Which thermometer is better to choose for a newborn baby: rating of children's thermometers for measuring temperature
You have probably heard about electronic thermometers - the achievement of modern medicine. They, unlike mercury thermometers, are safe, more convenient to use and provide a fairly high measurement accuracy. A couple of seconds are enough to get the result, and the process itself can be performed without contact with the person, which is especially important for a family with a small child.
But to make the right choice when buying an electronic thermometer, it is important to be guided not only by price or personal preferences. You need to familiarize yourself with the available features of the model, carefully read the reviews, find out the general reputation of the manufacturer, and only then dwell on a specific device.
We have compiled a list of the best medical thermometers, based on expert evaluations of experts and feedback from real buyers. Our recommendations will help you to make a choice, the best requirements and desires. There are many competitors in the global equipment market, but we have selected the best manufacturers and recommend paying special attention to them:
Varieties of modern thermometers and their differences
The first thermometer, or rather, thermoscope, appeared in the 16th century. Its inventor is considered to be Galileo. Of course, modern models are far from their predecessor. A variety of models produced by industrial enterprises, differ in appearance, and accuracy, and even on the principle of operation. Each is good for specific purposes, and in order to find the optimal one, one needs to understand the variety of existing options.
Mercury and mercury-free thermometer
The easiest to use, familiar and inexpensive - mercury. He is familiar to all of us since childhood. Its advantages include high accuracy and price.
A mercury thermometer is a sealed glass flask with a narrow spout, which contains mercury. The flask can be arranged as follows:
- from the capsule with mercury up goes the capillary, under which the plate with divisions is enclosed,
- Option 2 - divisions are applied to the flask itself, in which the capillary is sealed.
The latter option is somewhat more reliable, since there is no risk of displacement of the scale relative to the capillary with mercury. Such a thermometer is placed in the armpit, the maximum heating of the device to body temperature will be reached within 10 minutes.
Mercury is a liquid metal that is a strong poison. Because of this, there are certain limitations when using the product. For example, it is undesirable to insert a thermometer into the mouth. It is also dangerous to measure the temperature of the baby by inserting the device into the anus. The fragility of the glass and the possibility of poisonous metal entering the body make such measurements unsafe.
If the thermometer breaks outside the human body, small globules of mercury will scatter over a considerable distance. The vapors emitted by them are harmful to the body, therefore all residues of the thermometer should be collected. It is advisable to take them to a specialized reception center, but if there is no such possibility, wrap them in several layers of plastic film and take them out of the room.
Mercury is collected by a brush, sweeping in a paper bag. Then wipe the surface with a damp filter paper. From the cracks it is easiest to extract using polished copper wire. The surface cleaned in this way should be washed with a solution of “Whiteness” diluted 1: 5 with water.
To avoid mercury-related problems, you can purchase a mercury-free thermometer. It uses harmless alloys instead of a dangerous metal, for example, Galinstan, which is an alloy of gallium, indium and tin.
A good option would be to purchase a mercury thermometer in a complete protective sheath. It will not allow glass and mercury to spread around the room, even if the thermometer breaks.
Children's electronic thermometers are an indisputable step forward compared to mercury thermometers. Their main advantage is absolute security. This thermometer does not contain any toxic substances, made of soft plastic, which excludes the possibility of breaking it and getting hurt by splinters.
And the time taken to measure the temperature will be much less: if the mercury shows the final result after 10 minutes, then the electronic one will need only 2 minutes to do it. The measurement result will be displayed in a special window in digital form, which makes it easy to view the instrument readings. The error in measuring the temperature does not exceed 0.1 degrees, so that it can be neglected.
Separate additional functions are not so necessary, but they make using the device more comfortable. These include a sound signal when a patient has a high temperature, the ability to save the previous result in the thermometer's memory. For those who are closer and dearer to the Fahrenheit scale, there is the possibility of switching to another system of units.
The electronic thermometer is powered by batteries, and so that it truly serves the owner and provides reliable information, it is necessary to change the batteries in time. However, this has to be done every few years, and besides, many models are equipped with an independent shutdown function, which saves energy.
Another interesting solution is an infrared (IR) thermometer, which allows to determine the temperature by thermal radiation. Initially, such devices were used only for industrial purposes, however, and in everyday life their advantages are indisputable.
The measurement time is about 10 seconds, which is very convenient for impatient kids. The result is displayed in digital form. The infrared thermometer for a newborn is one of the most convenient. However, these thermometers are quite expensive.
It is most convenient to measure the temperature with a non-contact thermometer. It is a form of infrared, characterized in that the measurement occurs remotely. Externally, the device resembles a thick marker. At the end it has a lens that focuses thermal radiation from the body.
The device must be turned on and let it go into operation mode, after which it will take 2 seconds to measure the temperature.
The most convenient way to measure the temperature with a non-contact thermometer
The cost of contactless thermometers is quite high, but it is offset by a number of advantages:
- measurements are made at a distance of 3 cm from the body, which allows it to be used to monitor the state of the infant even in sleep,
- the device can measure not only body temperature, but also baby food, water in the bath and even air in the room,
- measuring speed allows using the device in public places: schools, kindergartens and other places of mass gathering of children,
- color and sound indication of elevated temperature eliminates the possibility of error,
- the device is hygienic, does not require cleaning after use,
- battery indication allows you to replace the battery in time.
To use it on baby's clothes, it is necessary to fix the sensor, which will measure the child's body temperature every 10-15 seconds. The result obtained using a radio signal is transmitted to a monitor located separately (for example, in another room).
The system allows continuous monitoring of the condition of the baby. She has a number of other advantages:
- the thermometer makes measurements regularly, while not unnerving the children,
- there is no need to constantly monitor the operation of the device,
- The thermometer is very accurate
- sound and light signals will notify the parents about their body temperature changes,
- The thermometer is not dangerous for the child.
There are also other types of children's thermometers, which do not give such accurate data as listed above, but allowing to see the first signs of the disease in time. These include nipples, thermometers, which have the usual form for a small patient. Convenient also thermometers-strips that change color with a change in body temperature.
The pacifier thermometer is a very convenient temperature measuring device, but rather unreliable
For industrial measurements, laser thermometers are used to accurately select the point at which the temperature should be determined. In everyday life, such devices have not found wide application, since extraneous noise can reduce the accuracy of readings. In addition, the measurement of body temperature at a distance of 3-10 m at home is not required.
How to choose the right thermometer for babies and older children?
Having understood the principles of the thermometers, you can make the right choice, which is based on the following criteria:
- The age of the child. For babies suitable thermometer dummy. Often a sick child in addition to any type of thermometer should purchase an indicator strip so as not to miss the onset of the disease. Children of any age should choose a device made of safe materials.
- A significant role in choosing a model is price. Cheaper than all - mercury or alcohol thermometers, but they do not differ in safety and durability. If you purchase one thermometer for the whole family, you should turn it on for the life of the device.
- Convenience and ease of use are especially important when choosing a measuring instrument for a child. The most difficult thing is to measure the temperature of the newborn (see also: what should be the normal temperature of the body of a newborn baby?). It is worth paying a higher price for getting rid of the hassle.
Rating of the best models of devices for measuring body temperature in children
What are the best thermometers? Rating devices from different manufacturers:
- AND DT - inexpensive thermometers from Japan, collected in China. Presented by electronic and infrared devices. The price of the first is about 300 rubles, the second - 4 times more expensive. The manufacturer guarantees their performance throughout the year.
- B-Well - devices made in Switzerland, presented in a wide range. Simple electronic options for adults cost a little more than 100 rubles. Similar devices for children have an attractive bright design. There are also rectal, in the form of a nipple, infrared for the forehead and contactless, having a high price and a service life of 2 years.
- Sensitec from the Netherlands is represented by contact and non-contact infrared thermometers. They work in 2 modes, they have screen backlighting, they notify about elevated temperature.
- Omron is originally from Japan. This popular brand in our country is represented by several varieties of electronic thermometers, differing in function and price. The company also produces infrared ear thermometers, ideal for newborns.
Which version of the children's thermometer is better, parents decide. Mercury fight, and battery-powered can fail at the last moment, if the charge runs out.
For each age, its own variant is better suited: to a newborn - ear, mobile, active baby - non-contact. For those who are able to sit quietly for 10 minutes, the classic one will do.
How to choose
Puzzled by buying a thermometer, you need to identify the necessary selection criteria. All types of thermometers have different parameters, and, accordingly, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Let us understand the advantages and disadvantages of each type of device.
- Electronic type is becoming the most purchased product for temperature measurement, and all because it is very easy to use and absolutely safe. But its disadvantage is that the measurements shown are less accurate than with a mercury thermometer. Yes, and for the price of such devices often bite.
- Mercury type - a classic, never going out of fashion, and most importantly, the confidence of parents. The accuracy of temperature measurement at altitude, but there is a significant disadvantage, since these devices are the most dangerous. Glass is very fragile and God forbid to break the device, as mercury can cause great health problems.
- Infrared type. Such devices read any vibrations of infrared radiation reaching the object and convert them to digital value. In terms of safety, they are on top, but accuracy is inferior to mercury "brothers".
In the modern market a large variety of brands provided and the abundance of the question arises: "Which company is better?". You can not try to discover America, but give preference to time-tested firms. In the production of children's thermometers, AND DT, B.Well, Sensitec, Omron companies have recommended themselves well.
These manufacturers produce both low-end models and more advanced, multifunctional devices. If you read reviews about the products of these companies, most of them will be positive.
Top best baby thermometers
One of the most convenient and best thermometers can be called the invention of the company ITherm. They came up with an intelligent thermometer. Externally, the invention is similar to an electronic watch: a strap and a screen. The device functions from batteries, there is one button on the dial, pressing which you activate the device operation. On the same digital display there is information on the temperature of the child, on the inside there is a special thermal sensor.
With the help of a thin strap, the device is fixed to the underarm area, and the data is constantly transmitted to the mobile phone using Bluetooth. As a result, you are constantly aware of how your baby feels. You do not need to constantly jump up to the bed, and you just have to look at the screen of your phone. The principle of operation is remote, which provides comfort to both the baby and parents.
How much is such a pleasure?
The price is quite high - 4150 rubles. If you are looking for where it is profitable to buy, then it is better to give preference to the manufacturer’s official website in order to avoid acquiring a fake.
What is an infrared thermometer
An infrared thermometer is a device designed to remotely measure the temperature of any surface. With proper handling, the device provides the highest accuracy. Pyrometers are used in industry to determine at a safe distance the temperature readings of various objects under any conditions: rotating objects that are under voltage or in a harmful environment. Ideal for home use devices - for contactless measurement of the temperature of a sleeping small child.
Principle of operation
The wavelength of thermal radiation of objects depends on the temperature of their surface. The principle of operation of an infrared device consists in measuring the amplitude of oscillations of infrared radiation and converting it into a temperature index corresponding to this value. The heat beam is focused in the optical system and hits the sensor, which measures the wavelength. Then the signal enters the electronic converter, which calculates the temperature value corresponding to the amplitude of oscillations, and transmits it to a digital display.
The classification of the devices is based on the method of measuring indicators. There are such types of thermometers:
- Ear. It features high accuracy, but requires certain user skills. At application it is necessary to delay the auricle a little. It is impossible to use the device in case of inflammation of the middle ear or, when the child is screaming, inaccurate data can be obtained.
- Frontal. Indicators obtained after touching the tip of the skin thermometer in the forehead or temple.
- Contactless. The device determines the temperature indicators at a distance. From the image in the photo you can see that contactless devices resemble a gun.
Advantages and disadvantages
Infrared temperature gauges are easy to use. Of the positive properties are the following:
- Infrared thermometer is easy to use. Indicators are displayed on a large display. The device by means of sound signals notifies on temperature increase, the end of measurement.
- Thanks to the backlight display, measurement results are visible at night.
- Temperature measurement is possible in a wide range, in many thermometers switching from Celsius to Fahrenheit is available.
- With the help of contactless devices, data can be obtained at a distance from the patient's body.
- An infrared pyrometer, unlike a mercury thermometer, is a safe instrument.
- Using the device, you can instantly measure the temperature.
Medical pyrometers for measuring temperature by the contactless method, like all other equipment, have drawbacks. Devices are expensive. It is known that:
- Determination of indicators using such devices is less accurate than when using a conventional mercury thermometer. This can be dangerous if the temperature is too low. To obtain more reliable data, it is recommended to use the average value.
- A large margin is obtained if you measure the indicators after taking a hot meal or if there is sweat on the baby’s skin.
How to use
The algorithm of user actions for determining temperature indicators depends on the options provided by the manufacturer and is described in detail in the instructions. To obtain accurate data you need to follow the following rules:
- Нельзя прибор ронять, ударять другими предметами.
- Следить за зарядкой батареек.
- Протирать жидкокристаллический дисплей и датчик смоченной спиртом салфеткой и не прикасаться руками.
- Before measuring with a non-contact infrared device, wipe the patient's skin dry.
- Measure indicators several times and use the average result.
- To avoid overheating of the device and obtaining inaccurate data after 4 manipulations, take a break for 10 minutes.
- To determine the accuracy of the device, you need to measure the temperature with good health, compare it with the norm (36.6 degrees). The resulting deviation can be used to refine the result with further use.
Infrared thermometer rating
You can buy an IR thermometer at a pharmacy or specialty store with medical equipment in Moscow and St. Petersburg. The sale of devices produced online shopping. Delivery of the order is carried out by courier service or you can get the goods by mail. When buying on the Internet, it is recommended to monitor stocks, sales. You can buy goods cheaply if you choose a device at a discount.
Body Thermometer GARIN
The device is designed to determine the temperature in a contactless way at a distance of 5-8 cm. Measurements in the range of 0-118 degrees can be performed with the device:
- name: GARIN Accurate measurement of IT-1,
- price: 1800 rubles,
- characteristics: temperature range is within 0-118 degrees, measurement speed - 2 seconds, automatic shutdown after 30 seconds, permissible error for the body - 0.2 degrees, for the surface - 1 degree, use of the Celsius and Fahrenheit scale, the device memory is provided saves the previous data, the display has a backlight and a high temperature sound signal,
- Pros: the availability of additional options, the price is low,
- cons: low accuracy.
The infrared device is used for contactless obtaining temperature indicators of the body, air, baby food, water. A thermometer is provided for operation in two measuring scales:
- Name: ENDEVER TEMP-05,
- price: 1600 rubles,
- characteristics: the memory of the last 32 measurements, the magnitude of the error of 0.2 degrees, has a sound and light alarm of elevated temperature, the measurement speed is 1 second, automatic shutdown after 5 seconds,
- Pluses: quick measurement, low price,
- cons: low accuracy.
Thermometer refers to a portable. For contactless determination of the degree of heating of the surface of solid objects and liquids, a device can be used to control the temperature of a human body:
- Name: DADGET MT4004,
- price: 1000 rubles,
- characteristics: weight 40 g, data acquisition speed is 1 second, the magnitude of the error is within 2 degrees Celsius, automatic shutdown after 15 seconds,
- Pluses: low price:
- Minuses: minimum of functions, high error.
How to choose a thermometer for the child? (Dr. Komarovsky)
Infrared thermometer - the perfect solution for young mothers. The device is simple to operate, does not contain mercury or other harmful substances, is made of plastic and metal. Measurement of body temperature is carried out in a contactless manner or by immersing the device in the ear. The second option is especially convenient for babies and children up to a year, the soft nozzle is safe and does not cause discomfort to the baby, such models show the most accurate results.
Average price: 3900 rub.
Rating (2018): 4.5
Comfort Quick, equipped with the world's smallest probe-tip (5.9 mm diameter), the thermometer is particularly well suited for measuring ear temperature in an infant. In addition, the model makes measurements in a contact way, by applying to the forehead or temple of the child. Designed in Italy, made in China. The device is easy to use, controlled by only two buttons: on / off. and measure the temperature. Measures temperature in a second. From the manufacturer declared an error of not more than 1-2 ° C.
The package includes individual nozzles of different sizes, suitable for all family members. Additionally, tips and disposable tips can be purchased at pharmacies and medical equipment stores.
The device is expensive, and the price range with a difference of 400 and 600 rubles. According to user feedback, lowers the temperature with frequent use. Measurement range - from 10 to 50 ° C. You can even know the temperature of water, infant formula or milk without immersion in liquid.
- universality, measurements are made in the auricle and on the surface of the forehead,
- quick measurement
- high quality.
Useful tips for using an infrared non-contact thermometer:
- before measuring remove hair and wipe off sweat from your forehead,
- select the correct measurement mode: for the body and for the surface,
- keep the device at a distance of 5–15 cm before the special signal sounds,
- watch the state of the battery, if the charge comes to an end, serious errors are possible,
- Measure at intervals of at least 1 minute,
- Try not to touch the display with your fingers, wipe it with a specially soaked rag.
Before use, check the accuracy of measurements using a mercury thermometer. If the difference does not exceed 0.1–0.3 ° C, the device works properly, if the error is more than 1 ° C - the equipment needs to be calibrated.
Country: UK (build in China)
Average price: 1250 rub.
Rating (2018): 4.7
The device is of English production, assembled in China. The thermometer is popular due to its speed and comparative measurement accuracy. The temperature is measured by immersing a special tip in the ear, and the cap can also be removed and brought to the temple or forehead. In this case, the indications on the skin surface are less reliable than in the auricle. Measurement time - 2-3 seconds.
Lightweight, weighs about 100 g, conveniently located in the hand. The result is displayed on the backlit display. On the beginning and end of the device beeps. There is an auto-off mode - 1 minute.
Measurement accuracy is lame depending on the delivery series. Some models give an error of 0.1 and 0.2 ° C, others - in 1 and 1.5 ° C. To avoid such a lottery, you need to carefully choose a supplier and buy the device in the official network or pharmacies selling medical equipment.
- detailed instructions,
- most inexpensive in its lineup.
- purchase of defective goods is possible.
The advantage of non-contact thermometers is in measuring temperature at a distance. For young mothers, such a device is simply irreplaceable, allows you to easily learn the state of the baby. To obtain data, simply bring the device to the forehead of the child and the information will appear on the display. The cost of such equipment is 7–8 times higher than the price of a mercury thermometer, but the infrared thermometer is safe to use and shows a result within 1–2 seconds.
Average price: 2745 rub.
Rating (2018): 4.8
Infrared thermometer Sensitec NF3010 is one of the best-selling models in Russia, which is manufactured in the Netherlands. There is a data calibration function, saving the results for further comparison. It has a backlit liquid crystal display and the ability to select the temperature measurement mode: for the body and the surface of a liquid. Advanced interface, you can choose a measurement system - Celsius or Fahrenheit. There is an auto-off feature.
The manufacturer gives a warranty of 12 months. Sensitec equipment is used by professional doctors in hospitals and clinics. In the configuration to the thermometer is a cover, detailed instructions and a screwdriver for changing the battery. Conveniently, you can turn off the sound and not wake the child.
Accuracy in different devices is different. In reviews, users note this pattern in measurements: up to 37 °, an error of 0.3 °, after 1 ° and 1.2 ° degrees. It gives a real result in 7–10 measurements. The Sensitec thermometer has earned the trust of both professionals and ordinary users.
- convenient control,
- extended equipment,
- recommended by experts.
Country: China (United Kingdom)
Average price: 1949 rub.
Rating (2018): 4.9
Universal device for measuring temperature. Two methods of measurement are available: contact - by immersing the tip of the thermometer in the ear and non-contact - by measuring in the forehead area. The shape is comfortable and ergonomic, the equipment fits comfortably in your hand. Thermometer is equipped with LCD-display, which is illuminated at night. Conveniently, the display has a battery indicator. In standby mode it can be used as a desk clock or a room thermometer. It is convenient to measure the temperature when the child is sleeping.
The battery should be changed every six months, depending on the frequency of use. Among the infrared thermometers available on the Russian market, this model is the most popular and in demand. Of the minuses - parents often recorded unexpected failures, the error reaches 3–4 ° C.
- multifunctionality: contact and non-contact measurement,
- convenient interface.
- in some cases, strong deviations in measurements.
Thermometers of this type have a sensitive sensor at one end that responds to different temperatures of the body and the environment. Electronic thermometers are not as accurate as mercury thermometers, but their advantage is low price. The measurement time depends on the model, usually 2–4 minutes. Electronic thermometers are made of plastic, so if damaged, they are not dangerous. Measurements can be made orally, rectally and in the armpit.
Country: China (Japan)
Average price: 306 rubles.
Rating (2018): 4.5
Omron introduces a new generation electronic thermometer. Country of manufacture China on the project of Japanese engineers. In the inexpensive device all standard indicators are considered, and also additional options are brought: water tightness and attractive design. Control is done with one button. The case is durable and safe to use - made of nickel, weight is only 11 grams. For convenience, the kit provides a protective case.
Detailed instructions in English and Russian are attached to the thermometer. Manufacturer through retail chains gives a 3 year warranty. Of the shortcomings - the battery quickly sits down, and, therefore, the readings may be inaccurate. With a working battery, it works with minimum errors of 0.1–0.2 ° C.
Omron thermometer is an inexpensive and effective device for measuring temperature in children and adults.
Average price: 720 rubles.
Rating (2018): 4.8
A lot of positive feedback has earned an electronic thermometer Canpol Babies, of Taiwan origin. The readings are stable, although they may differ by 0.8–1 ° C. It has a soft tip that bends and turns, so that the thermometer is perfectly fixed on any part of the body. The device has a special sensor that informs about the end of the measurement. The shell is plastic, the device is lightweight, convenient to take with you. The display is small, but the letters are large, easy to read.
The thermometer is made of safe materials, does not exude odor and does not contain any coloring matter. According to consumer reviews, only measurement time caused discomfort - 3-4 minutes. At this time, you need to maintain the stillness of the child, distracting him with a toy. Resistant in daily use, easy to clean with a regular cloth, even withstand water ingress.
The principle of the bracelet thermometer is a constant temperature control, when the established standard is exceeded, the device sends a warning signal to any electronic device. The gadget allows you to monitor the state of the child while sleeping or walking. Information about the temperature can be transmitted via the Internet to a doctor or stored in the "cloud".
Average price: 2990 rubles.
Rating (2018): 4.6
Turbo Smart Thermometer Bracelet is recommended for children up to 3 years. Easy to use, to manage it is enough to download one of the free applications specified in the instructions, and synchronize the device with your phone or tablet. The device saves data for the day and generates a schedule for lowering and raising the temperature.
The manufacturer gives a 3 year warranty. The strap is made of soft fabric that does not damage the skin of the child. The bracelet practically doesn't bother children, it is difficult for the kid to rip it off independently. Customer reviews confirm the high accuracy of measurements, deviations are possible at 0, 1–0.3 ° C, but only with good fixation. If the thermometer slides down from the armpit, more serious deviations are possible.
In the description of the product there is a phrase that the bracelet thermometer is an auxiliary device for additional control. So use only the bracelet in the treatment of the baby exclusively.
- accurate readings
- cheaper than similar devices
- comfortable in using.
- for accuracy, a tight fixation in the armpit is required.
Country: Japan (China)
Average price: 4150 rub.
Rating (2018): 4.7
The device is designed specifically for kids. Allows without the participation of an adult to measure the temperature even the baby. The strap is easily adjustable and fixed in the armpit. Powered by CR battery. Data is transmitted using Bluetooth 4.0, with a range of up to 18 meters.
Especially important is the device in the first days of the disease, when the temperature rises constantly and spasmodically. The device allows you to find out the status of the baby, without disturbing him or disturbing sleep. The ITherm iFever bracelet thermometer is made of safe materials and even with increased activity, the elements are not dangerous for the child.
You can buy a bracelet thermometer only on the sites of suppliers, in pharmacies you will not find such equipment. The price is 2 times higher than the cost of infrared thermometers.
- the ability to track temperature changes online,
- convenience of use
- data accuracy.
- high price,
- can not be found in the free market.
Restoration of accounting: work order and cost of services
12 tips on how to teach a child to dress yourself
Common to most device for measuring temperature. A glass flask with a capillary that contains mercury. Such a thermometer is also called the maximum, because the column from mercury rises to the last heating point - and does not fall without shaking.
Mercury thermometer is the most accurate, but also the most dangerous because of mercury. It is a dangerous metal for humans, whose vapors adversely affect health.
Breaking such a thermometer can cause serious problems.
Externally similar to mercury, but there is no mercury in it. Instead, a mixture of liquid metals — gallium, indium, and tin. This mixture is called Galinstan. Unlike mercury, it is harmless to humans. If such a thermometer is broken, then you can not run around in a panic around the room, collecting malicious balls.
A minus of Galstanov thermometers - you have to work hard to bring down the performance by at least 3 ° C. Galinstan is not as mobile as mercury and flows through the glass tube of the thermometer with difficulty. This type of thermometer also requires a very tight fit to the body. Without it, the thermometer may show incorrect values.
Which thermometer gives more accurate results?
Have modern measuring instruments surpassed the usual mercury thermometer from childhood? We conducted our own experiment to find out the advantages and disadvantages of all four types of thermometers.
In the laboratory, a tank with water, a heating element and a compressor is installed to evenly distribute the liquid and maintain the set temperature - 36.2 ° C. As a standard measurement tool - mercury, laboratory thermometer verified. Everything is ready for the experiment.
For the experiment, in the nearest pharmacy, we purchased two infrared thermometers, two Galine thermometers, three electronic thermometers, and four ordinary mercury thermometers, one of them in a protective case.
Analyzing the results. The first electronic thermometer showed 36.3 ° С, the second - 36.1 ° С, the third - 35.9 ° С.
We look at the mercury. The thermometer readings in a protective film - 36. 1 ° C, its “neighbor” without a film - the same. From this conclusion - the presence of the film does not affect the result. The third showed 36.2 ° С, the fourth - 36.2 ° С.
Analyzing the readings of Galinstan thermometers. The first is 36.1 ° C, the second is 36.2 ° C.
The last in the experiment involved two infrared thermometers. The first device showed a temperature of 36.3 ° C. The second is 37.1 ° C.
So which thermometer to choose?
The experiment has shown that mercury and galcine thermometers are the most accurate of all. Also, the readings of electronic thermometers are quite correct. All of them are close to real values. One of the infrared thermometers failed the exam.
A mercury thermometer is the most accurate and versatile of all. But such a thermometer must be used with great care. Keep it in a case out of the reach of children.
If you broke the thermometer, consult a specialist, check if dangerous mercury balls are hidden in secret places. Remember: mercury has no smell and its vapors are not visible to the naked eye, and only one broken thermometer can cause chronic poisoning of all people living in the apartment.
The opinion of the Community authors may not coincide with the official position of the Roskontrol organization. Want to add or object? You can do this in the comments or write your own material.
Thermometers to determine body temperature - what they are
For the diagnosis of various diseases can not do without thermometers.
There are different types of thermometers. We list them:
Эти виды медицинских градусников используются для выявления отклонений температуры человеческого тела.
Высокие показатели могут быть свидетельством различных патологий – это может касаться воспалительных заболеваний, болезней головного мозга, онкозаболеваний, прочего.
Принято считать, что показатель должен быть 36,6° С. But this figure may vary due to menstruation, ovulation, or even time of day.
About the principles of operation of various types of thermometers
The electronic thermometer consists of a thermistor, which is the main component of this device.
When the readings fluctuate, it changes the resistance level. To protect the electronic thermometer from damage, its body is made of materials that do not let moisture through.
After the measurement, you can hear a beep. You can find out the result by looking at the display of the medical device.
Electronic medical thermometer: the display shows the body temperature. A transparent case is provided for convenient storage.
A feature of this model is the presence of replaceable caps, they are needed for hygienic purposes, are included.
In order to use an electronic thermometer, you need to press just one button. The result can be seen on the liquid crystal display.
For accurate results, it is better to use it in the rectum or in the mouth.
Advantages of electronic thermometers:
- affordable price,
- a maximum of 3 minutes you can find out the result
- they are safe in operation - even if the device breaks down, it will not bring harm to human health,
- there will be no problems if the device falls into the water or on the floor,
- the presence of additional functions in some devices - they can measure the temperature in the room, remind of the need for what should be measured again,
- You can find completely waterproof models.
There are disadvantages of such devices. We list them:
- If you try to measure the device under the arm, then most likely it will give inaccurate indicators,
- it takes 5 to 10 minutes to measure under the arm, and this is despite the fact that the signal for the end of the process will be heard earlier.
Different types of thermometers allow you to choose any one you like, but the most common is mercury.
His peculiarity is that he can memorize the last reading. Now this product is a leader in sales.
However, mercury is a shipping substance. Fragility - the main drawback of the device. If it is broken, then mercury will pour out.
To minimize damage, mercury varins are sold in capsule shells. Even if the thermometer breaks, the mercury will remain inside the capsule.
We list the advantages of mercury thermometers:
- easy to use
- measure the temperature on different parts of the body.
This type of thermometer has its disadvantages:
- fragile glass,
- mercury is dangerous to human health,
- the device may fall and break,
- If it breaks, you can get hurt by the glass.
The principle of operation of the glass thermometer is based on the fact that mercury is expanding at elevated body temperature: the metal begins to rise through the glass tank.
It is believed that a mercury thermometer is able to give the most reliable indications.
The case is used to store the mercury device. Medpribor need to keep dry, column down.
The above classification of thermometers includes infrared thermometers. They are also used to determine the temperature of the human body.
Infrared models are most often ear thermometers: it is necessary to insert the sensor into the ear, the results will be displayed on the screen. About the end of the procedure will inform the signal, as well as in electronic models.
A feature of such thermometers is the presence of illumination.
The infrared thermometer has its advantages:
- suitable for measuring the temperature of a patient who is unconscious or sleeping,
- you can measure the temperature in newborns,
- It is not necessary to apply the device to the body,
- backlit options are possible,
- To measure, you must wait only 2 seconds.
- very convenient to use,
- the device is also suitable for measuring the temperature of the environment, water,
- Additional features include removable sterile tips and shockproof housing.
This type of thermometer has its drawbacks:
- high price,
- not suitable for measuring basal temperature.
The work of such devices is based on the presence of a hypersensitive component that responds to infrared rays emanating from the human body.
All information is displayed on a liquid crystal display. The fact that the device has completed its work can be recognized by an audible signal.
If the device is illuminated, then you can see the readings even at night.
Let's tell about rectal thermometers. Before using them, you must read the instructions.
With the help of such devices you can monitor the state of human health. This device is able to show the temperature measured in the anus.
Usually they are used by women. With the help of such thermometers, you can monitor the state of the childbearing function, which will help to learn the hormonal background on different days.
Also, such a thermometer is used to measure body temperature in children - this should be done only when the child is calm.
Thermometer must be inserted into the anus a maximum of 5 centimeters. It is recommended to use lubrication during the procedure. For this fit children's cream or lubricant.
Wait a few minutes, then take out the thermometer and look at the figures. After use, the tip of the device is treated with an antibacterial cloth.
Use of a rectal thermometer
Such thermometers can still be called digital.
We list the advantages of such thermometers:
- after the end of the measurement a beep is heard,
- Good for children under 3 years old,
- the convenience of use,
- since the sensor is located on the tip, it is not necessary to enter it too deeply to measure.
Also, these thermometers have their drawbacks:
- high price.
Thermometer on the forehead
To quickly measure the temperature, use a thermometer on the forehead. They can be both electronic and in the form of stickers.
To measure, the forehead must be clean and dry. The thermometer is applied to the middle of the forehead, while the device should be held on both sides. Do not touch the numbers with your fingers.
If you use a sticker, then 20 seconds is enough to find out the temperature. The use of a thermometer sticker under bright lamps or direct sunlight is prohibited.
Advantages of such thermometers-stickers:
- they can be used many times
- they take temperature as quickly as possible,
- small size
- no batteries needed for work,
- there are no mercury and components harmful to humans,
- especially convenient to use when traveling,
- can be used to measure the temperature of sleeping children,
- they can be used to monitor whether the temperature drops.
Of the minuses can be noted the following:
- the adhesive layer loses its properties over time, so you have to press the thermometer-sticker to the forehead with your hands.
Liquid thermometers can also be used. They are also called technical.
It consists of a scale, a capillary tube, a liquid, an overflow chamber, a thermometer bulb.
Its principle of operation is in the properties of liquids to expand and contract.
When the liquid is heated, its expansion occurs, the liquid begins to rise through the capillary tube, which signals a rise in temperature.
Pluses of liquid thermometers:
- widespread use
- high measurement accuracy
- ease of use.
They also have their disadvantages:
- it is impossible to automatically record the readings,
- poor visibility of the scale.
A manometric instrument is used to measure the temperature of gaseous and liquid neutral media.
The principle of the device is based on measuring the pressure of a substance enclosed in a confined space. The indicators are influenced by the temperature of the sensing element.
We talked about the pathogenesis of fever here.
But have you ever wondered why the figure of 36.6 is considered a normal temperature?
Back in the 19th century, a German doctor by the name of Wunderlich analyzed data measuring body temperature in 25,000 patients (there were more than a million studies in total). And I found out that the average temperature of those who recovered was 36.6 degrees. The measurement was carried out in the armpit with a mercury thermometer.
This temperature is normal for 90% of people. Fluctuations from this figure in this and the other direction can be 0.4-0.5 °.
But 10% of people have their own temperature, which is different from the average. For example, for one of my friends, the normal temperature is 35.5 °.
And for someone it is 37-37,2 °. And do not need to carry out endless surveys and look for the source of infection. Once checked, everything is OK everywhere, and calm down.
In children of the first year of life, the balance between heat generation in the body and heat transfer has not yet been established. Therefore, the cry, the accumulation of gases in the intestines, excessive coiling, heat in the apartment can increase the temperature of the body under the armpit to 37.5 - 37.7 °.
If the child is active, smiles, plays, eats well and sleeps well, he is healthy!
By old age, normal body temperature decreases. Increased, by the way, too, because the body's response to viruses — bacteria is not so bright.
Other factors affecting body temperature
If a person is healthy, body temperature is also affected by:
- Time of day: the morning is usually less than the evening.
- Ambient temperature, because measuring the temperature of the armpit, we actually measure the temperature of the skin surface.
- Previous physical activity, food, shower, bath.
- Method of measurement: armpit figures below, oral and rectal - above.
- Phase of the menstrual cycle in women. I suppose you know that by the temperature, measured rectally every morning, you can determine the day of ovulation, when the temperature drops and then goes sharply. According to this behavior, the temperature curve establishes the most favorable days for conception:
Medical mercury thermometer
Mercury that is in the tip of the thermometer expands and rises along the glass capillary as the temperature rises, stopping at the figure of the maximum body temperature. Therefore, such a thermometer is also called "maximum".
- High accuracy (accuracy of only 0.1 °).
- Ease of use. No need to delve into the instructions and understand the nuances of measurements.
- Battery independence.
- Durability when used carefully.
- Danger of serious poisoning if the thermometer broke.
- Long receiving results: in 7-10 minutes. Therefore, there are difficulties with the measurement of body temperature in children.
But the good old mercury thermometer, which was used by us, our parents and grandparents, gradually goes down in history.
In Japan, there is a town called Minamata. And in it is a chemical plant that produced acetic acid using mercury sulfate. For more than 30 years, the plant has discharged liquid production wastes into Minamata Bay. There were a lot of fish and mollusks in it, which the inhabitants of the town ate.
For years, they suffered from an unknown disease, which was later called Minamata disease. It was accompanied by a violation of movements, psyche, vision, hearing, speech, numbness of the limbs. In severe cases, paralysis developed, and people died.
The link between the plant and the disease was not established immediately. It is believed that about 50 thousand people died from this disease.
In 2013, 90 countries signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, which provides for the complete abandonment of this metal in various industries where it is used. In 2014, another 28 countries joined the convention, including Russia. We will have a complete cessation of production using mercury by 2020.
What if a person inadvertently swallowed a mercury ball?
Experts say that it is not mercury itself that is dangerous, but its vapors. Allegedly in the body mercury balls behave quieter than water, below the grass, i.e. not absorbed and can not do any mischief. So, as they entered, they will come out. But to consult a doctor will not be superfluous.
If you have not done so, you can collect a few days the waste products of a human individual, regaled with mercury. And then call the Ministry of Emergency Situations and present them the collected "wealth" to neutralize the dangerous metal and protect the environment. 🙂
What to do if a mercury thermometer was broken and mercury scattered across the floor?
Keep in mind that mercury vapor is extremely toxic! Evaporation starts at a temperature of + 18 °.
Mercury vapor poisoning is manifested by the following symptoms:
- Metallic taste in mouth.
- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain.
- Pain when swallowing.
- Lack of appetite.
- Cough, shortness of breath.
- Worse sleep
- Memory loss
I believe that you can be addressed with this problem, so I decided to tell you the plan of action in this case.
So, if a mercury thermometer crashed, and mercury scattered:
- Remove from the room where it happened, children, pregnant, elderly.
- Open the window, close the door so that the drafts do not spread through the apartment.
- Call the service for the elimination of mercury pollution (if any in your city), the Ministry of Emergency Situations or the SES. If this is for some reason impossible, then we do everything described below.
- Wear plastic bags (shoe covers) on your feet, gloves on your hands, and a wet gauze bandage on your face.
- Take sheets of paper, tape or adhesive tape, syringe, brush.
- Prepare a jar with this solution: for 1 liter of water 40 g of soap and 50 g of soda. It deactivates mercury vapor.
- Collect the shards of the thermometer - in the jar.
- Collect large mercury balls with a brush and a sheet of paper - into a jar.
- Small balls - using scotch or douche. In the jar.
- The syringe is also then placed in a jar, and for recycling.
- Check the floors with a flashlight.
- Treat floors and flooring, if any, with the same solution: 40 g of soap and 50 g of soda are used per 1 l of water.
You can not: waving a broom or a rag, turn on the vacuum cleaner, throw mercury into the sewer or garbage disposal.
Disposal is carried out by special services.
So after all these events we close the jar tightly with a lid and look for information about them on the Internet.
Go to the next type of thermometers.
Medical electronic thermometer
Since they are the most in the market now, be especially careful in this place.
Medical electronic thermometer has a metal tip, which changes its conductivity depending on body temperature. Changes are recorded by the device, translating them into familiar degrees.
- High measurement accuracy (0.1 ° error).
- Faster result compared to mercury.
- Simplicity and ease of use.
- Affordable price.
- Additional functions (memory, backlight, sound signal, etc.)
- The need to carefully study the instructions before using it. 🙂
- Dependence on batteries.
I see how rotten tomatoes have already flown into me for "high measurement accuracy."
Yes, friends, I was not mistaken. Their accuracy is the same as mercury. This is indicated by numerous tests that compare the accuracy of several types of thermometers with a reference one.
Besides, I have no reason to not trust the well-known medical equipment manufacturing companies.
And the whole problem is this:
- In Russia and the countries of the former USSR, they are accustomed to measuring the temperature of the armpit, whereas in many other countries - in the mouth or rectally. I remember how about 15 years ago I was surprised by an episode in a foreign film, where my mother put a thermometer in her mouth to her daughter.
Do you know the Russian manufacturer of medical thermometers? So I do not know. Therefore, all the marketing tricks about the measurement speed that the manufacturer writes on the package are true, and nothing but the truth. But only for the consumer, accustomed to measure the temperature orally or rectally.
- When the manufacturer writes “OT measurement time is 10 seconds, then this is indeed“ OT ”, not“ 10 seconds ”.
- We have forgotten how to read. Now, at best, we only “scan” the instructions, hoping to get the same result in 10 seconds as in 10 minutes of measurement with a mercury thermometer.
The main "heat carrying" environment of the body is blood. The less tissue separates it from the tip of the thermometer, the faster their temperature will level off, i.e. the tip will heat up faster.
In the production of their thermometers, companies are guided by the traditions of residents of their countries, where the measurement is performed rectally (for young children) and in the oral cavity (for all others).
The blood and the tip both in the rectum and in the oral cavity are separated from each other by a thin layer of mucous, so here it heats up quickly.
Now remember the structure and thickness of the skin when we place the thermometer in the armpit. Therefore, the time required to heat the tip with the method of temperature measurement favorite by Russians is incomparably longer!
That is why armpit temperature measurement with an electronic thermometer should take 4-5 minutes on average.
And what does the first sound signal mean after the start of measurement?
It means that the rate of change in the temperature of the thermometer has decreased, and now the temperature increase is less than 0.1 ° in 8 or 16 seconds. (depends on model).
But this does not mean that the measurement is completed!
The temperature after the first beep is approximate, and the measurement needs to be continued for some time to get an accurate result.
Friends! I do not discover America. This is written in the instructions.
It must be borne in mind:
Oral temperature is 0.3-0.6 ° more axillary (axillary).
Rectal temperature is 0.6-1.2 ° greater than axillary.
13 советов покупателю при продаже электронного термометра
In order to make the temperature measurement with an electronic thermometer as accurate as possible, and you have diminished the headache while selling this product, you can copy, print and give the buyer the following memo:
Tip 1. After eating, taking a bath, shower, physical activity, measure the temperature after 30 minutes.
Tip 2. After returning from the street in the cold season, measure the temperature after 30 minutes.
Tip 3. If the thermometer is intended for an infant, do not measure during or immediately after feeding.
Tip 4. If the underarm is wet, wipe off the sweat with a dry towel before measuring.
Tip 5. After the first beep, continue the measurement according to the instructions (the brightest thermometers measure 1.5-2 minutes, but more often 4-5 minutes).
Tip 6. Always measure in the same armpit, as the values under different armpits may differ.
Tip 7. When measuring in the armpit, it is important that the arm is tightly pressed to the body. SMALL skin loosening may result in inaccurate measurements and premature beeping. Therefore, if you measure a child, sit with him and hold his hand.
Tip 8. The tip should be strictly in the armpit, and not go beyond it.
Tip 9. To accurately measure the temperature in the armpit, put the thermometer in the armpit off and hold it with your hand to warm it, and only after 30 seconds turn it on.
Tip 10. In order for the battery to last longer, turn off the thermometer immediately after measurement.
Tip 11. Pay attention to the battery status by the icon on the display. If it is discharged, the thermometer will show incorrect values. Replace it promptly.
Tip 12. Do not store the thermometer in high humidity places near batteries.
Tip 13. During the measurement, place the electronic thermometer not perpendicular to the body, but along the body, placing the tip in the center of the axillary fossa and pressing it with your hand.
Surprised? I myself was surprised until I got to study, in my opinion, in Omron. But I can be wrong.
For the most part, we incorrectly put a thermometer. It is necessary to bury him in the center of the armpit. It would look something like this:
This is especially important when measuring the temperature with an electronic thermometer, since its tip is in most cases less mercury, and the probability of incomplete contact with the skin increases. Hence, inaccurate values, customer dissatisfaction, difficult situations.
How to measure body temperature in the mouth?
- Oral temperature is measured, starting at about 4 years of age, because a person must understand that you do not need a thermometer with your teeth.
- The tip of the thermometer is placed in the sublingual region on the right or on the left and slightly held onto the tongue. Close your lips, breathe through your nose so that the mouth does not cool, and the measurement was accurate.
- It is impossible to carry out such a measurement immediately after drinking cold or hot drinks. You need to wait about 30 minutes.
- It is not recommended to measure the temperature in the mouth of children with increased nervous excitability, mentally ill people.
- It will not be possible to measure the temperature in this way correctly for persons with a violation of nasal breathing (runny nose, adenoids).
- Time to measure the temperature in the mouth of 10 seconds. up to 2 min It depends on the thermometer model.
- The normal temperature with this method of measurement in most cases is 36.8-37.3 °.
How to measure temperature rectally?
- Rectal temperature is measured for infants, impaired patients, unconscious persons.
- Rectal temperature is measured by women to determine days favorable for conception.
- Babies are placed on the tummy or back, raising the legs, it is most convenient for adults to do this in the position on the side.
- Before the introduction, the tip of the thermometer is smeared with baby cream and injected to a depth of 1-1.5 cm for children, adults - to a depth of 1.5-2 cm.
- The buttocks should be squeezed and held until the end of the measurement. On average, it takes 2-3 minutes (depending on the device model).
- To determine the time of ovulation, women are recommended to take measurements in the morning after waking up at the same time.
- Rectal temperature of 37.3-37.7 ° (most) is considered normal.
- Rectal measurement should not be performed for hemorrhoids, rectal fissures, diarrhea, in the case of proctitis.
Electronic thermometer specifications
Run through some characteristics of electronic thermometers. What are their advantages for customers?
Friends, I am preparing a cheat sheet for you, so the characteristics of popular models of thermometers will be in front of your eyes. I will send one of these days. Do not hesitate to use it, selling a medical thermometer.
Measurement time Once again I draw your attention that the time indicated on the package is approximate. After the beep, the measurement should be continued for another 1-5 minutes (as indicated in the instructions).
If the thermometer is taken to the children, then the optimal models that allow you to get an accurate result in 1-2 minutes.
Sound signal. In my opinion, this feature only confuses the user.
But in some thermometers, at elevated temperatures, the signal frequency or its character changes, which allows not only to see, but also to “hear” the problem.
Memory on the last dimension. When the device is turned on, the result of the last measurement is usually displayed, so you can compare what was and what is now.
Waterproof case. Such a thermometer can be washed, lowered into the des. wipe the solution with a damp cloth.
Replaceable battery. Not all models have the ability to replace the battery. Such devices will work only as long as the battery does not sit down. And then you need to change the thermometer.
Antiallergic tip. He looks gilded. Why do you need it? The fact is that in some individuals skin contact with metal (belt buckle, metal rivets) cause skin irritation. The same irritation of the skin of the armpit may occur if they measure the temperature with a conventional thermometer with a nickel tip. A thermometer with a gold-plated tip will be what they need.
Auto power off. Convenient feature. If you forgot to turn off the thermometer, it will turn itself off. Only this happens in most models in 10 minutes. To ensure that the battery lasts longer, it is better to turn off the device immediately after use.
Flexible tip. Almost every brand offers such models. Flexible tip is not cold, does not slip over the body, can not injure the mucous membrane during rectal use.
In addition, it fits more tightly to the body, because it adapts to its curves. In short, this model is more convenient to use. On packages, thermometers with a flexible tip are depicted like this:
The range of pharmacies has a bright design thermometers made specifically for children:
And there are thermometers, nipples. But honestly, I don't like them.
First, not every baby sucks a pacifier. Or he will spit it out during his illness. Here you can not guess.
Secondly, during ARVI, he often has a stuffy nose, and you cannot measure the temperature with such a device.