Nutrition for liver diseases (hepatitis B and C) - and other organs of the gastrointestinal tract
All kinds of cereals are allowed, but liquid. Alcoholic beverages are prohibited.
In vegetable soups, you can add a little low-fat cream or flour for thickness.
It is not recommended to fry vegetables for soup.
At the beginning of treatment, fish and meat should be boiled or steamed. Salt meat and fish can not be, you should exclude the addition of various spices. You can improve the taste of dishes with the help of lemon juice; you can add fresh greens to meat and fish.
On the day you need to drink at least 7 glasses of plain drinking water without gas.
Meals should be of average temperature, it is harmful to eat too hot or cold foods.
The role of the liver in the body
The liver is one of the most important human organs.
The liver is located in the right hypochondrium and normally does not protrude beyond the edge of the costal arch. The liver is involved in digestion, neutralizes most of the harmful substances that can be ingested with food, water or air, and also plays a huge role in the process of metabolism. From here three functions of a liver: digestive, barrier and metabolic.
- Digestive function: it is the liver that produces bile, which is involved in the digestive processes in the intestine and stimulates the movement of the contents through the colon. During the day, the liver secretes up to 1-1.5 liters of bile, which is stored in the gallbladder and, as needed, enters the intestine. Bile is necessary for the digestion of fats, it also promotes the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K), turns beta carotene into vitamin A and helps absorb calcium. In addition, bile increases intestinal peristalsis, which prevents the occurrence of constipation.
- Barrier function: the liver - the main defense of the body against toxins, turning them into safer compounds, which are then excreted by the kidneys. The liver removes excess hormones, vitamins, and toxic metabolic products, such as ammonia, phenol, ethanol, acetone, and ketonic acids. It is in the liver that chemicals are broken down, including many medications.
- Metabolic function: all the necessary nutrients (carbohydrate, protein and fat digestion products, minerals and vitamins) pass through the liver and are processed in it. The liver plays an important role in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates, it is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids from amino acids and sugars, in the formation of lipoproteins, cholesterol and phospholipids. In the liver, a substance called glucose tolerance factor is synthesized from chromium and glutathione, which, together with the hormone insulin, regulates blood sugar levels. Those sugars that are not immediately used to form energy, in the liver turn into glycogen. Glycogen is deposited in the muscles and the liver, and then if there is an additional need for energy goes back into sugar. The liver is involved in the regulation of thyroid function. In addition, the liver is involved in the blood, it synthesizes many plasma proteins. The liver serves as a depot for a significant amount of blood that can be thrown into the blood vessels during blood loss or shock.
The state of the environment as a threat to the health of the liver
In the modern world, a person is exposed to the negative effects of a polluted environment and often has to work a lot under stressful conditions, completely forgetting about his health.
Today, in every metropolis, there is an increased radiation background, high levels of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, industrial wastewater is discharged into water bodies, and carcinogenic substances and hazardous chemicals from various industries are released into the atmosphere. Food products purchased by citizens often contain pesticides, nitrates, insecticides, harmful preservatives and dyes, heavy metal salts and other toxic substances.
The liver is a natural filter in the body; if it is too heavy, it becomes contaminated and ceases to function properly.
It is easy to imagine what a huge load in such conditions falls on the liver, which seeks to neutralize all harmful substances entering the body from the environment. Often the liver is simply unable to cope with such a massive blow. In addition, uncontrolled medication, constant stress, depression, not to mention bad habits, lack of sleep and unhealthy diet, adversely affect the protective functions of the body and worsen the liver.
Alcohol and Liver
Extremely dangerous to the health of the liver is the widespread habit of consuming alcohol.
In chronic alcohol use, it is the liver that primarily suffers, since 90% of ethanol is oxidized in the liver to form acetaldehyde, which can damage the cell structure. Acetaldehyde is then cleaved to acetate, which is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, or converted to other compounds. The process of splitting ethanol leads to the formation of adipose tissue in the liver. At the same time, the most important functions of the liver are disturbed: protein synthesis is suppressed and fat metabolism changes.
Alcoholic lesions of the liver include steatosis, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and cancer, which are formed at various stages of the progression of alcoholic illness. Since the liver is the only human organ capable of regenerating (restoring damaged tissue), it is reversible in the early stages of liver damage. With timely access to a doctor, properly selected therapy and lifestyle changes can restore the normal functioning of the liver.
When drinking alcohol at risk of developing liver disease are adolescents, women and people with overweight. It should be remembered that the maximum permissible daily dose of ethanol for an adult man, which the liver can remove without negative consequences, is 40 grams, for a woman, even less.
Even if the use of alcohol does not go beyond the generally accepted norms, one must understand that the liver inevitably suffers from the effects of alcohol and needs protection.
Medications and Liver
Long-term medication in chronic diseases has a pronounced toxic effect and can lead to the development of drug damage to the liver. Special attention to the condition of the liver should be paid when taking anti-tuberculosis, antiviral, antineoplastic and some antipsychotic drugs. Even regular intake of oral contraceptives can have a negative effect on the functioning of the liver.
Unfortunately, in chronic diseases, it is impossible to avoid taking drugs. In this case, you need to protect the liver from any additional stress.
You should carefully follow all instructions of the doctor - in no case do not exceed the recommended dose of drugs, do not violate the terms of admission and do not change the duration of prescribed courses. If the doctor recommends conducting additional tests to identify any side effects of drugs, then this should be taken seriously and during the time to pass the prescribed examination.
When prescribing medications at a specialist’s appointment, you should list all medications taken by a doctor and be sure to include all of your diseases, allergies and cases of adverse reactions to medications. After buying any drug, be sure to carefully read the package leaflet with the instructions. If you have any questions or concerns, contact your doctor.
Patients with chronic diseases should refuse to take over-the-counter drugs. Even taking such seemingly innocuous means as vitamins or bio-additives is better to discuss with your doctor. In addition, it should be remembered that the liver with regular intake of drugs works in the regime of increased load, so you need to refrain from alcohol consumption and monitor nutrition.
Even if you do not need to constantly take medicine, remember that any drug is a stress to the liver. In no case do not self-medicate and do not take prescription drugs without a doctor's prescription.
Eating disorders and liver
The problem of healthy eating in modern life is becoming very urgent. Most people do not follow the diet, overeat in the evenings, snack on the go, do not even have time to chew food, which leads to indigestion, and the diet is dominated by fatty, sweet and refined foods, convenience foods and canned goods, there is a shortage of vegetables, fruits and fiber. Add to this a sedentary lifestyle - this is the cause of obesity or overweight.
Being overweight is not only an aesthetic problem, although today it is often regarded as such. This disease with very serious consequences, in which lipid and carbohydrate metabolism is disturbed, affects blood vessels, heart, joints, increases the risk of developing many serious diseases.
With a significant increase in body weight, fat is deposited not only in the subcutaneous fat layer, but also in the internal organs. And the liver suffers most of all, because it is in the liver that glucose obtained from carbohydrates from food is delayed and transformed into an energetically valuable substance - glycogen. However, the liver can only cope with a limited amount of glucose, the rest is converted into fat and stored in the body.
If overeating occurs systematically, liver overflow occurs with fat reserves, and fatty hepatosis (steatosis) may begin. Today, the prevalence of fatty hepatosis is very high (up to a quarter of the population of developed countries).
If inflammation joins, then steatohepatitis can develop, which can lead to fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver.
It should be noted the possibility of the reverse development of fatty hepatosis with a gradual reduction in weight and normalization of metabolic processes in the body. Keep in mind that too rapid weight loss causes increased destruction of liver cells. Only the doctor will be able to correctly draw up the diet and plan for physical activity, taking into account the individual needs and capabilities of the patient.
With excess weight and obesity, it is necessary to exclude other factors affecting the liver - the use of alcohol, drugs that have toxic effects on the liver, and smoking.
But even with normal weight in persons older than 45 years old, a reduction in the caloric content of food contributes to protecting the liver and maintaining its normal operation. The diet should be balanced, contain sufficient amounts of protein, vitamins, vegetables, fruits, greens, vegetable fats, but the amount of animal fats and simple carbohydrates should be reduced.
Nutrition as a means of preventing and treating liver diseases
A diet for diseases of the liver and biliary tract should help restore the functions of the liver itself, normalize the processes of bile formation and biliary excretion, as well as restore impaired metabolism throughout the body. Food should be easily digested and still be tasty, because in diseases of the liver, appetite, as a rule, suffers.
Doctors often recommend Pevzner's No. 5 diet. The basis of the diet is regular split meals: 5-6 times a day every 3-4 hours.
The essence of dietary nutrition in liver diseases is to maximize the consumption of animal fats and proteins. Be sure to use vegetable oils (corn, soybean, olive). It is important to monitor the strict observance of meal times.
All the details of the desired diet, the duration of compliance will determine the doctor.
The best prevention of liver diseases is a healthy diet: regular meals, plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, easily digestible proteins, vegetable oils, low-fat dairy products. For liver health, it is important not to overeat and limit the amount of fatty meat dishes, refined products, fast food and convenience foods, as well as chocolate, cakes and other high-calorie sweets.
What are essential phospholipids?
In recent years, biologically active additives are actively used in medicine to protect the liver, which include phospholipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, sometimes in combination with dietary fiber and vitamins.
Essential (or essential) phospholipids in their composition contain essential higher fatty acids (linoleic and arachidonic acids). The term "irreplaceable" means that the higher fatty acids in their composition are not produced in our body, however, they are necessary for normal life, and the source of their income is the external environment.
Essential phospholipids are found in most cell walls. An important property of essential fatty acids is their antioxidant effect (the ability to block the negative effects of free radicals).
Researchers believe that essential fatty acid deficiency is a universal symptom of both chronic and acute liver damage. Apparently, essential phospholipids are consumed in the process of lipid oxidation, therefore, in cases of abnormal liver function, their deficiency develops.
In addition, in the development of an essential fatty acid deficiency in liver diseases, lipid metabolism is likely to play a role, in particular, a violation of the absorption of fats in the intestine.
In practical medicine, the therapeutic potential of essential phospholipids is most pronounced and best studied in alcoholic liver disease.
The use of essential phospholipids prevents excessive development of connective tissue in the liver - i.e. liver fibrosis. The antifibrotic effect of essential phospholipids is of the greatest practical interest, since in alcoholic liver disease, as in viral liver diseases, the development of cirrhosis can occur only due to the progression of fibrosis, without pronounced inflammation.
Therapeutic efficacy of essential phospholipids as an antioxidant and antifibrotic therapy for liver diseases continues to be studied.
General dietary recommendations for liver diseases
Long-term diet - 1.5 - 2 years
Nutrition fractional 5-6 times a day, every 3-4 hours
The daily diet of food up to 3.0 kg per day for obesity - up to 2.0 kg.
Calories 3,000 kcal per day, with fatty liver disease on the background of obesity - 1800-2500 kcal / day or 30 kcal / kg of body weight per day
Table salt 8-10 g, with portal hypertension and ascites - 4g per day
The amount of fluid up to 3.0 liters per day, with ascites up to 1.0 l (under the control of diuresis)
Methods of cooking - boiling, steaming, stewing in water or vegetable broth with the removal of juice, baking in the oven at a temperature not exceeding 180 degrees. Meat and fish dishes are baked after boiling. Flour, crackers and vegetables are not passaged, batter is excluded. Cream and vegetable oils are introduced into ready meals. Yesterday's bread. Eggs are used for cooking, mostly protein. Pureed food according to indications.
Protein 100-110 per day. With hepatic encephalopathy up to 40 g per day or 0.6 / kg body weight per day
Low protein content: vegetables (0.8-4.0g) *, fruits (0.4-2g), milk, kefir (2.8g), cottage cheese (14-18g), cheese (23-28), butter ( 0g), an egg (1pc - 6.3g).
High protein content: bread, pasta, cereals (7-11g), sausages (10-12g), fish (16-18g), meat of beef, veal, poultry, rabbit (18-20g), pork (12-14g) , legumes (21g), nuts (16g).
* - protein content per 100 g of product, for all values
Fats 80-140g per day, of which 70% animal and 30% vegetable fat. With fatty liver dystrophy up to 80g per day. With a delay in the flow of bile to 150 g, of which 50% are vegetable.
With jaundice up to 50-70g per day.
Low fat content - vegetables, fruits (except olives, avocados), unleavened bread, pasta, cereals, skimmed milk, cottage cheese, kefir, meat (poultry breast, lean beef), fish (cod, ice, hake), egg white, legumes (beans, peas, beans, lentils).
High fat content - butter or vegetable, fatty meats, poultry, fish, lard, smoked meat, fatty dairy products, cheese, ice cream, bread, pastry, pastries.
Carbohydrates 400-450g, of which simple carbohydrates 50-100g, do not combine with fat.
With obesity, 250-300g per day
Simple carbohydrates - glucose, sugar, malt, milk sugar, fruit sugar.
Complex carbohydrates - digestible (starch grains and potatoes) and non-digestible fiber, hemicellulose and pectins.
- Fresh bread, rye bread, puff pastry and pastry, pies, cakes, biscuits, cookies
- Fatty meats (pork, lamb, duck, goose), liver, kidneys, brains, pork, mutton, beef tallow, margarine, cooking oils, fatty fish (beluga, keta, sturgeon, sturgeon), salted fish, fried foods and grilled
- Meat, fish and mushroom broths, okroshka, green soup, hodgepodge
- Копчености в любом виде, колбасы
- Жирный творог, соленый и острый сыр, мороженое
- Яйца вареные вкрутую и жареные
- Бобовые грибы, щавель, шпинат, редис, редька, лук, чеснок, квашенная капуста, кислые фрукты и ягоды, фрукты богатые клетчаткой, орехи
- Консервы, маринованные овощи и другие маринады
- Горчица, перец, хрен, пряности
- Шоколад, халва, черный кофе, какао
- Все алкогольные напитки, пиво
- Газированные напитки, квас
- Yesterday's baking bread, crackers, dry biscuit, biscuits
- Low-fat meat varieties - beef, rabbit, poultry - chicken, turkey and fish - pike perch, cod, bream, perch, saffron, silver hake, river jellied fish on gelatin, boiled beef tongue
- Doctor sausage, milk sausages, low-fat ham, soaked herring
- Milk and dairy products, low-fat cottage cheese, curd casseroles, cheesecakes, lazy dumplings, souffles, mild cheeses
- Crumbly and semi-viscous cereals from various cereals (oatmeal, herculean and buckwheat) cooked on water and with the addition of milk, puddings, boiled vermicelli, pasta, casseroles and side dishes from cereals and pasta
- Milk soups, vegetable broth with cereals, pasta and vegetables, fruit borscht, beetroot soup, cabbage soup
- Eggs 1pcs or 2pro For preparing a protein omelet a day, protein omelets - 2, 3 times a week
- Butter and vegetable oil are added to ready meals without frying, butter 25-30 g and vegetable oil 30-50 g per day
- Vegetables, vegetable juices, vegetable side dishes - cauliflower, broccoli, carrots, pumpkin, zucchini, potatoes, artichokes, fennel, celery, green peas, green onions (after boiling)
- Parsley and dill in small quantities, bay leaf, cinnamon, cloves, vanilla
- Sweet varieties of berries and fruits in raw form and in dishes, with good tolerability lemon, black currant, dried fruits - prunes, dried apricots, figs, raisins
- Sugar, honey, jam, jams from ripe and sweet fruits and berries, marmalade, marshmallow, marshmallows, fruit and berry sauces
- Tea and coffee is not strong with milk and without milk, dogrose broth, fruit, berry and vegetable juices, berry fruit drinks, compotes, mashed potatoes, jelly
Hepatitis are the most common among the diseases. Acute hepatitis has an infectious origin. And if viral hepatitis E and hepatitis A (Botkin's disease) have a favorable course and do not become chronic, then hepatitis b and WITH, despite significant progress in diagnosis and treatment, lead to chronic liver damage. They are characterized by the most frequent development. cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Chronic hepatitis results from acute hepatitis, as well as chemical intoxication, alcoholism or chronic infections. Chronic hepatitis ends with recovery or goes into cirrhosis of the livermay develop liver failure. The base table for these diseases is Diet number 5 and its varieties.
Diet for hepatitis depends on the stage of the disease. In acute hepatitis, a protective-sparing regimen is prescribed, which includes hospitalization, bed rest or bed rest hepatic encephalopathy) and diet food. When jaundice subsides the patient is transferred to the ward. For all acute hepatitis, the first time is prescribed more benign Diet number 5A. Diets differ in the degree of sparing, methods of cooking and therefore are appointed in different periods of illness.
The mechanical effect of dishes is determined by their consistency and volume, degree of grinding and processing (cooking or frying). Chemical effects are substances that make up the products. Strong irritants are extractive substances and essential oils.
The purpose of the appointment of a sparing diet is the sparing of all the digestive organs. It causes rest to the digestive tract organs and, first of all, the liver, which is important in the acute period, and contributes to the normalization of its function. In order to detoxify for the first time increase fluid intake (2-2.5 liters).
The diet is complete in protein (100 g) and carbohydrates (400 g), but its fat content is limited to 70 g. In the presence of dyspeptic symptoms (nausea, vomiting, aversion to food, bloating, constipation or diarrheaa) the amount of fat is further reduced (50 g), and in case of intolerance exclude vegetable oils. Food is enriched with sources of proteins, lipotropic substances (cottage cheese) and of vitamins (berries, vegetables, fruits, juices). It is not recommended to increase the content of easily digestible carbohydrates, as this may impair biliary function. Organized 5-6 meals a day.
Meals in the acute period include:
- Steam and boiled dishes of twisted meat and chopped boiled vegetables. Excluded are sautéing, stewing and frying.
- Reduced amount of refractory fats and salt.
- The amount of lipotropic products (cottage cheese, buckwheat, whey, fiber, buttermilk, polyunsaturated fatty acids) has been increased.
- Soups cooked in vegetable broth with grits and ground vegetables. Vegetables can not be fried for dressing soups. Puree soups are allowed. Season soups with butter, sour cream, milk or cream.
- Stale wheat bread (I and II varieties) and lean biscuits.
- Low-fat meat and fish in boiled and steam form and only chopped products. Fish can be cooked piece.
- Semolina, buckwheat porridge, rice, oatmeal and oatmeal, from which porridge is boiled in water (you can add milk). Kash fray to semi-liquid consistency. Fine boiled vermicelli and small pasta are allowed.
- Low-fat dairy products, semi-fat cottage cheese (natural and dishes from it). Milk and butter - only in dishes. Sour cream is used as a seasoning for dishes.
- Protein omelets.
- Vegetable oil only with good portability (in ready meals).
- Vegetables (potatoes, cauliflower, pumpkin, carrots and beets) boiled and ground, and also in the form of mashed potatoes.
- Ripe, sweet fruits in their raw form are consumed only with pureed, baked and boiled.
- Tea with lemon, tea with milk, dogrose infusion, water without gas.
- Refractory fats, spices, spices, pickles and pickles, canned food.
- Coarse fiber (legumes, swede, nuts, seeds, mushrooms, cabbage), vegetables with essential oils (radishes, onions, garlic, green onions, radishes).
- Fatty meat, offal and fatty fish.
- Cream confectionery, black bread, muffins, millet.
- Coffee, ice cream, chocolate, cocoa.
- Egg yolks.
- Sour fruits and berries, vegetables and fruits in their raw form.
- Alcohol and drinks with gas.
In the absence of complications Table number 5A appoint to 6 weeks. Next, the patient is transferred to the base Table number 5which is recommended for 6-12 months. Diets differ in the degree of mechanical and chemical sparing, methods of cooking, therefore, are appointed at different periods of the disease. After acute hepatitis, it is recommended to limit sports and hard physical labor, night work and long business trips are excluded.
Hepatitis Diet and liver cirrhosis with chronic course and in the period without exacerbation - this Table number 5which will be discussed in detail below. They make corrections to the diet if there are signs of stagnation of bile: they limit sugar and introduce more vegetables, fruits, vegetable and fruit juices, as well as vegetable oils. The total amount of fat in this case increases slightly, and vegetable fats make up 35% of all fats in the diet.
With a benign course of disease is permissible Diet number 15 - a common table, but being on it the patient must exclude fatty meats, smoked meats, savory snacks, spices, dough (butter and flaky), vegetables with essential oils. Alcohol is prohibited. During exacerbation of the patient is temporarily transferred to Table number 5A.
If cirrhosis has a benign course and the patient's condition remains satisfactory for many years, the base table is shown. With dyspeptic symptoms - № 5А. If marked diarrhea and steatorrhea (signs of violation of the absorption of fat), then limit the amount of fat to 50-60 g, exclude milk and laxative products.
With cirrhosis occurring with ascites, recommended diet low energy (up to 2000 kcal), containing protein 70 g and not more than 0.5 g of salt. All dishes are prepared without salt. Salt-free bread and butter are allowed. Also reduce the amount of fluid and injected potassium-containing products. Meals should be predominantly vegetarian. It is advisable for several days (up to 10) to transfer the patient to salt-free Table number 7.
With the accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous slags, the amount of animal proteins further reduce, but increase the content of easily digestible carbohydrates. In the absence of appetite, fresh vegetables, fruits, their juices, fermented milk products should prevail in the diet. Sometimes spices and weak meat broths and soups on them are allowed in a small amount.
The use of hepatotoxic drugs that are metabolized in the liver can lead to toxic hepatitis. These drugs are methotrexate, paracetamol, amoxicillin/clavulanate, flucloxacillin, non-sterioid anti-inflammatory drugs, tetracyclinesulfonamides co-trimoxazole, Nifurantine.
Toxic hepatitis causes the abuse of alcohol and its surrogates. The toxic effect of ethanol is directly dependent on the concentration of acetate in the blood and acetaldehydewhich has a hepatotoxic effect, disrupts the function of cell membranes. Taking alcohol on the background of taking any medication that is used in therapeutic doses, leads to increased sensitivity to them and toxic liver damage.
Some industrial poisons have an affinity for liver tissue and produce effects, even if they are given in small doses. it halowax, chloroformazo dyes styrene, benzene, phosphorus, organophosphate pesticides, arsenic. Acute liver damage with poisons is extremely rare.
When toxic hepatitis of the liver, pain in the hypochondrium, nausea, weakness, progressive jaundice, changes in liver function and its increase. Treatment is to exclude contact with a toxic substance, the appointment of detoxification therapy, enterosorbents, hepatoprotectors, of vitamins and choleretic drugs. When toxic hepatitis recommendations for clinical nutrition do not differ from the above.
What is hepatitis C and when is the diet indicated?
Hepatitis C is a viral disease that causes structural changes in the tissues of the liver. This disease can be transmitted through the blood during various surgical procedures or other types of intervention. Transmission of the virus is also carried out through the mucous membranes. Hepatitis C is often common among people who inject drugs.
Hepatitis C can cause tumors and cirrhosis
The disease is divided into two forms:
The first type of pathology is characterized by an acute inflammatory process occurring in the tissues of the liver. At the same time, symptoms are felt in the form of joint pain, mental disorders and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
The most dangerous type of pathology is chronic hepatitis C. This form of the disease can lead to various tumor processes and cirrhosis of the liver. Often the course of the disease is complicated by the addition of other forms of hepatitis, which can be fatal.
The goal of a hepatitis C diet is not at all auxiliary, as many people might think. Nutrition is provided as a mandatory component of the treatment process and is used for any form of the disease.
Medical nutrition is aimed at reducing the load on the affected organ, and also helps to reduce pain in the liver.
Table 5 is indicated for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. The goal of therapeutic nutrition is to regulate the functioning of the liver and facilitate the separation of bile. This food has a sparing effect on the affected organ. If the diet is observed, the necessary glucogen accumulates, the liver is discharged and works in the right mode, its functions are restored.
Table 5 is indicated for diseases of the liver and biliary tract, diet implies restriction of fat intake
The peculiarities of dietary nutrition lie in the fact that in the daily diet there are practically no fats harmful to the diseased organ, and carbohydrates and proteins form its basis. It is recommended to exclude dishes containing oxalic acid, as well as difficult to digest fats. The quantity of the used cholesterol decreases.
The diet is dominated by foods with a high content of protein. The basic rules and principles of this medical nutrition:
- It is necessary to include daily in the diet food that contains pectin and dietary fiber, normalizing the gastrointestinal tract.
- The mode of eating should be fractional. There is a need 5-6 times a day.
- Dishes can be cooked, baked and stewed.
- Do not eat food cold.
- Pre-food can not grind, with the exception of some varieties of vegetables rich in fiber.
Diet number 5 should be observed for at least a year. Terms may vary, depending on the severity of the disease.
If cirrhosis joins hepatitis C, then table No. 5 is also shown, but with a lower content of protein products in the diet.
Hepatitis B treatment with diet
Such a diagnosis as inflammation of the liver of an infectious nature requires special medical attention. Treatment of hepatitis B diet is indicated from the first days of the disease. The patient is prescribed diet table number 5, which allows to restore health. The therapeutic diet relieves the load on the diseased liver, which is unable to cope with its work, that is, to filter and distribute blood throughout the body in sufficient quantity. Without proper therapy, organ dysfunction leads to intoxication of the body and the development of serious complications.
Treatment of hepatitis B diet is based on the following rules:
- It is necessary to eat often, but in small portions. On the day there should be three full meals and two or three snacks.
- Need to give up alcohol and smoking. In the diet should not be fatty, fried, salty, pepper and sweet. The use of cooking oils worsens the liver, can lead to exacerbation of hepatitis. Salt disrupts water exchange processes, causing degradation and dysfunction of vital systems and organs.
- Particular attention should be paid to the drinking regime. At least 2 liters of purified water should be drunk per day. You can drink fresh fruit, berry and vegetable juices, fruit drinks, compotes, various herbal infusions and green tea. Strong black tea and coffee will have to be abandoned. The ban includes carbonated drinks, packaged store juices and sweet cocktails.
Compliance with the above recommendations facilitates the work of the diseased organ and speeds up the process of its recovery. In addition, proper nutrition helps to normalize the weight and functioning of the body as a whole.
Dietary table №5
- Assign with chronic and acute hepatitis, cholecystitis, cirrhosis of the liver, inflammation of the biliary tract, dysfunction of the biliary tract and liver.
- The main essence of nutrition is to normalize the impaired functions of the affected organ, regulate fat and cholesterol metabolism, accumulation of glycogen in the liver, stimulate the intestinal motor activity and bile secretion.
- The dietary ration energy is full, contains a sufficient amount of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Treatment involves the elimination of foods rich in cholesterol, essential oils, purines, nitrogenous extractives. This increases the amount of fiber, fluid and lipotropic substances. The energy value of the diet up to 3000 kcal. Food is not allowed to fry, it is better to cook, steam, bake or simmer.
Diet for chronic hepatitis B liver
The protracted course of any diseases adversely affects the functioning of the whole organism. Diet for chronic hepatitis B liver is aimed at alleviating painful symptoms. Therapeutic nutrition is designed to take the load off the inflamed organ and gradually restore its normal operation.
- Therapy involves a fractional mode of food intake, water balance and the use of only approved products. Particular attention should be paid to the method of cooking, the products can be cooked, baked, stewed, steamed. It is forbidden to fry with the addition of vegetable and animal fats.
- If the disease occurs in pregnant women or people with additional problems of the digestive organs, then the diet should include foods that prevent constipation: boiled beets, dairy products, salads with vegetable oil.
- The main volume of the daily diet should be vegetables, fruits and cereals. Vegetables can be consumed fresh, but it is better to bake or steam. It is allowed to eat wholemeal bread or rye bread. There should be dairy products, lean meat and fish.
- In rare cases, you can pamper yourself with sweet, sweet pastries. It is better to refuse shop sweets with fatty butter creams, since they can cause an exacerbation of the disease.
Food in chronic form of hepatitis should be rational, without strict restrictions. But it is necessary to adhere to the dietary rules. The only contraindication is the use of alcohol, as it has a hepatotoxic effect.
Hepatitis Diet in Adults
Treatment of liver diseases in patients of adult age, as a rule, proceeds quite difficult. This is due to difficulties in the restructuring of the diet and the transition to a healthy diet. A diet for hepatitis B in adults is a series of restrictions that allow the patient to work in a healthy body. Печень – это важная часть пищеварительной системы, которая принимает участие в процессах кроветворения и обмена, выработки ферментов, гормонов, инсулина и других, необходимых для нормальной работы организма веществ.
Medicinal diet involves the use of easily digestible products that do not exert pressure on the affected organ. The menu should be rich in vitamins and minerals. It is forbidden to use products with irritant action and stimulating the secretion of the digestive organs. Food that is cholesterol-rich and has a destructive effect on liver cells is banned. For patients of all ages prescribed therapeutic diet number 5. This diet should become a habit, thus avoiding the exacerbation of the disease and its further progression.
Diet with healthy hepatitis B carriage
In the human body in a sleeping state there may be many viruses and infections, which under the influence of certain factors make themselves felt. Diet with healthy carriage of hepatitis B is indicated for patients in whose blood the virus of the disease was detected.
Consider the main indications for nutrition to maintain a healthy body:
- In order for hepatitis to not make itself felt, it is necessary to minimize the consumption of food, which has a chemically and mechanically irritating effect on the liver. Be wary of spices, seasonings and other food additives.
- It is not recommended to abuse alcoholic beverages, but it is better to stop using them altogether. Nicotine addiction is also unsafe for the liver and overall health of the body.
- It is recommended to minimize the use of animal and vegetable fats, various smoked meats, fatty meats, poultry and fish, sausages, canned foods. It is undesirable to abuse such vegetables as: spinach, mushrooms, radish, sorrel, garlic. When choosing drinks you should not drink a lot of strong black tea, coffee, sweet carbonated drinks, store juices with preservatives.
- Particular attention is paid to nutrition. It is necessary to eat often, but in small portions. Enough 4-6 meals per day for normal functioning of the digestive tract and liver. Overeating and nightly snacks can lead to obesity and disease activation.
- It is better to cook, steam, bake or stew food. Eating fried with the addition of various oils and fats should be kept to a minimum. Since the food prepared in this way is rich in cholesterol, which adversely affects the health of the liver.
Following all the above recommendations, patients who have identified a healthy carrier state of hepatitis B protect themselves from the onset of the disease.
Diet menu for hepatitis B
In the treatment of liver diseases, patients need to follow a variety of medical recommendations. The main prescriptions concern the diet. Consider an exemplary diet menu for hepatitis B, which allows you to transfer the disease much easier.
- Breakfast: porridge with milk, green tea.
- Snack: apple or banana.
- Lunch: mashed potatoes with steamed fish and baked vegetables.
- Snack: vegetable salad, tea or juice.
- Dinner: buckwheat porridge with steam chicken patty.
- Second dinner: a glass of kefir, biscuits.
- Breakfast: cottage cheese with dried fruits, kefir.
- Snack: a handful of crackers with tea.
- Lunch: vegetable soup, pasta with boiled chicken breast.
- Snack: salad with vegetables and vegetable oil dressing and flax seeds.
- Dinner: pasta and egg white casserole, tea.
- Second dinner: a glass of kefir.
- Breakfast: wheat cereal, green tea.
- Snack: apple, banana or any other fruit.
- Lunch: milk noodle soup, meatballs with mashed potatoes.
- Snack: oatmeal cookies, fruit juice.
- Dinner: baked chicken meat with apples and vegetables.
- Second dinner: green tea with honey.
- Breakfast: milk porridge with fruit, green tea.
- Snack: cottage cheese with dried fruits.
- Lunch: borscht on vegetable broth, rice with meatballs and boiled beets.
- Snack: green tea, baked apple.
- Dinner: vegetable salad with walnuts, boiled meat.
- Second dinner: kefir, unleavened sponge cake.
- Breakfast: lean bread rolls, green tea.
- Snack: any fruit.
- Lunch: buckwheat soup, buckwheat porridge with steam patty, vegetable salad.
- Snack: fruit salad with honey and orange juice dressing.
- Dinner: Baked fish with vegetables.
- Second dinner: yogurt, galette cookies.
- Breakfast: cottage cheese with honey, green tea.
- Snack: vegetable salad and a couple of pieces of rye bread.
- Lunch: any porridge with meat, vegetable broth with crackers.
- Snack: any fruit.
- Dinner: baked pumpkin, green tea.
- Second dinner: a glass of kefir.
- Breakfast: oatmeal on water with fruit.
- Snack: salad of boiled beets and walnuts with vegetable oil.
- Lunch: homemade noodles with sour cream sauce and chicken.
- Snack: fruit or vegetable juice with crackers.
- Dinner: rice casserole, kefir.
- Second dinner: yogurt.
In order that the therapeutic diet does not get bored and the healing process is quick, there are delicious diet recipes. Consider simple and useful recipes that can be prepared for hepatitis B:
1. Dietary stuffed cabbage
- Beijing cabbage or white leaves 200 g
- Carrots 1 pc.
- Bow 1 pc.
- Rice 50g
- Chicken or turkey minced 200 g
- Vegetable broth 200 ml
- Sour cream 50 g
- Butter 10-15 g
- Spices and herbs to taste
If Peking cabbage is used, it must be disassembled into leaves, cut off the thickening and separately prepare vegetable broth. If the dish is prepared from white cabbage, then it must be boiled in salted water, disassembled into leaves and cut off the thickening. Separately, pour a little vegetable broth. Chop carrots and onions in a frying pan with butter. Boil rice, mix with minced meat and ½ cooked vegetables. Mince spread on cabbage leaves, roll the cabbage rolls and put in a saucepan with vegetable broth. Mix sour cream with the remaining vegetable decoction, add vegetables, spices or herbs to taste, mix. Pour the cabbage rolls with the resulting sauce and send them in the oven or on slow fire for 30-40 minutes.
2. Spiced Baked Pumpkin
- Pumpkin 500 g
- Honey 20 g
- Apple 1-2 pcs.
- Dried ginger
- Vanilla sugar
Peel the pumpkin, cut it into portions, put it on a baking sheet with baking paper. Chop an apple, mix with honey and spices. The resulting mixture gently put on pumpkin pieces and send to bake in the oven for 40-50 minutes at a temperature of 150-160 degrees.
3. Oatmeal cupcake with dried fruit
- Oat flakes 1-2 glasses
- Kefir 1 cup
- Egg 1 pc.
- Any dried fruit
- Butter for lubrication form
Pour the oatmeal with kefir for 30 minutes. As soon as the flakes swell add to them an egg and dried fruits, mix thoroughly. Cover the baking dish with parchment and brush with butter. Pour the cake in the form, send in the oven for 40 minutes at a temperature of 170 degrees.
4. Protein casserole from yesterday's pasta
- Egg whites 4 pcs.
- Sour cream 50 g
- Hard cheese 100 g
Beat egg whites into the foam, add sour cream and a portion of grated hard cheese grated on a fine grater. Mix the pasta with the protein mixture, put it in a baking tray, top with the remaining cheese and send to the oven for 20-25 minutes at 180 degrees.
5. Salad with eggplants and cheese
- Eggplant 1-2 pcs.
- Vegetable oil 5 g
- White cheese 100 g
- Oregano seasoning
- Sea salt
Eggplant cut into thin strips, salt and let stand 10 minutes. As soon as the eggplant makes juice, rinse well under water and dry on paper towels. Salt allows you to remove bitterness from a vegetable. Grease each slice with vegetable oil, spread on a baking sheet or plate, sprinkle oregano and send to bake in the microwave for 5-7 minutes at maximum temperature or in the oven for 15-20 minutes at 180 degrees. As soon as the vegetables are ready, shift them to a la carte plates and wipe cheese over the top.
What can you eat with hepatitis B?
In order for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases to take place quickly and efficiently, it is necessary to adhere to all medical recommendations. Very often, patients are prescribed a diet, and many of them are interested in what you can eat with hepatitis B.
- Low-fat varieties of fish and meat.
- Various cereals and cereals.
- Dairy products with low fat content.
- Eggs (protein only).
- Yesterday's bread, crackers, floury flour products, long cookies.
- Vegetables (boiled, steamed), fruits, greens.
- Natural juices, fruit drinks, vegetable decoctions, green tea.
Meals should be complete. According to the chemical composition, it is necessary to adhere to this proportion: carbohydrates up to 400 g per day, proteins 100 g per day (60% animals), fats 90 g (30% vegetable). The daily energy value of the diet should not exceed 3000 kcal. You can consume no more than 4 g of salt per day and up to 2 liters of liquid.
You need to eat often, but in small portions, that is, to adhere to the fractional mode. Food is better to steam, boil or bake. Before use, it is desirable to grind foods, especially if the disease is in the acute stage. Ready meals should be at room temperature, not hot or cold.
What can not eat with hepatitis B?
Therapy of any disease is a complex process during which the patient has to face many limitations. The first thing that the patient faces is to change his usual diet. Consider the basic rules of nutrition and what not to eat with hepatitis B:
- It is necessary to completely eliminate the use of saturated, strong mushroom, fish or meat broth, they contain extractives. These substances increase the load on the liver, as there is an increased production of food juices.
- We'll have to give up cholesterol-rich foods (egg yolk, offal). Cholesterol causes contraction of the gallbladder and stimulates the cells of the damaged organ.
- Food products with oxalic acid (sorrel, spinach, chocolate, strong black tea, tomatoes) are banned. This substance enhances intestinal peristalsis and stimulates the digestive process, but diet food is aimed at sparing the gastrointestinal tract.
- It is necessary to abandon the use of products with essential oils or reduce their use to a minimum. This is garlic, mustard, onion, radish. These essential oils are irritating and stimulate the digestive process.
- Do not consume alcoholic and carbonated drinks. Alcohol contains ethanol, damaging liver cells. A soda overloads it, as it stimulates the secretion of the digestive organs.
Compliance with the diet minimizes the load on the digestive organs. This helps to eliminate the inflammatory process and improve the body.
Hepatitis B diet is popular in patients of all ages diagnosed with liver disease. Numerous reviews of the diet confirm its healing properties. And this is not surprising, since nutrition is designed in such a way that the body receives all the vitamins and minerals necessary for normal functioning. The therapeutic diet accelerates the healing process and minimizes the load on the damaged organ.
What can you eat with liver disease?
Currently, modern medicine has significantly expanded the list of products that can be eaten daily for people with various liver diseases. Despite this, it is important for such patients not to overload this organ in order to avoid possible complications. The amount of fat during the course of treatment patients should be severely limited.
The diet for liver diseases is mandatory to include the following elements:
Patients with liver diseases are allowed various products:
Cereals in the form of porridges (not strongly boiled),
Pasta should be consumed in limited quantities,
Dairy and dairy products (low-fat cottage cheese, low-fat sour cream, ryazhenka, milk, kefir, yogurt, etc.),
Low-fat varieties of meat (veal, beef, turkey, chicken, rabbit, etc.),
River and sea fish,
Eggs, in the form of an omelet or in other dishes (chicken and quail),
Vegetables and greens (limit the number of legumes and those vegetables that contain coarse fiber),
Fruit (do not eat pear),
Honey (is an excellent sugar substitute, but it should be consumed in limited quantities), etc.
It is necessary to fill the prepared dishes with vegetable oils:
When preparing first courses for patients with liver disease, it is necessary to use either clean water or vegetable broth. You should not forget about milk soups, which are very easily digested and for a long time retain a feeling of satiety in a patient.
Although patients should limit the amount of sugar during treatment, gastroenterologists allow them some sweets:
Mousses (cooked from berries or fruits),
During the passage of any treatment, it is important for patients to maintain a normal water balance in the body.
For liver diseases, the following drinks should be preferred:
Compote from berries and dried fruits,
Kisles brewed from berries
Natural vegetable and fruit juice,
People with liver disease should prepare food as follows:
Bake in the oven,
Consume sour and raw.
What can not eat with liver disease?
In case of problems with the liver it is strictly forbidden to eat smoked, spicy, fatty and fried foods, which can provoke an exacerbation of the disease.
Gastroenterologists prohibit their patients during the course of treatment to use the following products:
Fatty meats (pork, lamb, etc.),
Some varieties of poultry (especially not recommended to eat meat of waterfowl - ducks, geese, etc.),
Broths (mushroom and meat),
Cheeses, especially fatty varieties,
Butter, lard, margarine and cooking oil,
Canned food (fish, meat, etc.),
Smoked products (sausages, wieners, frankfurters, balyk, brisks, etc.),
Condiments (pepper, vinegar, mustard, etc.),
Some vegetables and greens (radish, sorrel, radish, green and onions, garlic),
Fresh pastries, as well as rye bread,
Candy and chocolate
Any confectionery products that contain fat cream,
Alcohol and alcoholic beverages,
Coffee and coffee drinks
Sweet and carbonated drinks,
Sour fruit juices,
Bread (in some diseases it is allowed to use stale or oven-dried white bread),
Diet after liver surgery
In case of liver diseases, gastroenterologists recommend their surgical patients to follow a special diet. Depending on the severity of the disease, patients are assigned table number 5 or number 6. Due to dietary nutrition, there will be no additional effect on the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. Light products, in turn, will not cause irritation, and will force the liver to work in an enhanced rhythm.
During any surgical intervention, patients artificially stop the bowel. After the operation, the sick day does not consume any products, but only drinks clean water. With great care should start the work of the intestines, eating only light broths and dietary soup.
During postoperative treatment, patients with liver problems should completely eliminate the use of salt, sugar, hot spices and spices. The same ban is imposed on fatty, fried, fermented and smoked products. Patients who have undergone surgical treatment should not use natural juices, as they are too concentrated and can cause irritation of the already weakened GIT organs. The daily amount of food should be divided into 5-6 parts and taken at a fixed time.
When undergoing rehabilitation, the purpose of which is to restore the liver, patients should limit the amount of carbohydrates in their daily diet.
It is advisable to enter into your menu products that contain a large number:
For regular and timely production of bile it is necessary to use in sufficient quantities of vegetable fats and easily digestible proteins. Daily use of fiber will allow the intestines of the patient to fully function and to get rid of toxins in a timely manner.
Many gastroenterologists recommend eating fruits and vegetables that have not been heat treated daily to restore the functionality of the liver.
In order to avoid possible complications in the postoperative period, patients should follow a gentle diet, which includes the following products:
Bran (they need to be added to various dishes),
Cereals (do not use corn grits and rice),
Crackers (white wheat bread can be dried in the oven),
Milk and low-fat cottage cheese (fermented milk products should not be consumed),
Low-fat varieties of meat and fish (it is better to use chicken or veal),
Plentiful drink (clear water, mineral water, herbal teas),
All permitted products must be prepared as follows: boil, steam, bake or use raw. During the passage of postoperative rehabilitation, patients should eat vegetable fats, spices and sugar in limited quantities.
Article author: Kuzmina Vera Valerievna | Dietitian, endocrinologist
Education: Diploma RSMU them. N. I. Pirogov, specialty "General Medicine" (2004). Ординатура в Московском государственном медико-стоматологическом университете, диплом по специальности «Эндокринология» (2006 г.).
Печень – это самая крупная железа, которая играет особую роль в пищеварении. Этот орган вырабатывает ферменты, которые необходимы для расщепления пищи. Кроме того, она очищает организм от токсических веществ. When hepatitis affects hepatocytes (liver cells), the load on healthy cells increases. In order for the hepatocytes to continue to perform their functions in an emergency mode, the patient must reduce the load on the gland. Make it possible with the help of diet.
Food for hepatitis should be healthy, so that the pathological process in the chronic course of infection does not spread further. In addition, by following the diet, the patient can speed up recovery in case of acute hepatitis, and reduce the likelihood of severe complications.
Hepatitis A Nutrition
This type of hepatitis has the easiest course, and after recovery, the patient develops a specific HAV immunity. To normalize the functionality of the hepatobiliary tract (liver, gallbladder and its ducts), outflow of bile, metabolism, the patient is recommended to follow a diet. The diet needs to be replenished with easily digestible food containing vitamins, minerals, amino acids, pectin, etc.
A patient with jaundice should limit the amount of fat, discard products that stimulate the production of gastric and pancreatic secretions. You should also exclude from the diet fried foods with high concentrations of cholesterol, purines, oxalic acid. Food is recommended to boil, cook in a double boiler or bake.
Some patients are interested in the question of what can be eaten with hepatitis A.
Take this test and find out if you have liver problems.
According to doctors, in the diet is allowed to include the following products:
- Stale bread (not older than 2 days).
- Vegetable broth based soups with rice, oatmeal, beetroot soup, etc.
- Beef, rabbit, veal, chicken or turkey meat. Patients are interested in what dish can be prepared from meat. Meat is made from goulash, meatballs, meatballs, cabbage rolls, etc.
- Sausages on milk.
- Low-fat varieties of fish (for example, perch, hake).
- Fresh or cooked vegetables. They are boiled, stewed, made a salad or vegetable puree.
- Pilaf with carrots, dried fruit, cottage cheese.
- Hard wheat pasta is boiled.
- An omelet is cooked from the egg (preferably purely on proteins).
- Sweet fruits or dried fruits.
- The patient can eat strawberries, blueberries or strawberries.
- Confectionery: meringue, candy. In addition, it is not forbidden to eat honey, homemade jam.
- Sour milk products with low fat content (milk, kefir, sour cream, etc.).
- Refined vegetable oils are added to dishes.
- Ready meals can be seasoned with dill, parsley, vanilla, cinnamon.
- Weak black tea, fruit, berry, vegetable compote, rosehip decoction or wheat bran.
Proper nutrition involves eating 4 to 6 times a day.
The list of prohibited foods for the diet:
- Freshly baked bread, flour products.
- Meat, fish, mushroom soup or okroshka.
- Duck, goose, offal (liver, stomachs, kidneys, etc.).
- Smoked, canned products, sausage, pickles.
- The patient is not recommended to eat dishes of sorrel, spinach, radishes, green onions, mushrooms, beans.
- Steep boiled or fried eggs are also contraindicated.
- It is forbidden to eat ice cream, chocolate, as well as products made from it, fat creams.
- Dairy products with a high percentage of fat.
- It is forbidden to season the dishes with pepper, horseradish, mustard.
- Strong coffee, cocoa, cold or sour drinks are contraindicated.
- Pork or cooking oil.
- Alcoholic beverages.
Full recovery occurs after 6–12 months after hepatitis A. In order to reduce the likelihood of complications, the patient must follow the rules of nutrition, take a multivitamin complex, drink broths from choleretic herbs.
Hepatitis B Diet
Patients diagnosed with Hepatitis B should adhere to special rules of nutrition. In the chronic course of the disease, a person must comply with the recommendations of the doctor on nutrition for a long time, and sometimes throughout his life.
Diet therapy has no contraindications, it helps to reduce the load from the digestive organs (including the liver). The patient should eat with hepatitis B with an interval of 3-4 hours, that is, from 4 to 6 times per day. Fractional nutrition helps to stop the pathological process, to restore liver tissue.
The number of calories per 24 hours is about 2800. At the same time, the patient should take into account the ratio of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates (90-350-100g).
Many patients are interested in the question of what kind of food is contraindicated in hepatitis B. A person who has been diagnosed with HBV should not drink alcohol, eat smoked products, food with lots of seasonings or spices. In addition, you should abandon vegetables with a high concentration of essential oils (radish, onion, garlic).
As a rule, patients are prescribed diet No. 5 (it will be described later) in treating hepatitis, which helps to normalize the functioning of the gland and the entire digestive tract. If the patient does not comply with the recommendations of the doctor, then liver failure develops, the risk of general poisoning of the body increases.
Fractional nutrition consists of 3 meals and 2–3 snacks. Fried, fatty, too salty food, confectionery products are contraindicated in hepatitis. Culinary fats can cause exacerbation of the disease. The amount of salt must be reduced, as it violates the process of water exchange, which threatens the violation of the functionality of various organs.
The patient must comply with the drinking regime, for 24 hours you need to drink from 2 liters of water without gas. In addition to purified water, it is allowed to use freshly squeezed juices from fruits, berries, vegetables, herbal extracts.
Food for acute and chronic hepatitis C
Hepatitis C is the most severe type of disease. The illness has a hidden course, that is, the patient does not show specific symptoms. As a rule, HCV is detected by chance during a blood test. Hepatitis C most often provokes cirrhosis and liver cancer.
To protect hepatocytes, the patient must follow a strict diet, the rules of which depend on his condition. If the patient observes the rules of nutrition, his health improves, the discomfort and pain on the right under the ribs is alleviated. Otherwise, due to the high nutritional load, the recovery of the gland slows down, the effectiveness of antiviral drugs that help destroy HCV decreases.
The question of what to eat with acute hepatitis C is quite relevant. It is important to reduce the number of calories and protein consumed, since splitting it increases the load on the gastrointestinal tract. It is recommended to use more foods rich in carbohydrates that saturate the body with energy. As a rule, in the acute form of hepatitis, diet No. 5a is prescribed, for more information about it you can read in this article.
Patients are interested in what foods can be included in the diet for hepatitis C. First of all, you need to remember that the daily dose of calories is 2800. For 24 hours, the patient can consume 100 g of proteins, the same amount of lipids, and about 450 g of carbohydrates. Daily dose of salt - 5 g.
As part of complex treatment, it is recommended to consume fruits, vegetables, and greens. The diet should be replenished with vegetable proteins. Products containing proteins include seeds, nuts, and legumes. In addition, the patient should drink from 2 liters of fluid.
In chronic hepatitis, diet No. 5 is recommended. According to her, the patient should exclude from the menu fatty fish, meat, products that contain preservatives, dyes, flavors, etc. Also, it is necessary to give up alcohol, cigarettes.
Patients are allowed to eat dietary meat and fish, dairy products with a fat content of up to 2%, cereal, stale bread, fruits, vegetables, etc. It is worth refusing fried, fatty foods, smoked products, marinades, fresh baking. This restriction applies to beans, fatty dairy products, canned goods, etc.
These nutritional guidelines should be followed even after hepatitis. This is necessary to stop the spread of pathology and restore liver function.
Pathology therapy is quite long and difficult. In addition, it is very expensive, so the Russian government has developed a program according to which Russian citizens can receive free treatment.
Table number 5 was developed by Dr. M. I. Pevzner. This is the best diet for patients who have identified inflammatory diseases of the hepatobiliary tract. It is shown in the following cases:
- Hepatitis with chronic course (without exacerbation).
- Inflammation of the gallbladder (LB) in a chronic form, as well as at the stage of remission.
- Hepatitis, inflammation of the fever in remission.
Table number 5 is prescribed for cirrhosis, drug hepatitis. The main thing is that the patient does not have severe bowel disease.
When liver inflammation recommended fractional nutrition and fluid on an empty stomach.
According to diet number 5, the patient can eat the following foods:
- weak tea
- decoction of rose hips or chamomile flowers,
- fresh juices diluted with water,
- compote, juice, jelly.
- vegetable soups with buckwheat, rice, noodles (hard varieties),
- dairy dishes
- soup without meat,
- soup without meat,
- beetroot soup, etc.
3. Cereal dishes:
- buckwheat, oatmeal, semolina, rice,
- soufflé, puddings, casseroles,
- oatmeal, muesli (without chemical additives), etc.
4. Pasta from high-quality pasta with the addition of safe products.
- the patient can cook dishes from veal, beef, rabbit, chicken, turkey (skin is forbidden to use),
- dishes from perch, cod, hake (no more than 3 times in 7 days),
- the patient can eat fresh oysters, shrimps, squid, mussels (limited amount).
6. Products from flour:
- bread made from bran, rye flour or stale wheat, crackers,
- products made from raw dough with boiled minced meat, fish, cottage cheese or apples,
- sponge cake without additives,
7. Sour milk products:
- Sour cream, cheese (not spicy), kefir, natural yogurt with a low percentage of fat.
- potatoes, carrots, zucchini, beets and other starchy vegetables,
- green beans,
- apples (non-acidic varieties),
- banana (1 per day),
- prunes, dried apricots, etc.
In addition, patients can consume egg protein omelets. Meals can be filled with butter or vegetable oil. The appetizers are allowed: salads from vegetables, fruits, seafood, boiled meat, etc. Sometimes patients can enjoy confectionery: meringues, marshmallows, marmalade, sweets that do not contain chocolate and cocoa, etc.
The patient should refuse from by-products, sausages, fats, canned food, salted, smoked fish, etc. Fresh pastries, puff pastry or fancy pastry are contraindicated. Salty cheeses, dairy products with a fat content of more than 3% are excluded. It is forbidden to eat mushrooms, corn, sorrel, spinach, eggplant, radish. From the diet you need to remove the fresh figs, cranberries, cranberries, dates, kiwi, tangerines, etc.
A patient with hepatitis is forbidden to eat fried eggs, smoked meats, canned food, store sauces. It is necessary to exclude from the menu ice cream, fat creams, chocolate, condensed milk.
In more detail about rules of food the attending physician will consult.
Diet for a week
Doctors offer an example of a menu for hepatitis for 7 days:
- porridge, tea,
- vegetable salad, tea,
- protein omelette, tea,
- buckwheat, tea,
- pudding with cottage cheese, jelly,
- buckwheat and rice cereal, compote,
- cauliflower (steamed), juice.
2. Second breakfast:
- buckwheat porridge with boiled meat, juice,
- cheesecakes, tea,
- oatmeal, compote,
- stewed zucchini, juice,
- pumpkin porridge, tea,
- cottage cheese with dry fruit, tea,
- oatmeal, jelly.
- soup with vegetables, potatoes with fish, compote,
- pumpkin soup, stew chicken, salad with vegetables, jelly,
- soup with potatoes, beef patties with rice, tea,
- soup with rice, fish with salad, tea,
- vegetable soup, braised rabbit meat, tea,
- pumpkin soup, beef meatballs with salad, tea,
- milk soup, boiled chicken with salad, tea.
- cookies with kefir,
- cheesecakes with tea
- buckwheat pancakes and rice, juice,
- oatmeal cookies with kefir,
- carrot pudding, jelly,
- protein biscuit, tea,
- boiled vegetables, dogrose broth.
- cottage cheese casserole, tea,
- boiled chicken, salad, compote,
- baked meat with vegetables, tea,
- minced meat patties, vegetables, tea,
- pilaf with meat, dogrose broth,
- baked fish, salad, tea,
- oatmeal, kefir.
There are various recipes for tasty and healthy dishes that meet the requirements of diet number 5.
For example, to cook cheese pudding, pour 3 tbsp. spoons of semolina 100 ml of milk, leave for 15 minutes. At this time, beat 3 tbsp. spoons of butter with 2 eggs. Stir all the ingredients, add a little sugar, raisins, lemon zest. Put the mass in the form and bake a quarter of an hour (200 °).
To make pumpkin soup, boil 100 g of ground pumpkin until half cooked. Then extinguish the pumpkin with broth and ½ tsp of oil, add 2 tbsp. spoon oatmeal and cook like porridge. Then beat the mixture in a blender, add a piece of butter.
To make beef patties, skip meat several times through a meat grinder, add a little grated potatoes, stale bread, and salt. Form of a mass of patties, put in the form, fill with half water, bake.
Thus, a diet for hepatitis is an essential component of complex treatment. The patient must follow the rules of nutrition, which are determined by the attending physician. Thus, it will stop the development of pathology and accelerate the recovery of the liver.