice and smart books, to develop your own special line of conduct with your child. So, do not reproach yourself and share your feelings with others, seek support. Your work over time will be rewarded: a little more - and you will understand what needs to be done, you will begin to unconsciously use the secrets of motherhood of your mothers and grandmothers. And after many years, unconsciously taking advantage of the luggage that YOU have been carrying in childhood, your child will be able to become happy and create a harmonious family.

A kind of message from all the mothers for you just become pestushki, and later - poteshki. If you do not remember them from childhood and did not learn during pregnancy, then it is easy to learn now. They will help to diversify and revive your communication with the baby. After all, he is only eating and sleeping. He still does not know how to play and does not understand words. But rejoices gentle touch and gentle intonation. He expects parents to unconditional love, tenderness and good mood.

➠ The experience of motherhood is always unique. The process of knowing the baby and making contact with each mother is different in its own way. The poteshki and pestushki are helpful in this difficult task.

➠ When the baby is asleep, and you do not have urgent matters, with a clear conscience, use this time to rest. Take care of yourself, sleep, in general - save up strength, they will be useful to you.

And if you sang and recited the poems to your child before birth, the pestlets will help create a sense of comfort and familiar surroundings in the baby: he listened to the same rhythm, melody and timbre of his voice in the womb, where he felt quite comfortable. Now, having heard familiar sounds, the baby will calm down and rejoice.

DEVELOPMENT NORMS OF BABY

Young mothers are always interested in the development standards of the baby. And they are very worried when their own child lags behind in development or, on the contrary, is ahead of the norm. But all the “developmental norms” give only average values, and the spectrum of the norm is very wide. So if your baby has something that is “not normal”, it most likely means that he simply did not fall into the “middle group”. We remind you that intraspecific differences are a typical property of all living beings, and humanity is no exception.

But we still satisfy the natural curiosity of the young mother.

The rate of child development in 1 month

In 1 MONTH the baby usually already pleases parents with the following skills.

✓ Performs micromotion and makes sounds.

✓ Lying on the tummy, trying to raise and hold his head.

✓ Focuses on a fixed subject and a human face and watches it as it moves smoothly into view.

✓ Reacts to mother's voice.

The first month will end quickly, you can even say, fly by. And here you are proud to say: “And we have a month now!” It seems to you that this is so much and so important.

And throughout the first year every 30 days will be an important achievement for you. Then life will flow faster, will gain momentum until you come to your senses at the school door. And now you are on the threshold of the second month.

How to deal with a child from birth to 3 months? Newborn development

The baby is born with a developed sense organs. Most of the receptors are already formed by the time the baby is born, even if there was a premature birth. For example, the auditory and visual apparatus are formed from the second month of intrauterine life. The vestibular apparatus functions from the third month after conception. At the same time, receptors of taste sensitivity are formed. Tactile receptors develop most intensively between the second and fourth months of intrauterine life. Pain and temperature sensitivity are formed a little later, but the newborn already has them. By the end of fetal development, the formation of olfactory receptor receptors is completed.

A newborn baby distinguishes not only the taste, but also the smell: it vigorously turns away from the unpleasant. The child shows a differentiated response to wet diapers and a warm bath, prefers women's voices to men. Rhythmic sounds, reminiscent of the sounds of the human heart, soothe him, sharp sounds - bother. According to the latest research, the newborn distinguishes sounds that differ sharply in character from each other, for example, noise and knock from musical tones, distinguishes tones within adjacent octaves, determines the direction of sound. He is able to imitate some of the gestures and facial expressions of an adult available to him. According to O. Friedrich, "children, only twelve days old, imitate adults when they show them the language."

First of all, a newborn needs timely care and care, but without comprehensive stimulation, its development cannot be normal and versatile. For the full emotional development of the child, you need to communicate with him as often as possible. The most effective communication with the baby occurs when it is in the hands of an adult. Therefore, take the baby in your arms, not only if he cries, but also specifically to communicate with him. Baby up to a year is almost impossible to spoil. Mother’s hands are a complex stimulant for him. Holding the child in your arms and moving with it in space, you enrich the visual world of the baby, because its space is limited by the crib, and the optimum vision zone is 30-60 cm. Tenderness, care, tender words, emotional warmth emanating from you, cause the little man's first emotional responses — timid smiles, motor excitement — that will later develop into positive emotional exclamations.

How to make a day regimen for a child from zero to three months

Newborns have one task - to eat well and grow. It is feeding and should be taken as a basis for the regime of the day. Breastfed babies are a bit more complicated. Mom can not know exactly how much milk the baby drank and when he wants to eat the next time. Therefore, mothers often practice feeding “on demand”, but in this case it is quite difficult to set the mode. However, you can try to keep a feeding diary, weighing the baby every time before and after it has been attached to the breast. With the help of electronic scales you can find out how much milk was drunk. Correlating these data, mother will understand when the baby drinks more, when less. And learn to calculate the time intervals between sleep and food. This will initiate the compilation of the daily routine.

For bottle-fed babies, it is easier to introduce a regimen. By the amount of the mixture remaining in the bottle, it is immediately obvious whether the baby has had enough or not. And after what time he wants to eat again. Although some pediatricians recommend sticking to the feeding schedule, keeping certain intervals. And between them, water your baby. What to do in each case, you can find out only by experience. Do not blindly follow the advice of doctors, especially since their opinions are often the opposite. It is important to observe the behavior of the child and listen to their own feelings. Only then you can build the most comfortable mode for mom and newborn.

3 month of child's life

For 3 months characterized by rapid physical and neuropsychic development baby. Literally daily you expect pleasant "news". First, the baby's behavior changes, it becomes more conscious. His reactions to visual, auditory and tactile sensations cease to be instinctive.

During wake periods, the infant is active most of the time and shows interest in the outside world. He listens carefully to the sounds and examines the room in search of new visual images. When a new object is seen, the child rejoices and keeps his eyes on it. With special pleasure, the baby considers his own hands and learns to keep them in sight.

In your conversations, the baby is no longer just an interlocutor, now he knows how to report that it is time to pause. You notice another important change in the behavior of your baby - he began to smile more often. Now he is happy not only at the sight of familiar faces - interesting objects and sounds also make him smile.

The developmental rates of the baby in 2 months

In 2 MONTHS the child masters the following skills

✓ Smiles when seeing a familiar face or hearing a familiar voice.

✓ Keeps a moving and stopped object in view.

✓ Turns the head to the source of the sound, looking for his eyes.

✓ Lying on his stomach, trying to keep his head.

✓ Sounds, vocalizing vowels.

Now the baby is sleeping a little less, is actively growing, the list of his skills increases.

The rate of child development in 3 months

At 3 MONTHS the kid demonstrates such skills.

✓ Recognizes the face of mom and dad, laughs when communicating.

✓ Rests on hard surface with legs under arms.

✓ Looks for the source of sound and light.

✓ Gulit, coos, “talks” with adults.

✓ Hit hands over toys hanging above the crib.

✓ Grabs a toy and pulls it into his mouth.

✓ Lying on his stomach and resting his forearms, he lifts his head.

✓ Holds the head and controls it.

✓ Turns from back to flank and back.

✓ Demonstrates in response to the appeal “revitalization complex”.

✓ Capricious and whimpering, shouting in protest.

Congenital baby reflexes from 0 to 3 months

By the time of birth, the baby has a whole complex of so-called innate reflexes, one part of which disappears during the first months of life, the other is converted into acquired reflexes, working already on a conscious level, and the third part (for example, blinking reflexes, yawning, knee, etc.). e.) remains for life.

We list the seven major reflexes that are normal in the newborn.

1. The grasp reflex. When stroking the palm or with a light touch to it, the baby reflexively squeezes the cam and holds what it touched. And the weight of the subject can reach a kilogram.

2. Search reflex. When touching the cheek or stroking it, the baby turns the head in the appropriate direction.

3. Sucking reflex. If you hold your finger or nipple around your mouth, the baby makes lips suck.

4. Reflex Babinsky. If you run your finger along the outer edge of the foot, the baby turns the foot, at the same time opening the toes.

5. Reflex Mora. With a loud or sudden sound, the baby spreads and reduces the arms and legs.

6. Reflex Babkin. If you push on the palm of the baby, he will turn his head and open his mouth.

7. Swimming reflex. If you put the baby on his tummy, he will make movements like swimming.

How to develop reflexes, sight of the newborn?

The development of visual indicative reactions

As shown by various studies, from the first days of life, the newborn can detect orientation reflexes to light, defensive reflexes to bright light, an unconditional reflex to a moving object — eye movement in the direction of a moving stimulus.

In a few days after birth, a child can observe so-called visual focusing - fixing the eyes on an object with a simultaneous delay of impulsive movements of the arms, legs and head. In the first week of life, a reaction to eye-to-eye contact, that is, the ability to look into the eyes of the person who picked him up, is found in the newborn.

It is established that the newborn prefers the face or its schematic image to any other visual image, and the more natural image of the face is fixed by the child for a longer time.

• Hang a black and white image of a human face (the size of a tetrad sheet) above the crib about 25 cm from the child's eyes (the scattered image gives a larger distance). At the moment when the baby looks at the “face”, start moving the image: first to the right, then to the left. It is enough to do this 1-2 times a day for 1 to 2 minutes.

In a month, the exercise becomes more complicated: move the "face" first to the right, then left, returning the "face" to the center, move it up from the baby's eyes, and then again to the center, then down. Close to the face of the child, then move away. Do this 1-2 times a day for 2-3 minutes.

• Take a ring with a diameter of 5-7 cm. Hang it above the crib on a rod 60-70 cm long. The ring can be of any color, but it should be noted that on a bright sunny day, a child under one year old follows the movement of green, blue and purple toys, and overcast - red, orange and yellow.

• Try to determine if your baby is different in different colors, such as red and green. To do this, at a height of 60-70 cm above the breast of the child, place a red rattle (from about the 20th day of life). Hold the rattle over him during each period of his wakefulness and until he stops noticing her. Then replace it with the same shape, but a different color. Pay attention to whether he will also be enthusiastically considering a new rattle, or will not notice the difference. It is very good if he considers the new rattle with the same enthusiasm - this means that he saw the difference between them. Next time pick up another pair of rattles on the same principle.

• Hang an orange or yellow toy measuring 5x7 cm at a height of 40 cm above the baby’s chest. Move it 180 ° to one side or the other.

• At 2 months, hang over the baby's face, securely and securely fastening a metal unbreakable mirror at a distance of 18-20 cm from the eyes. The mirror should be positioned so that the child can see its reflection. Playing with a mirror can be held 1-2 times a day for 2-3 minutes.

• Bring the baby to a large mirror so that he looks at his reflection, awaken his interest in details (focusing and viewing). Bring and remove your baby from the mirror.

• Attach a mirror to a flexible structure (for example, to a plastic tape) so that the baby can get it when he is able to do so and examine himself.

• Allow your child to look at graphic shapes: lines, triangles, quadrangles (black and white at first) that can be drawn on a regular sheet of paper. Attach them in the sight of your baby at a distance of about 25 cm from his eyes.

If the kid with visible pleasure examines the images presented to him, then, having shown any one drawing, move him first to the left, then to the right, then up, down, then in a circle - first in one direction, then in the other, finally approaching the eyes - moving away from the eyes.

Thumbnails of graphic shapes are arranged on a page in a certain sequence, from simple to complex. In this order and need to show them. Each of the figures can be presented in several forms: in the form of a set of points, in the form of a contour or a black-and-white figure. You can use other images. In full size, each image should be the size of a tetrad sheet.

Learning to understand each other

TO 3 month of life child I have already learned to smile and do this every time someone leans over his bed. He rejoices in any object that resembles a human face — a smile is welcomed by a doll, mask, or paper plate with painted eyes.

In this increase the child actively seeks to communicate. He experiments with sounds, pronouncing them separately, or in combination with each other. Fascinated by this activity, the crumb will lie quietly in the crib and will be happy to listen to the sounds that he himself utters. Он радуется, когда к игре присоединяются родители.

Взрослые подражают звукам, которые произносит малыш, а тот в ответ начинает «гулить», и между ними завязывается своеобразная «беседа». Родителям обычно нравится повторять мимику своего чада. Когда малютка открывает рот, мама вслед за ним делает то же самое. Если он прищуривает глаза, мама тоже прищуривается.

Такое общение помогает ребенку лучше узнать себя. Теперь ему требуется от взрослых не только еда и комфортность. The bottle can no longer replace the talk, touch, laughter and singing mother. The child has a need for communication. He needs to be played and reacted to his actions. Parents who find enough time to talk, play and practice with the baby, thereby contribute to the development of his social skills.

Motor skills of a child at 3 months

On 3 month old baby begins to "open" their pens. He is already able to squeeze and unclench his fingers, focusing all attention on the movements of the hand. It seems the baby understands that the hand on which he looks, belongs to him and that it can be controlled.

If the crumb accidentally captures one brush with another, he will examine them with interest. This is so characteristic of this age that, according to some pediatricians, if by the end of the third month the baby has not become interested in his hands, this is a reason for going to the doctor.

The little man can touch, grab and hold plastic rings, if you put them in his hands. By how energetically the baby begins to shake the toy and tries to bring it to its mouth, it is clear that it interested him. However, while the baby perceives it as a continuation of his own hand, and not as a separate object, therefore, when the rattle falls out of the hand, the child does not show any signs of anxiety.

In trying to touch everything, move the hand is very important for the development of moments: cognitive interest, training tactile sensations, strengthening the small muscles of the fingers. Therefore, secure the suspension with movable toys between the bars of the crib. The baby will try to specifically touch the toys to hear the sound you like.

Obvious changes associated with sucking. Now, when you put the baby to the breast, he first turns his head, looks for the nipple, then adapts, grabs his lips and only then begins to suck. The sucking reflex manifests itself in the baby and between feedings: everything that goes into his mouth - his own hand, a corner of the diaper, mother's finger - he will suck. But now he feels perfectly the difference between just sucking movements and those that satisfy hunger.

A well-fed baby will willingly suck on a pacifier, but, experiencing a feeling of hunger, he will immediately spit it out and scream. Another sign of development characteristic of this age is the ability to consciously suck the thumb. Prior to this, the child sucked a finger if it accidentally fell into his mouth. Now the crumb does it purposefully.

Along with a clear progress in the ability to move his arms and suck, the baby begins to much better control the movement of the head. By the end 3 months baby already holds his head well, sitting in the arms of an adult, and can turn it slightly to the right and left.

The child has learned to roll from side to side. Some children, lying on their stomachs, try to crawl, bending and pushing forward one knee first, then the other. During the game, the baby can raise his arms above his head.

I see, I hear, I feel ...

The kid is able to keep track of the object, which is a few steps away. Most children of this age, when they are in their usual environment, form a stable relationship between what they see and hear. For example, a pleasant sound may be associated with a bell, and, hearing a tinkle, the crumb will turn around in search of a sound source.

During 3 months both visual and hearing abilities are improved baby. The baby becomes more susceptible to various sounds, even to such quiet ones as a telephone call, rustling of window curtains, rustling of mom's steps. Just as at a very early age, he usually freezes when he hears some unfamiliar sound. The baby stops moving his arms and legs. But then, having found the source of the sound, it starts moving again.

With the “opening” fist of the crumbs, there are more opportunities to feel the things around him with your palms. The little man begins to notice the difference between hard and soft objects and rejoices, feeling something soft in his palm. As the child continues to get acquainted with a variety of sensations, he gradually accumulates new information about the world around him.

Classes with a baby 3 months

Make a two-sided doll from a paper plate: draw a funny face on one side and a sad one on the other. Hold the plate in front of your baby's eyes first with one side, then with the other. Let him see a sad and cheerful face. You will find that the child likes to look at the toy, and very soon he will start talking to her. Interest in the doll will continue for a long time, as the faces will constantly change one another.

Introduce the baby with pictures. When showing them to your little son or daughter, clearly name the depicted objects, pictures with images of animals accompany the sounds that these animals make. On the wall near the crib, you can also hang pictures or drawings and change them from time to time.

For the development of tactile sensations, put different kinds of fabric in the pens of your baby Shreds of burlap, silk, velvet and velvet are best suited for this purpose. Pieces of various fabrics can be fastened with a wooden clothespin. Such a toy will contribute to the development of grasping skills.

For the development of vision, make a tiny colored cuffs or buy bright children's socks. Alternately, put the cuff or sock on the right and left handles of the baby, or both. Moving his hands before his eyes, the baby will gradually learn to control them, so that they remain in his field of vision.

Try to imitate the sounds that your child utters. Listen to how he does it, and repeat. During the "conversation" try to look into the eyes of the child. Sing, practice with your baby. Learn some simple poems and, using a familiar melody, hum while you are feeding, swimming and exercising.

Physical development of children 3 months

When the baby is awake, make sure that he is dressed lightly and comfortably: the less clothes, the better. Do not forget that the baby behaves more actively when he feels cool. For the physical development of the child is very important exercises that strengthen the legs.

Put the baby on the back and pick up his feet. Carefully start moving your baby's legs, imitating the movements of the cyclist. After a while, you will feel that the child is pushing your hands! And so that the baby was more fun, while singing. At the end of the exercise, holding the child by the legs, lift the lower part of his body.

Attach a few toys over the crib so that the baby can touch them with their feet. Hang the toys at different heights. Try to choose items of different shapes and from different materials. Take, for example, a big fluffy pompon and a ringing bell. Thanks to them, the child learns that objects are soft and hard, and the sounds are loud and quiet. Put the baby in the crib on his back, so that he can reach the toys with his feet, and let him train.

Toys over the crib

At three months, the child seeks to use his physical abilities as much as possible, which is why he especially enjoys hitting with his hands and feet on various subjects. Attach a pendant with different toys to the crib (or just use a rope for this purpose). It is best to take toys that after hitting them begin to ring or swing and rotate. Arrange the baby so that he can reach them first with his hands, and then with his feet. If you attach a plastic circle with a face painted on it to the suspension, it will make the game even more fun.

Take the baby for a walk: When you go out together with the baby, this is a great opportunity to change the situation for both you and him. Put the baby under the tree. He will like to listen to the rustle of leaves and watch the play of light and shade that occurs when the wind blows. The kid will follow the flight of birds, as well as listen to the noise of cars and airplanes.

Talk with your child: Keep talking to your child, using every opportunity. At the same time try to change intonation, speak in a loud and quiet voice, quickly and slowly, laughing or, conversely, soothing the baby. When it's his turn to “speak,” wait until he finishes the “phrase” and then repeat what he “said.” The more often you talk to a child, the more he will “roar”. Try to call him by name. Humming a song or reading a poem, replace the words “baby, baby” with the name of the child.

Invite guests: Invite some kid. Of course, children are too small to play together, but they will definitely notice each other. At the same time, it will be interesting for you to share your experience with other parents.

Sing songs to your child: Singing is one of the most useful activities that we constantly recommend to parents during the first year of a child’s life. As the child grows up, you will notice that the way and conditions under which you usually sing is changing. When rocking a newborn, you hold him tightly and sing in a quiet, monotonous voice. A three-month baby likes most when he is singing, then leaning close over him, then moving away from him.

The games and activities that we offer for children in the period from the moment of birth to three months of age are designed to develop the child’s auditory, visual, tactile and motor abilities. Now that he can use his skills to explore the world around us, the exercises we offer will help him to put them into practice. During games and activities, he will make discoveries, predict events, develop coordination of movements and solve new problems.

Making discoveries

Pets monitoring: Give your child the opportunity to observe one of the pets. Especially interesting to look at dogs, cats and birds.

New perspectives: Take the child in your arms, lift it up and lower it so that it can look at your face.

Hang beads in the arena: Manege is a great place for a three-month baby. There is enough space here so that he can move and roll over and so that he can put toys next to him. Stretch a string with coils in the playpen. The baby will love listening to how they knock on each other when he hits their feet. (If you don't have a playpen, the beads from the coils can be hung between two chairs.)

Introduce the kid with the rhythmic music: The child likes to listen to music, especially rhythmic. Let him listen to the melody, where there is a clear rhythm. Try clapping your palms in time with the music, or do it with wooden spoons, a tambourine, or two clothes pegs. Listen to music fast and slow, loud and quiet. After a while, the baby will learn to notice changes in rhythm.

Ringing bell: Put the cuff on your wrist with a neatly sewn bell. Carefully shake the hand of the child so that he looks at her and sees the bell. Then put this cuff on the other hand and shake again, a little stronger this time. This exercise will help the child to better know the parts of his body and develop coordination of the eyes and hands.

Safe sandbox: Fill a large bowl or small bowl with oatmeal flour. Put on a wide tray or on a plastic mat (so as not to dirty anything). Sitting on the floor and holding the child on your lap, lower his legs and arms in a basin. Explain to your child how he feels. Show me how you sift flour through your fingers. Through this activity, the child learns to rejoice at the new sensations.

Humming bees: To more often the baby "gulil" and uttered different sounds, try to sing this song with him. While singing, do not forget to look into his eyes.
You tell me first
How zhu-zhu bee buzzing.
Then I'll tell you
About bee zhu-zhu.
Let the kid try to pronounce the sound "g".

Cloth glove: Make a pair of cloth gloves using a different type of fabric for each finger. Put the gloves on your hands and let the baby touch each finger.

Songs with a surprise: Learn a few songs that end in unexpected ways, and sing them to the kid. After listening to the song several times, he will know that at the end he will have a surprise. Put the baby on your lap. Shake your knees, so that the baby jumps slightly, and at the same time sing this song:
Over bumps, over bumps,
On loose tracks.
Holding the baby, spread your knees so that he suddenly slid down.
In the hole - boo!

Leg exercises: Lift the baby's legs up, and then lower, at the same time saying:
Hop, Hop, Clap, Clap.

Up down: Take the baby by the arms and gently pull towards yourself, so that he lifts the body, then carefully lay back. Here is a song you can hum during this exercise:
Here my baby sits,
Here is my baby lies.
He looks at the rattle
How to swing toys.
This game strengthens the abdominal muscles of the baby and at the same time gives him the opportunity to see the world around him in a new way.

Swim, swim, baby: Put the baby on your lap. Supporting his back and head, hum some song. Sway the baby back and forth.

Push the baby's feet: Lay the baby on the belly on a hard surface. Stand in the back and place your palms on the baby’s feet. It will be convenient for him to crawl forward, pushing off with legs from your hands. Such an exercise will help the child learn to crawl on his own.

Gingerbread Man: Between the third and fourth month of life, most children begin to roll over. At first they usually roll from the belly to the back, then from the back to the side and, finally, from the back to the belly. Help your kid develop these new skills for him. Place your hand under his shoulders and gently shake it from side to side. When he lies on his side, shaking him, slightly push, and let him try to roll himself.

Wiggle your baby in the rhythm of a fun song - any tune will do. At this age, some babies wake up at night due to the fact that, having turned over in a dream, they cannot independently return to their previous position. If you help your child learn to roll over, it will allow him to more easily cope with difficulties.

Give the baby a rattle: Continue to put a rattle with a thin handle in the child's hand. At the same time gently shake. Observe whether the kid will raise his hand to see where the noise is coming from.

Watching the ball: Put the baby on the floor down belly. At a distance of 70 centimeters from the face of the baby, roll a bright ball from side to side. After a small workout, the kid will learn to coordinate the movements of the eyes and hands and will try to get closer to the ball.

Searches for the bell: Ring the bell so that the child can notice it. Then remove the bell from the field of view of the baby and call again. Observe if the child will look with his eyes. Try to play with a rattle or a toy that can squeak.

Beach ball game: Inflate a large plastic ball and tie a string to it. Put the child on his back and hold the ball over him. I wonder if the baby will be able to get it with his foot?

Carousel: Tie a ribbon to a bright plastic ring and slowly rotate it in one direction around the baby. After a while, the child, waiting for the ring to appear, will search for it with his eyes.

Feeding timeAffectionate touches: The child must be held in his arms and held tightly when he eats. Therefore, you are uncomfortable to hold the horn. During feeding, leave the baby's hands free, so that he can feel and explore what he eats from. Let him feel your face, eyes, nose, mouth and hair.

Bathing timeLet bathing be a part of your daily child care. As a rule, the routine is as follows: bathing, massage, dressing, feeding and singing before putting it to sleep. Try to do the necessary things in the order that would be convenient for you and the baby.

Songs in the bathroom: While bathing, help your baby get to know itself better. While you are washing him, sing a song about different parts of his body. Try singing some funny tune or make your own.
Head and shoulders, knees and fingers
Knees and fingers, knees and fingers.
Head and shoulders, knees and fingers
Eyes and ears, mouth and nose.

Ball game: Put some colored balls in the baby bath. When the child begins to carefully examine them and reach out to them with his hands, he will know what floating objects look like and how they feel when wet and slippery.

Swim together: In order to take a break and relax, take a warm bath with your child. Holding the baby behind his back, shake him back and forth. He will like new sensations. Be sure to ask someone from your family to help you get out of the bathroom. Wet baby can easily slip out of hand.

Dressing time

Pebble: From time to time let your child be naked. Place it on an oilcloth or on another washable surface to avoid any surprises. Without clothes the baby feels his body better. В это время хорошо сделать ему легкий массаж.

Упражнения после ванны: Одевая малыша, попробуйте сделать несколько упражнений. При этом пойте ему какую-нибудь песенку.

Как разговаривают животные: Изобразите ребенку шепотом, как «говорят» разные животные: как мычит корова, лает собака, мяукает кошка, пищит мышка и т. д. Он начнет прислушиваться к этим необычным звукам, улыбнется и, может быть, даже расхохочется.

Время отдыха

Bubble: Show the child soap bubbles. Use for this special liquid and a straw. The kid will watch with pleasure as they slowly hover in the air.

Phone conversation: During a telephone conversation, take the child in your arms and look at it. The baby will like to look at you and listen - he will even think that you are talking to him!

Tick-tick clock ticking: Put the clock next to the child and let it hear their ticking. This will acquaint the baby with a sense of rhythm and, perhaps, help him fall asleep.

Baby cry

If the child is surrounded by excessive care from the first days: without a special need, take him in his arms, rock him, then the baby will quickly get used to such treatment and can no longer, capriciously, without him, require him. And if the mother is busy and cannot pay increased attention at the moment, the child starts screaming, so the baby becomes spoiled.

Do not panic at the first cry of the child. In the first months, the child often screams. But the cry is not only a signal of need, it is also a gymnastics. During the scream, many muscle groups are involved: neck, pectoral, abdominal. And the cry, simply, is necessary for development. Let the child scream, but if the child does not calm down, then you need to look for the cause of his crying.

Increase in weight and height of the child

By the end of the fourth week of life, your child should weigh about four kilograms. But do not worry if it weighs less, as you need to take into account individual characteristics.

All this concerns growth. In the first months of life, the child grows a few centimeters.

At the age of three months, the baby should weigh approximately six kilograms. On average, at the age of three months the child must add up to 200g per week. If you notice that your baby does not gain weight within 10-15 days, consult your pediatrician for advice.

Navel condition

Do not forget to pay attention to the state of the navel in a child. In some children, especially in restless ones, who often scream, the navel protrudes when screaming. This is an umbilical hernia, which occurs due to the weakness of the abdominal wall.

If you notice such a hernia, immediately consult your pediatrician. There are cases - you have to have an operation, but most often the hernia goes away itself when the child gains weight in a few months and when the adipose tissue develops stronger.

Evaluation of the mental state of a child up to three months

Checking the presence of basic reflexes, you will be able to assess the mental development of your child.

"Plantar reflex" - you spend a hand on the sole, and the child pulls back the leg.

“Sucking reflex” - you swipe the child's lips over the lips, and he readily puts his lips together with a straw and smacks his lips, makes sucking movements.

The “grasp reflex” —you put the fingertip of a child in your hand, and it squeezes it tightly.

Regurgitation

The baby often has a little regurgitation after feeding. This is normal, as the child swallows air with the milk. After feeding, do not rush to put the baby in the crib. Hold your baby for several minutes in an upright position. When you hear the air burp out with a slight sound, you can safely put the child.

But it is necessary to distinguish ordinary regurgitation from vomiting. Regurgitation is a purely physiological phenomenon, then vomiting is a sign of illness. The child spits milk of not changing quality: the milk is not curdled, has the usual color and smell. When vomiting, the milk is curdled, yellowish, with an unpleasant sourish odor.

There is an important rule, after feeding do not put the baby on his back when he regurgitates, milk can get into the respiratory tract, and it is very dangerous. The child has eaten - put it on the flank.

Table of physical parameters up to a year

To assess the growth rate, weight gain and physical development of the baby, you should familiarize yourself with the averaged generally accepted indicators of the stages of development of a child under one year. However, we must not forget that all children have individual development schedules, exact compliance with the tables given is not mandatory, minor deviations from the norms are allowed. Do not forget also that boys and girls differ slightly in their neuropsychic development, but if a child does not acquire normal skills and development indicators for his age for a long time, it is necessary to consult a doctor.

Table of the physiological parameters of a child up to a year: (we recommend reading: how should the child’s development take place on weeks up to 1 year?)

So how does a newborn grow in the first year? Consider the development of a child under one year using a calendar divided every 3 months from the birth of a baby.

From birth to 3 months

The newborn is born with a developed hearing and vision. There is a vivid manifestation of innate reflexes: the child can suck, swallow, blink, and grab from the first minutes of life. However, while the baby is not capable of turning. A newborn from a position on the tummy cannot lift the head, but the self-preservation instinct works - the head turns on the cheek.

The baby is able to hold the head for a few seconds, trying to lift it when lying on the tummy. In the month there is a response to the sounds and sudden movements, expressed in the involuntary dilution of the handles and their subsequent pressing to the calf. You can also watch spontaneous imitation of walking.

The baby raises and holds the head "standing" 1 - 1.5 min, and from the position on the tummy, not only the head, but also the chest can be raised. Draws attention to the sounds and bright light by turning the head and attentive gaze. There is an intensive development of the vestibular apparatus. The child grabs and holds moving objects.

At 3 months, the baby should keep the head well for 1 - 3 minutes. From a lying position on the abdomen can rise, leaning on the elbows. It begins to roll over, spin, change position, but in the movements there is still no clear coordination. Watching toys with interest, pulls pens to them. Starts to put fingers in his mouth, grab and pull the sheet.

Regime of the day - what is included besides sleep and feeding

In addition to sleeping and feeding, you need to add nightly bathing, massage, exercises to eliminate colic, a walk to the regime of the day of the newborn. The approximate day of the mother and baby of the first month of life looks like this:

07-00 - raising and feeding the baby,
07-20 - washing the child, changing the diaper, carrying out hygienic procedures - lubricating the skin with a cream or using powder,
08-40 - feeding,
09-00 - sleep,
11-00 - feeding,
11-20 - hygiene procedures, diaper change,
11-30 - walk,
13-00 - homecoming, feeding, sleeping,
15-00 - feeding,
15-20 - gymnastics on the elimination of colic,
15-30 - hygiene procedures,
15-40 - walk,
17-00 - homecoming, feeding, sleeping,
19-00 - feeding,
20-00 - massage,
20-30 - bathing, hygiene,
22-00 - sleep,
00-00 - feeding,
00-20 - sleep,
04-00 - feeding,
04-20 - sleep.

Of course, the baby will make its own adjustments to this schedule. But the approximate mode of the day is clear, and you can try to adapt to it. As you grow older, the number of hours of sleep per day will decrease, as will the number of feedings with a consistent increase in servings. By three months, the baby sleeps most often two or three times a day, eats less often and is more awake. He begins to recognize parents, smile, pronounce the first sounds. The most interesting time begins for the mother, she sees the baby’s reaction to her own actions, learns to find contact with the child and every day loves and understands him more and more.

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