Preparing for pregnancy: how to start pregravid preparation?
In the medical environment, the joke that there are no healthy people is simply popular, there are simply under-examined ones. Humor in this situation is more sad, because there is too much truth in this joke. The notorious modern rhythm of life, insufficient healthy food, difficult ecological situation and a lot of negative factors lead to the fact that it is almost impossible to conceive, endure and easily give birth to an absolutely healthy child. But doctors add: it is almost impossible in a random way how to win the lottery. But why leave such a responsible business to chance, if you can reasonably and carefully approach the process? For this purpose, there is a pregravid preparation for pregnancy. Modern diagnostic techniques and accumulated vast experience allow us to identify in advance the factors that can provoke obvious problems with childbearing and adversely affect his health.
A balanced approach to family planning
The old approach to pregnancy as exclusively to the gift of God is morally obsolete. Even if we consider this from the point of view of Orthodox morality, it is worth remembering that Christian doctrine implies free will of a person and responsibility for the decisions made. Consequently, family planning and conscious procreation are by no means God's business. This is a responsible decision, and pregravid preparation for pregnancy fully complies with any moral standards.
In most cases, any responsible business begins with preliminary preparation. Pregnancy is no exception, and this is especially important for a woman, because it is she who has to undergo a hormonal restructuring of the body, inevitable changes, a large enough physical stress and all the associated efforts. We are talking about the proper preparation for the continuation of the race until the moment of conceiving a child.
Pregravid preparation for pregnancy
This is not to say that this is an exceptionally fashionable novelty. Even at the end of the last century, doctors strongly recommended a reasonable approach to the issue of family planning. In particular, women were offered to treat possible diseases in advance and pay a visit to the dentist. “Teeth fell from pregnancy” - a very common situation. Of course, for the construction of the child’s skeleton, the body takes calcium not from the mother’s teeth at all, but there are some changes that provoke a diving development of already existing dental problems.
Today, pregravid preparation for pregnancy is a comprehensive examination, consultation of doctors and putting in order all potentially dangerous conditions. Particular attention should be paid to this period to those women who have already had experience of unsuccessful pregnancies.
Where to begin?
Many medical centers offer such a service as pregravid preparation for pregnancy. The main principles of this process are to consult the couple as correctly as possible, to explain the importance of a reasonable and responsible approach. After preliminary consultation, appropriate examinations are appointed.
First of all, a specialist collects anamnesis, as with any treatment to a doctor. Different families may have different problems. Perhaps these are unsuccessful attempts to have a baby. Non-occurrence of pregnancy does not necessarily mean chronic infertility — the body may require relatively minor corrective measures. In other cases, it is a difficult experience of previous pregnancies, miscarriage or the birth of a child with serious developmental problems. Focusing on the collected history, the doctor will make a plan of examinations that will need to pass not only a woman but also a man.
At the initial stage of the procedure, they practically do not differ from standard regular medical examinations: it turns out that the general state of health is found, it is necessary to pass tests. If there are, or as a result of the survey, any neglected or even chronic diseases are found, this is a great opportunity to fix the problems. What is pregravid preparation? If to argue in a simplified and even rude way, then this is an examination and bringing the body into a state suitable for reproduction.
It would be a mistake to believe that pregnancy is solely women's care. A man should also be aware of his responsibility. In addition to general tests and surveys, spermogram may be required - a special analysis designed to determine the man's ability to continue the race. The quantity and vigor of spermatozoa, other parameters are estimated. You may need to research genes, especially if there are some genetic diseases in the genus or you simply have concerns. Also, an analysis of a possible Rhesus conflict is performed. If the Rhesus factors of both parents turn out to be inappropriate, this does not mean that the birth of a child is impossible, but constant medical supervision and medical supervision will be required.
Pregravid preparation for miscarriage
If a woman already had a sad experience of miscarriage, preliminary examinations and careful preparation will help identify the causes and take appropriate measures. If it turns out that the culprit is a neglected disease, it is worth spending time on treatment and recovery.
Pregravid preparation of pregnancy, tests and examinations are not only aimed at achieving the possibility of having a healthy baby. This is a comprehensive family care, because the fewer problems that arise during childbirth, the more healthy the psychological climate will be, which means fewer fears, conflicts and reasons for stress.
What should be done before the planned conception?
Even if you are not going to go to the family planning center and undergo an examination under the guidance of a leading doctor, you can register yourself for specialized medical examinations with specialists. Only this will have a positive effect on general health. A visit to the dentist, treatment of caries and the elimination of other possible problems in the oral cavity is already a solid part of success. This is where most of the problems with digestion begin.
If you show consciousness, give up bad habits, stop smoking and add reasonable physical activity - this is a solid help. What is pregravid preparation for? Everybody probably knows the common saying that all diseases in humans are caused by nerves. This is partly true. Stress can provoke painful conditions, and a vicious circle closes: diseases cause stress, which, in turn, provokes exacerbation of the disease. The ability to conceive and bear a child is a kind of test for the overall well-being of the body. Of course, sometimes pregnancy happens against all odds, but this is not the merit of the parents, but rather an accident. To rely on chance and elementary luck, to hope that “God has mercy on God” and trouble will pass by - this is an infantile look at things.
Make a choice in favor of health, and the body will not hesitate to thank you: a strong family, healthy and happy children - is this not joy? Make your happiness conscious and complete, take responsibility for your own well-being and become the masters of your destiny!
- What is pregravid preparation and what is it for?
- Intergenetic gap
- History taking
- Examination of the woman's body
- Obstetric study in the pregravid period
- The effect of urogenital infections
- Pregravid Cancer Screening
- What tests need to pass a woman
- TORCH infection tests
- Rubella testing and vaccination
- Instrumental survey methods: where to start
- Essential Vitamins
- Folic acid (vitamin B₉)
- Vitamin D
- Polyunsaturated fatty acids
- What else needs to be done
What is pregravid preparation for?
Pregnancy is a physiological condition, but it puts a strain on all systems and organs. Therefore, the female body should be fully examined, treated, thus prepared for pregnancy. It is not enough to conceive a child, you need to endure and give birth to a healthy baby. Below is a list of tests and necessary examinations for pregravid preparation. You can start with a conditionally healthy married couple, which has no complaints and pathological symptoms. In the presence of chronic diseases of the somatic or the reproductive system, the list of basic research can be supplemented and expanded. Particular attention is given to taking vitamins at the pregravid stage.
Preparing a woman’s body for pregnancy reduces:
- maternal mortality and morbidity
- perinatal mortality and morbidity
- the prevalence of congenital malformations, chromosomal abnormalities, the likelihood of miscarriages,
- preterm labor rates.
Previously it was believed that between two consecutive genera should take at least 2 years. Modern WHO installations regulate the optimal intergenetic period between two consecutive births of approximately 24 + 9 months (the time interval between births following conception is 24 months + 9 months of gestation).
First, to prepare you need to contact your local gynecologist or a reproductive clinic. At the initial visit, the gynecologist collects a general history.
- previous diseases, injuries, surgeries, blood transfusions,
- the presence of chronic diseases
- the presence of hereditary diseases
- working conditions,
- living conditions and lifestyle,
- eating habits
- allergic reactions, medication,
- episodes of thrombosis in future parents and next of kin,
- reproductive history.
When planning a pregnancy, it is necessary to conduct anthropometry. This measurement of body parameters and some other indicators of the female body:
- calculation of body mass index
- growth measurement
- Estimation of the ratio of waist to hip.
Also important are blood pressure parameters, counting the frequency of respiratory movements and heart rate. A general physical examination of the respiratory organs, blood circulation, digestion, urinary tract, musculoskeletal system, and mammary glands is carried out at the visit.
Obstetric gynecological examination
During obstetric examination is carried out:
- vaginal examination with mirrors,
- smears are taken,
- determination of vaginal discharge acidity.
Normally, the environment in the vagina is acidic. This suggests that the woman's biocenosis is likely to be normal, and pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic flora does not develop in the genital tract. This is a fairly simple and painless test for the woman's reproductive health.
- bimanual vaginal examination
- microscopy of discharge from the genital tract.
The study of the discharge of the female genital organs is carried out on sexually transmitted infections using the PCR method (to determine chlamydia, trichomonas, gonococci, mycoplasmas).
The effect of urogenital infections
Infections of the urogenital area can lead to:
- ectopic pregnancy
- cervical insufficiency,
- fetal death,
- fetal malformations,
- premature rupture of amniotic fluid,
- non-developing pregnancy
- low water or polyhydramnios,
- placental insufficiency,
- threatened abortion,
- premature birth.
This is a whole set of obstetric pathology, which the doctor will have to contend with if the diagnosis is not timely. The identified and treated infection at the stage of preparation for pregnancy allows you to avoid such terrible complications during pregnancy.
What is called pregravid preparation for pregnancy?
If you look at the root of the word (from lat. Gravida), it determines the preparation for the pregnancy itself. Planning conception, consulting with doctors and implementing all their recommendations is not just a fashionable trend of modernity, because it is about the birth of a new life.
It depends on you what it will be: you can significantly reduce the risk of birth defects in a child or avoid many malformations, and this, you will agree, is already quite a lot.
Thus, planning conception and undergoing pregravid training, you will provide at least some factors of safe bearing and the birth of a healthy baby. But it is worth considering that for this you need at least three months, and ideally - more than six months.
Pregravid preparation: the main stages
Very often, for a woman's body, pregnancy becomes a real stress. Therefore, all the activities that include its planning, just set themselves the main goal - to prepare as much as possible for conception.
This includes the diagnosis of possible problems, and prevention, and treatment. In short, this is a complete complex, with which you can prepare for the onset of the desired pregnancy.
Inspection of a married couple
When you come to a preliminary consultation with a doctor, you will receive clear guidance on what to do next.
You will first need to undergo a full medical examination to determine your health condition. This stage is the most significant part of the time, but it is extremely important.
- Both spouses pass all the necessary tests:
- general fees (urine / blood),
- biochemical analysis
- on group definition,
- to determine the Rh factor.
If both parents have the same rhesus, then there is no cause for concern, but if there is a mismatch, there is a likelihood of Rhesus development, which can be dangerous for the child’s life)
- screening for hepatitis, syphilis and HIV,
- full range of TORCH infections,
- study of thyroid function,
- infectious screening, which includes all bak.seed, smears and examinations.
- After receiving the results of these tests, the doctor will be able to plan further training.
Also, in parallel, all diseases that you have previously experienced, including injuries, and surgery or surgery, will be taken into account. This may require your outpatient and vaccination cards.
Then you will be referred for examination to various narrow specialists (endocrinologist, oculist, neuropathologist, dentist, nephrologist, cardiologist), if there are relevant chronic diseases or specific complaints.
If not, then you can limit yourself to an examination and consultation with a therapist.
- Such a detailed diagnosis of possible chronic, viral or bacterial infections and diseases allows to exclude them, as risk factors for miscarriage, intrauterine fetal development or infection.
- Of course, the pregravid preparation of a woman includes a more extensive examination.
At the reception at the gynecologist will need to find out whether everything is in order with the genitals.
To do this, ultrasound of the mammary glands, the pelvic organs (if there is evidence, then the thyroid gland). The doctor may also ask for a test to determine the patency of the fallopian tubes, colposcopy and endoscopy. But her husband will have to go to the urologist, as well as make a spermogram.
- According to the testimony conducted additional examinations: hormonal and immunological.
- Consultation with genetics.
This doctor will be able to predict what the likelihood is that you will have a child with a hereditary pathology. You must consult with him if:
- you and your husband are blood relatives
- you know that hereditary defects, diseases or pathologies have occurred in your family, and also if you already have a child with a genetic disorder,
- you basically want to conceive a baby of a certain sex,
- you decided to give birth at a later age (for women - above 35, and for men - above 50 years),
- previous pregnancies ended in intrauterine growth retardation and fetal death, spontaneous miscarriages, stillborn children were
- you are constantly exposed (or were) exposed to harmful chemical or radiation exposure.
After such a comprehensive examination of the health status of both parents, the doctor will decide how to prepare the woman’s body as much as possible for conception and for the normal course of pregnancy, as well as for the proper and full development of the child.
Если вы хотели забеременеть раньше, но у вас не получалось, то сейчас вы сможете получить ответы на свои вопросы: возможно ли для вас естественное зачатие в принципе, позволяет ли вам здоровье выносить и родить малыша, какие для него существуют опасности и т. д.
Как правильно готовиться к зачатию и беременности?
Considering all the results of your examinations and analyzes, the doctor will prepare for you an individual training program.
If you have no complicated problems and everything is favorable, then all you need to do is to follow fairly simple rules and recommendations:
- Strongly give up any bad habits.
You must understand that there is no such thing as a “safe dose” of alcohol or “light” cigarettes, not to mention taking any narcotic or psychotropic substances.
Even banal coffee or strong tea can be dangerous for the growth of the fruit.
- Also discuss with your doctor the reception of various medical and homeopathic remedies.
Since many of them (even sleeping pills, antidepressants, dietary supplements) cause irreparable harm to the unborn child or are dangerous for him, exclude hormonal preparations.
- Try to change your lifestyle.
Get enough sleep, do not overdo it, do not work for wear, follow the mode of the day).
- Tell your doctor if you come into contact with harmful factors at home or at work (solvents, pesticides, and others).
Maybe you live in an environmentally hazardous area, which also adversely affects your health.
- Try to avoid stress, nervous disorders and strong feelings.
- Revise your diet, because now you need to eat properly and balanced.
This is not about a normal diet, but about rich in vitamins, useful elements and substances menu.
- One of the most important preparation points is the intake of additional vitamins and minerals.
Both parents should take folic acid, vitamin E, and other essential nutrients as prescribed.
- If you suffer from overweight or obesity, the doctor will recommend you to lose weight.
Underweight is also undesirable, because it indicates a shortage of essential nutrients.
- Your physical activity should be moderate and exclude those sports or activities that are dangerous to your health and life. It is also recommended not to overheat, if you like to visit the bath or sauna.
If you have any specific problems, infections or diseases, you will need to get rid of them: to heal, sanitize, correct, etc. So you will create the necessary conditions for a successful conception, a safe pregnancy and a quiet birth without complications.
How can a woman determine the optimal days for conception?
The third stage of pregravid preparation is the determination of days favorable for ovulation.
The ways to do this are quite simple, so that you can understand when the most successful time for conceiving a child comes after conducting a few tests.
Determination of ovulation by basal temperature
To do this, make a graph of measurements of basal temperature. To do this, you will need to take rectal temperature readings for at least 3 monthly cycles and record them in a special schedule. So you can see when your egg leaves the ovary and is ready for fertilization.
Following this method, you need to adhere to very strict rules. For example, to measure the temperature only at the same time, to do it, barely waking up and not getting out of bed, etc.
Calendar conception planning method
The calendar method is considered not so accurate and reliable. To use it to calculate the ideal days of pregnancy, you need to designate different days of the cycle, using certain colors for this.
That is, when menstruation occurs, draw these dates, for example, with red, and the ovulatory phase with green. But for more or less reliable data you need at least six months.
Determination of ovulation by cervical mucus
The method of analysis of cervical mucus is not very popular due to the fact that here you need the help of a doctor. The composition of mucus throughout the menstrual period undergoes certain changes.
When menstruation ends, mucus is practically absent, and with the onset of ovulation, it appears and becomes transparent, thick and elastic.
You can determine ovulation and special tests, which are sold in pharmacies. Some of them resemble pregnancy tests, because the stripes on them also change color when in contact with urine.
Some parents tend to conceive a child of a certain sex.
There are many different planning methods that advise you to choose a special day of the menstrual cycle, a specific month or season. However, no one will give you a guarantee.
Do not forget that you can confirm ovulation only under the supervision of a doctor using ultrasound.
Instead of conclusion
In order for the pregnancy to bring you only positive emotions and experiences, and your child would develop and grow properly, try to approach his conception with full responsibility.
Having passed the pregravid preparation, you will be able to consciously give life to a little man, providing the most favorable conditions for his birth.
Diagnosis of health
The most serious part of pregravid preparation is the diagnosis of the health of future parents. It is important to determine whether they have any diseases that are an obstacle to conceiving and carrying a child, genetic or other deviations that can affect the baby. To do this, a full survey of the married couple - both women and men. Of course, the future mother will have to undergo more procedures, because the fetus will develop in her womb. If we combine the necessary research, we get the following picture:
- General blood and urine tests.
- Blood test for the group and Rh factor.
- Blood biochemistry (immunogram, hormones, antibodies to infections).
- Vaginal smear, cervical canal (cytology).
- Analysis of secretions.
- Spermogram and scraping of the urethra in men.
- Genetic analysis.
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs.
The doctor needs to know which of the chronic diseases the spouses have, find out the family history, take into account the surgeries and injuries. It should be understood that the management of pregnancy and childbirth is significantly different for different extragenital pathology. Therefore, the doctor should know about it in advance. As a rule, we are talking about these states:
- Heart defects.
- Bronchial asthma.
- Arterial hypertension.
- Renal pathology.
- Diseases of the connective tissue.
- Chronic anemia.
- Thrombotic phenomena.
It is extremely important to eliminate the prerequisites for infertility and to confirm the individual compatibility of the pair. It is also necessary to find out if there are factors potentially hazardous to the fetus (for example, genital infections). Every detail may be required, so that existing medical documentation will only speed up the diagnostic process.
The most important aspect of preparation for pregnancy is medical diagnosis. It may include a rather wide list of studies.
After it became clear that everything is in order with the body, it is necessary to prepare it for the upcoming conception. Based on the diagnosis, the doctor will recommend what to do. The set of measures for pregravid preparation for pregnancy includes the following:
- Quitting smoking and alcohol.
- Healthy and nutritious food.
- Sufficient physical activity.
- Quality rest, minimizing stress.
- Cancel hormonal contraceptives.
- Taking folic acid and tocopherol (vitamin E).
Lifestyle optimization is very important for future parents. This can be done independently. But the appointment of drugs is in the exclusive competence of the doctor. The dosage and course of administration is established only by a specialist.
Calculate the date of conception
And finally, the last stage in pregravid preparation is the determination of the best days for conception. All is to determine the date of ovulation - the release of the egg from the dominant follicle. This usually occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle, that is, 12–14 days. But each woman has individual fluctuations in the duration of this period, so you should use not only the calendar method, but also more informative methods. These include the following:
- Basal temperature measurement.
- Ovulation espresso test.
- Ultrasonic folliculometry.
In the process of calculating the date of conception, the couple can use and unconventional means. There are special tables by which you can find out which days of the month it is better to have sex, so that a boy or a girl will be born as a result. They have not received scientific confirmation, but still no one forbids their use.
Thus, pregravid preparation is a responsible and absolutely necessary step towards a desired pregnancy and the birth of a healthy child. Do not neglect it, it is better to consult a doctor and follow all his recommendations. This will avoid many problems with conception and carrying a baby.
Pregravid Cancer Screening
Cancer screening is not mandatory, but very desirable, because conception can trigger the development of cancer and dysplastic processes. In order to prevent the negative impact of pregnancy on the female body, 3 things must be done:
- To pass a smear on liquid oncocytology.
- To pass the analysis for the determination of human papilloma viruses of high oncogenic risk. These include viruses of 15 types: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 73, 82.
- If necessary, the doctor may recommend extended video-colposcopy.
These analyzes will eliminate the abnormalities and diseases of the cervix. Oncological and dysplastic processes can affect the reproductive health of women and the course of pregnancy in general.
What tests need to pass a woman
During pregravid preparation, somatic screening is conducted.
At the stage of preparation for pregnancy, it is necessary to pass the following tests:
- Clinical analysis of blood and serum ferritin. Having received good results of a general blood test with a normal level of hemoglobin, the number of erythrocytes, platelets and other blood corpuscles cannot be completely sure that a woman has no latent (latent) iron deficiency. Therefore, to prevent iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, it is necessary to pass a blood test for serum iron. This will avoid a marked decrease in hemoglobin during pregnancy and the development of iron deficiency anemia. During pregnancy, due to an increase in the total circulating blood volume, blood thinning occurs, which entails physiological anemia of pregnant women. Hidden latent iron deficiency can exacerbate the situation, and low hemoglobin will negatively affect the development of the baby.
- Determination of blood type and Rh factor. With a negative Rh women, it is necessary to clarify the Rh affiliation of the partner. If a woman’s blood is Rh-negative and a man’s blood is Rh, then in 60% of cases Rh-conflict develops during pregnancy. And this can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn with severe consequences for the newborn. If the woman is Rh negative, and the husband is Rh positive, then at 28 weeks pregnant, the introduction of anti-Rh immunoglobulin (vaccination) will be recommended.
- Determination of glucose level in the plasma of venous blood (necessary to determine the function of the pancreas and the exclusion of diabetes). Pregnancy management in patients with diabetes has its own characteristics. Therefore, it is very important to correct the state before conception.
- Determination of the concentration of TSH and free T4. These figures indicate the function of the thyroid gland. With iodine deficiency in the body, the pregnant woman will suffer and the fetus. After conception, the development of both thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism is possible.
- General urine analysis.
TORCH infection tests
There is a group of infections, or rather viruses, that are able to penetrate the placental barrier and influence the development of this pregnancy and the formation of fetal malformations.
T - Toxoplasma Gondii (toxoplasmosis),
O - (other agents) chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, hepatitis B and C, the AIDS / HIV virus, listeriosis, enterovirus infection, chicken pox, measles.
R - Rubella - rubella virus,
H - Herpes Simplex Virus - herpes virus infection.
Infection screening in preparation for pregnancy - determination of serum antibodies to pale treponema, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C and B virus, human papilloma virus, immunoglobulin G against measles, rubella, varicella, toxoplasma.
Rubella and vaccination
If a woman does not have antibodies to the rubella virus, then at the pregravid stage she needs to be vaccinated. After vaccination, a woman after 3 months should donate blood for rubella immunoglobulins M. If they are positive, the conception is postponed for another 3 months.
In 30% of women, despite the fact that the rubella vaccine is included in the mandatory vaccination schedule, the rubella G antibodies are negative (they did not hurt or were not vaccinated). The lack of formed immunity in pregnancy to rubella for a period of 16 to 20 weeks leads to the most serious consequences for the child:
- developmental malformations
- severe heart defects,
- mental retardation,
- intrauterine death of the child.
In the absence of immunity (negative immunoglobulin G), contact of a pregnant woman with a child who has rubella is an indication for abortion. Therefore, a woman at the planning stage of conception needs to clearly define whether she should be vaccinated or not.
Instrumental survey methods
After the initial communication with the obstetrician-gynecologist at the pregravid preparation stage, the following should be done:
- Transvaginal ultrasound (US) of the pelvic organs in the middle of the second phase of the menstrual cycle (days 19-21, MC).
- If a woman is under the age of 35, breast ultrasound is on the 5-11th day of the MC, after 35 - a mammography.
- Electrocardiogram and ultrasound of the heart.
It happens that one ECG is not enough, it is not always possible to identify any problems with the heart. Therefore, ultrasound of the heart is not mandatory, but the recommended method of researching women in the pregravid stage.
It is impossible to give accurate recommendations regarding the intake of vitamins in preparation for pregnancy, as in each case, certain vitamin-containing preparations and trace elements come to the fore in preparation for conception. When planning a pregnancy, there are 5 main groups of substances necessary for expectant mothers:
- vitamin D,
- polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Folate (folic acid) is a vitamin that is recommended for absolutely all women: pregnant and planning a pregnancy. Folate subsidy (vitamin B₉ intake) begins at least 3 months before the planned conception and lasts until 12 weeks of gestation.
In preparation for pregnancy, folic acid is taken by a man and a woman, 400 micrograms per day. Depending on which risk group the woman belongs to (and this is determined during the pregravid preparation), the minimum daily dose increases. But 400 micrograms is the minimum below which it is impossible to fall.
Pharmacies have a folic acid release form of 1000 µg each. It is possible to break one tablet in the morning in half and take half to a husband and wife, it turns out that everyone takes 500 mcg, but this is a completely acceptable number.
Compounds of folic acid significantly reduce:
- the frequency of neural tube defects and congenital defects of the cardiovascular system,
- preterm labor, pre-eclampsia, premature placental abruption,
- impairment of children's health in remote periods of life (low mental development index, increased likelihood of cancer, autism, depression and schizophrenia).
In some cases, the absorption of folic acid from the gastrointestinal tract is difficult. Then it is necessary to take active forms of B₉, for this there are separate vitamin complexes. They are more reliable because they allow more folic acid to be absorbed.
Iodine deficiency is a geographically widespread phenomenon. More than 90% of the population of our country live in areas with poor iodine soil. Therefore, when preparing for pregnancy, 3 months prior to conception planning, it is necessary to take iodine to a woman and a man. For a conditionally healthy couple, the recommended dosage is 250 µg potassium iodide per day. For women with thyroid problems, the dosage will be different.
Iodine must be taken without interruption, after the occurrence of pregnancy and the entire period of breastfeeding.
A low level of iodine in a woman’s body contributes to:
- having children with thyroid disease,
- impaired neuropsychic development, the risk of delayed speech development, attention deficit hyperactivity, reduced attention and IQ - intellectual coefficient,
- violation of physical and sexual development in children and adolescents.
It has already been clearly proved that at the embryonic stage of development, germ cells with a deficiency of certain microelements are laid in the embryo. Это говорит о том, что не только дети, но и внуки таких детей будут иметь проблемы, связанные с этим дефицитом.Therefore, in the pregravidary, preparatory period, future parents should do, in principle, what is simple enough is to take the necessary vitamins and trace elements, and in particular iodine.
Hidden iron deficiency, according to some, is present in 60% of women. Anemia during pregnancy is not easy to fight. Therefore, when preparing for pregnancy, you must first identify it and treat it. And it is treated quite simply. For this purpose, iron supplements or multivitamin preparations containing this microcell are prescribed.
Adequate plasma level of iron in pregnancy planning reduces the frequency of:
- development of early toxicosis,
- threatened abortion and preterm labor,
- weakness of labor and hypotonic bleeding,
- infectious complications
- hypogalactia - insufficiency of production of breast milk and a reduction in the duration of lactation,
- intrauterine hypotrophy and hypoxia,
- fetal death,
- reduced level of psychomotor development of the newborn.
Synthesis of vitamin occurs in the skin under the action of ultraviolet rays of sunlight. Only 10% of vitamin D people get from food. In fact, it has been proven that the population of the CIS countries suffers from vitamin D deficiency. Therefore, it must be obtained either with products or in the form of medicines and vitamin complexes. Do not take into account dietary supplements, they pass the simplified certification system and are not a drug. The conditions for their certification are less stringent.
If you have doubts about the need for taking vitamin D in the pregravid preparation, you can take a blood test for vitamin D in the blood plasma.
A sufficient level of vitamin D when planning pregnancy reduces the likelihood of development:
- preeclampsia in pregnant women,
- gestational diabetes,
- preterm labor
- depression after childbirth and metabolic disorders, leading to obesity in the first year after birth,
- skeletal disorders in newborns due to rickets.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
PUFA - polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly contained in fish and seafood. The lack of PUFA can be easily compensated if you eat 350 grams of fish per week. If a woman does not eat fish, then you need to replenish stocks with the help of drugs.
Reception of polyunsaturated fatty acids in preparation for pregnancy provides:
- reducing the risk of obstetric complications (preterm labor, preeclampsia, venous thrombosis):
- optimal growth and maturation of the fetus, its brain and organs of vision, neuroprotection,
- formation of the immune system
- prevents hypotrophy,
- adequate neuropsychic development of the born child in the remote period.
What else is needed to prepare for pregnancy
It would not be superfluous to note that in pregravid preparation, correction of lifestyle and rejection of bad habits are important. It is necessary three months before the planned pregnancy to refuse the couple from alcohol and tobacco. If there are problems with weight (lack or excess) - they also need to be resolved, as this, depending on the severity of the disorder, may cause a lack of pregnancy and the occurrence of complications during gestation.
It is advisable to sanitize the oral cavity and cure aching teeth, so that the gestation period is not overshadowed by visits to the dentist and the use of anesthesia, both for dental treatment and for their removal. The child feels everything that worries his mother.
Determine the state of health of parents
Pregravid preparation for pregnancy should begin with a study of the health of future parents. It is necessary to pass tests in preparation for pregnancy. And this applies to both women and men. Of course, a woman will have to study the state of her health more thoroughly, since it is her body that will “nurture” a new life.
A woman should visit a gynecologist, endocrinologist, genetics. But a man also needs to be visited by some specialists. For example, a urologist, genetics and venereologist. It is also important to pass spermogram to determine the mobility and viability of sperm.
When visiting these doctors it is necessary to identify the presence of chronic sexually transmitted infections. It is necessary to find out what chronic, hereditary, endocrine diseases spouses have. After all, the presence of these diseases can significantly affect the growth and development of the baby.
For couples, tests will begin with blood and urine. You will need to know the Rh factor of the blood of the spouses. This is to determine if there is a Rhesus conflict. This moment is very important, because it may depend on how the pregnancy will proceed.
Of course, difficult work lies ahead, but knowledge of the hormonal background of a woman, her resistance to certain viruses, the presence of infections and diseases will greatly facilitate the course of pregnancy.
When you visit the doctors, you will definitely need to show your medical records so that the doctor can have a complete picture based on your medical history, knowing about your injuries, past illnesses and operations.
If your ancestors have any genetic diseases, you definitely need to visit genetics to consult and determine the optimal time for conception.
All the actions listed above will help you answer a series of questions.
- can you conceive a child naturally
- whether a woman can bear and have a baby in principle
- whether the fetus can become infected with any infections in utero.
Preparing the body for pregnancy
When all the tests are done, and the results of the research satisfy you, you need to prepare the body for conception and pregnancy. First of all, you need to start with the rejection of bad habits. We'll have to forget about strong alcoholic drinks and smoking.
If earlier you didn’t have enough willpower to throw cigarettes, now you have a great motivation - quitting smoking will allow you to become parents of a beautiful healthy baby.
In addition, you will definitely need to revise your diet. Healthy nutrition in preparation for pregnancy is the key to successful conception and childbirth. After all, as sages say, we are what we eat. The woman's body receives all the nutrients and trace elements from food, and, accordingly, transfers them during pregnancy to the baby.
Eliminate everything sweet, smoked, ready-to-eat, pickles from your diet, follow the principles of separate food and drink an hour after eating. Together with the doctor, select a complex of vitamins suitable for pregravid preparation. Eating healthy and healthy food, you lay the foundation for the favorable development of the fetus.
It is very important to include moderate exercise, in order to prepare the muscles for pregnancy and childbirth. It is also necessary to have a good rest, sleep enough and avoid negative emotions and stress.
We determine the best days to conceive
If you want to get quick results, then you should set the days that will be optimal for conception. Make it easy, for this you will need to establish the moment of ovulation, when the egg leaves the ovary and is preparing for fertilization.
You can use calendar methods for this, but they are not accurate enough. Or a more reliable method - special tests to detect ovulation and daily morning basal temperature measurement. These methods are readily available and can be made by women themselves.
One hundred percent guarantee of ovulation can be obtained by ultrasound examination under medical supervision.
There is a theory that you can plan the sex of a child by choosing a certain day of the cycle. As if the sperm carrying the female chromosome is more enduring and if you want to give birth to a girl, you must conceive a child a few days before the start of ovulation.
And, accordingly, if you expect a boy, then fertilize directly on the day of ovulation. But in fact, none of the theories does not give one hundred percent result.
35 years - give birth?
In the past 15 years, women began to give birth later. For example, the number of first births after 30 years, as well as after 35 years, doubled. A decade ago, the biological clock of a woman made alarming bells at thirty years old, and even now, giving birth after 30 or even forty is considered the norm.
In this connection, so raised the bar, which limits the reproductive age of women? Experts say that now women in labor have more security than they did before. Innovative methods of treatment of infertility, infectious diseases, surgical interventions that allow you to give birth to healthy and full-fledged children have appeared.
Despite the fact that, for medical reasons, the best age for the birth of a first child is considered to be 20-24 years old, many women prefer to first build a career and meet a decent life partner, rather than get married and give birth “according to age”.
In addition, according to some reports, the psychological age of a woman ready for motherhood begins 10 years after physiological maturity, and this is exactly 25-30 years.
Of course, there are certain risks. This is a high probability to give birth to a child with genetic abnormalities, and the difficulty with the gestation of the fetus, with the complexity of the child-bearing process.
But if a woman is physically and psychologically healthy, not infertile, had no miscarriages, or if this pregnancy is second, then she has as many chances to give birth to a healthy, normal baby as a twenty-year-old girl.
Nevertheless, the risk of complications is much reduced if, when preparing for pregnancy after 35 years and preparing for a second pregnancy, you carefully examine your body, give up bad habits in the form of drinking alcohol and cigarettes, follow the doctor's instructions, take the appropriate vitamins and do special exercise.
It is especially important to maintain a good mood, to live in harmony with oneself and, regardless of age, accept pregnancy as a precious gift of fate!