Hypochromuria in urine analysis: what it is and why it is dangerous
Hypochromuria in urine analysis is a weak coloration, which is most common in polyuria, diabetes mellitus, and in renal failure in the chronic stage. In order for the study to be carried out qualitatively, the patient must pass the morning portion of urine. During the study, experts determine its transparency, color, smell, density, pH, the presence or absence of protein, the number of leukocytes, red blood cells, epithelial cells, salts and other indicators.
What can be said about transparency
The transparency of the analysis is determined visually. The urine is poured into a transparent tube and evaluated. For this look at her appearance. What color is it, is there any sediment? Normally, it should be completely transparent. If you leave it to stand for a long time, then it may be a certain amount of mucus, lipids, bacteria and cell elements. Why the turbidity of urine has occurred is determined by chemical analysis and microscopic examination.
The turbidity in the urine can disappear if drip of diluted hydrochloric acid is dropped into it, which means that the amount of oxalate is increased. When potassium alkali is added, turbid urine may become transparent, that is, it contains uric acid crystals. Lipuria is diagnosed by the addition of ether to the biological fluid under study, and if the color becomes transparent, the lipid content is clearly elevated.
What does color say
The color of urine is determined and visually, it is examined in transmitted and reflected light. When a child is just born, his urine is practically not colored, and after a couple of days it becomes amber-brown. This suggests that a large number of urats stood out. At preschool age, urine becomes yellow-straw color in children, at older age, it can be either straw or amber-yellow.
Natural coloring depends on the presence of urochrome.
If the color is very intense, then this indicates hepatic, heart disease, hyperthyroidism, various hemolytic pathologies. Increased temperature, toxicosis, heavy sweating, vomiting and diarrhea can lead to a significant decrease in the amount of urine. In this case, talking about hypochromuria. This pathology is observed in diabetes mellitus, renal failure and a number of other diseases. In this case, the test liquid is slightly colored.
The color of the analysis directly depends not only on the pathological processes, but also on the intake of certain drugs or on food products that a person uses. For example, a more colored liquid becomes after eating beets, blueberries or carrots.
If we talk about diseases that can be diagnosed by the color of urine, then it looks like this:
- colorless liquid can be when taking alcohol or beginning diabetes,
- milky white urine occurs during chyluria or purulent processes in the urinary tract,
- Orange indicates fever or increased sweating in the hot season,
- Red says hemoglobinuria or gross hematuria,
- dark, rich yellow color, sometimes with the presence of a greenish or brown tint indicates jaundice or urinary bile pigments,
- if there is pus in the urine, then it becomes yellow-green,
- dark yellow, dark brown or brown-red color indicate its strong concentration, elevated temperature or bilirubinuria,
- if there is bleeding in the urinary tract, as well as in porphyria and hemoglobinuria, the urine may become black, brown, or black-brown.
As mentioned above, urine changes its color while taking medications. The red color can be caused by taking Amidopyrine, Antipyrine, Santonin, if the patient has taken Acetylsalicylic acid (especially in large quantities), then the urine may become pink. When taking Cresol and activated carbon, the urine turns brown. Dark brown urine happens when taking Naftol, Sanola.
What gives the smell?
Normal urine should have only a slight odor, which is explained by the fact that it contains some volatile substances. If it smells harsh, then this is due to the urinoid content in it. The smell of rotting apples suggests that there is acetone in the urine, such a phenomenon can occur in diabetes. We must not forget that drugs can also change the smell.
What to do if revealed hypochromuria
Hypochromuria is just a laboratory indicator. First of all, it is necessary to exclude drugs and food products that may affect coloring, this can be observed with very heavy drinking or when taking diuretic drugs. In addition to color, other physical and chemical changes in urine must be taken into account. Sometimes weakly colored urine is explained quite simply. This may be an incorrect sampling of the analysis or the patient on the eve drank a lot of liquid and thus collected highly diluted urine.
However, if during the retake of the analysis, hypochromuria is still detected, then we are talking about systemic diseases. In such cases, it is worth contacting a physician, and then to a specialist and undergo a full examination.
Causes of hypochromuria
Hypochromuria may be due to natural and pathological factors.
Natural factors that discolor urine include:
- Drug intake ("Furasemid", decoctions of herbs and infusions).
- Age. As a rule, in children urine is lighter, in infants the pigments for coloring are not yet formed.
- The amount of fluid you drink (from 2 liters). The more water gets into the body, the less concentrated will be the staining of urine.
- Physical exercise.
- Ambient temperature and other climatic conditions.
- Acceptance of diuretic drugs (diuretics).
- Eating certain foods that have diuretic properties.
- In its composition containing dyes or substances that are capable of discoloration of urine: watermelon, cucumber, berries, juices, milk, beer, citrus, bananas, grapes, parsley, grapes.
The most dangerous reasons for which urine becomes light yellow are such diseases:
- Sugar or diabetes insipidus. Under the influence of glucose, the cells are dehydrated, the water goes into the bloodstream and exits through the kidneys. In this case, the patient feels constant thirst, begins to drink a lot of fluid and urine becomes less concentrated. And it also has the smell of sour apples. Urine in such patients in the morning and evening has the same bright color, watery or pale. About the disease may indicate the same colorless color of feces.
- Liver problems (cirrhosis, hepatitis). Due to liver dysfunction and liver tissue degradation, light flakes (fat) appear in the urine, and the urine itself acquires a light yellow or whitish color.
- Kidney failure and other kidney diseases (urolithiasis, pyelonephritis, nephrosclerosis) - the smell becomes similar to acetone, a large amount of urine is released during the day, it becomes colorless and soapy. Patients often feel lower back pain.
- Cystitis - when the disease becomes frequent urination, bladder pigments do not have time to paint urine.
The main reasons for when urine is white-yellow are:
- Hormonal failure in women (especially during pregnancy).
- Sperm in the urethra or urinary canal in men after ejaculation. After urination, the color of urine is normalized, it becomes normal color.
What is dangerous hypochromuria
If all indicators in the urine analysis are normal, except for the presence of hypochromuria, it is necessary to stop taking medications, exclude the use of food products that remove the yellow color in the urine, and repeat repeated clinical studies.
Hypochromuria may also indicate dangerous pathological diseases, disorders of the internal organs. If you find a deviation in other indicators of urine, you need to find out the cause and begin to treat the disease. In case of delayed treatment, the patient’s condition may worsen and lead to death.
Hypochromuria is detected by clinical examinations of morning urine (general analysis) and color test. If it is detected, it is necessary to examine the doctor, who may additionally order a re-examination of the urine or additional examinations and tests (biochemical analyzes of urine, blood, ultrasound diagnostics of the kidneys, liver, tests for liver tests, glucose tests, etc.).
For the diagnosis of diabetes, the doctor may prescribe a urine test according to Nechyporenko, a sample according to Zimnitsky, analysis of daily diuresis, determination of glucose in daily urine.
In cystitis, a sample is taken for urine sterility and urine analysis according to Nechyporenko. In case of kidney failure - Reberga-Tareev's test and according to Zimnitsky.
In some cases, the doctor may additionally refer to a CT scan or MRI or a contrast image of the kidneys.
What to do and how to treat
To the urine has become a normal color is:
- Reduce the amount of fluid you drink per day.
- Check the ability of the drugs taken to clear the urine.
- Stop eating foods that clean the color of the urine.
As a rule, hypochromuria is a non-hazardous phenomenon, often occurring not due to pathological problems, but through physiological reasons. If the violation of the indicator does not pass, it is necessary to contact the therapist or pediatrician (hypochromuria in children) and undergo a comprehensive diagnosis of the identified problem.
You should also carry out preventive measures and procedures:
- With infections of the genitourinary system, it is necessary to increase fluid intake, do not delay urination (do not tolerate).
- When urolithiasis, drink plenty of water, reduce the use of salt, protein foods and eliminate certain types of plant foods.
Immediately you need to consult a doctor with light urine in combination with severe symptoms:
- Pain in the abdomen, lower back.
- Constant thirst for drink.
- General poor health, fatigue.
- Emptying feces.
- Increased body temperature.
- Frequent desire to urinate.
- Burning and discomfort in the urethra when urinating.
- Pregnancy and breastfeeding.
- Other symptoms, as well as acute viral infections on the background of hypochromia.
Determination of hypochromuria
This indicator in the analysis indicates only the color of the urine. Pale or colorless urine occurs in newborns due to physiological factors such as:
- the use of a crumb of a large amount of liquid
- frequent urination,
- taking certain medications
- eating foods with a pronounced diuretic effect. For example, juicy fruit.
It can be triggered by the following diseases: thromuronephritis, urolithiasis, and pyelonephritis. Pathology can be indicated by such signs as back pain (it can be felt only from one side or both), copious and frequent excretion of urine, called polyuria in medicine.
It appears, as a rule, at night. The name of this phenomenon is nocturia. If, in addition to the transparent color of the urine, such an indicator of acetone-like odor is noted, then the infant has begun to develop an inflammatory process,
The main function of glucose is the transfer of water. If its amount increases in the blood, the fluid from the intercellular space begins to cross the bloodstream. Because of this, dehydration of cells occurs. As a baby, this pathology is felt as constant thirst. He begins to consume a lot of fluid, resulting in frequent urination. Urine becomes discolored, and this color in children with diabetes mellitus is observed not only in the morning, but in the evening.
Due to inflammation of the bladder, a spasm of the muscular wall can develop if it enters and accumulates a significant amount of fluid in it.
Fatty liver, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis
The color of urine takes on a white color due to the presence of a significant amount of fat. Indicators of urine analysis, such as vesicles and flakes on the surface, also indicate liver disease. In addition to changing the color of urine, there is a change and color stool. It also becomes fairly light. This phenomenon is due to the fact that the synthesis of bile pigments was disturbed in the liver. In addition, abdominal pain occurs in a child with liver pathologies. Most often they are felt in the right hypochondrium area.
Attention! It is possible to distinguish renal pathologies from diabetes mellitus using such an indicator in the urine analysis as density. So, its low value indicates the first type of diseases, and high - the second.
Hypochromuria in the analysis of urine: what to do
To return urine to a normal color, you should:
- if you constantly give your child plenty of fluid, then reduce its amount,
- check the effects of drugs taken by the child. If they have a diuretic effect, then ask the pediatrician to change them to analogues that do not have such an effect,
- Do not let the baby eat large quantities of food that may change the color of the urine.
After completing all the above steps, pass the urine test again. If hypochromuria has not disappeared, then the reason for its appearance is not natural processes, but pathological ones. To resolve the problem, you should contact your pediatrician, who will prescribe a full examination. He can also send the baby to the reception to a specialist.
You should not worry when such an indicator as hypochromuria is detected in the urine analysis of an infant. Very rarely, he points to pathological processes in the body. More often, the material was simply assembled incorrectly, or the baby drank too much liquid the day before. Transparent color of urine can be not only in children, but also adults. In addition to the above reasons, their appearance in them may be associated with superstrong physical exertion.
Urinalysis - norm and pathology
Various pathological processes affecting the kidneys and urinary tract, affect the properties of urine, so its study is important for the diagnosis of diseases. Most often, a general urine test is performed. The rate of this analysis indicates not only the normal functioning of the kidneys, but also other organs.
As a rule, examine the morning urine collected in a dry, clean container in an amount up to 200 ml. The general analysis consists of three parts, including physical indicators, chemical indicators and microscopy of the urinary sediment.
Urinalysis: the rate of physical indicators
The physical indicators of the overall analysis include the quantity, color, smell, specific gravity and transparency.
The color of urine is determined by the content of urochrome, urobilin and other substances. Normally, it may be a yellow shade of varying intensity and depends on the concentration. A change in color is associated with the appearance of a large number of red blood cells and bile pigments, which is always a symptom of pathology.
The smell of urine is normally specific, but not sharp. Often it is compared to the smell of freshly mown hay. Decaying urine has a pronounced ammonia odor. In the presence of ketone bodies, it acquires the smell of rotten apples.
The specific gravity varies widely and depends on the concentration of salts, urea, and in pathology, sugar and protein. Normally, the specific gravity is determined from 1015 to 1028. Stably high specific gravity is determined in case of diabetes mellitus, low - in case of renal failure.
Urine should normally be clear. Turbidity can be caused by the presence of salts, mucus, bacteria, blood corpuscles.
Urinalysis: the rate of chemical indicators
Chemical indicators of urine are its reaction, as well as the presence of protein, sugar, bile pigments, bile acids, urobilin, ketone bodies.
An important indicator is the reaction of urine. The blood reaction is maintained at a stable level due to the ability of the kidneys to excrete hydrogen ions and bicarbonates from the body. The average pH of urine in the normal range of about 6.0.
There should be no other chemical indicators. Traces of protein and a small amount of ketone bodies are allowed.
The increase in acidity occurs in renal failure, diabetes, urolithiasis, kidney tuberculosis and other diseases. Urine acquires an alkaline reaction with vomiting, chronic urinary tract infections, with the use of mainly plant foods, alkaline mineral water.
The appearance of protein occurs in all kidney diseases with lesions of the nephrons. Glycosuria, that is, the presence of sugar in the urine appears in diabetes mellitus, as well as in liver cirrhosis and thyrotoxicosis. Bilirubinuria is observed in liver diseases.
Urinalysis: microscopy rate of sediment
Microscopy of the urinary sediment is necessary in order to determine such substances that are part of the urine, which are in the form of a suspension and can not be determined by chemical research. Blood elements, epithelial cells, cylinders, salt crystals and bacteria are determined in the sediment. An important indicator that reflects the general analysis of urine - leukocytes. Норма этого показателя – единичные лейкоциты в поле зрения.In the urine of a healthy person, single erythrocytes, a small number of squamous cells, and single hyaline cylinders can also be detected.
An increase in the number of erythrocytes is called hematuria and happens when a renal tissue is damaged, traumatizing the urinary tract with sand or stone, or a pathology of the bladder.
Leukocyturia, that is, a significant number of white blood cells during microscopy occurs during the inflammatory process in the kidneys or urinary tract. The same can be said about a large number of epithelial cells, the appearance of which in large numbers also happens during intoxication and infectious diseases.
Salt crystals in the form of urates, oxalates and phosphates are formed during urolithiasis.
Normally, urine is sterile, the appearance of bacteria in it indicates the presence of bacterial inflammation of the urinary tract.
We reviewed what the general urine analysis shows. Any deviations from normal values require attention, as they can be a symptom of a pathology of the kidneys or other organs.
GENERAL PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF URINE
General properties of urine
The amount of urine excreted per day (diuresis) in normal adults varies from 1000 to 2000 ml and averages 50–80% of the volume of fluids taken. A daily amount of urine below 500 ml and above 2000 ml in adults is considered pathological. An increase in the volume of urine (polyuria) is observed when taking a large amount of fluid, eating nutrients that increase diuresis (watermelon, pumpkin, etc.). In pathology, polyuria is noted in cases of kidney diseases (chronic nephritis and pyelonephritis), diabetes mellitus and other pathological conditions. A large amount of urine is excreted with diabetes insipidus (diabetes insipidus) - 15 liters per day or more.
A decrease in the daily amount of urine (oliguria) is observed with insufficient fluid intake, feverish conditions (a significant amount of water is removed from the body through the skin), vomiting, diarrhea, toxicosis, acute nephritis, etc. In case of severe lesions of the renal parenchyma (in acute diffuse nephritis), urolithiasis (blockage of the ureters), lead poisoning, mercury, arsenic, with strong nervous shocks, an almost complete cessation of urine excretion (anuria) is possible. Prolonged anuria leads to uremia.
Normally, more urine is secreted during the day than at night. The ratio between day and night diuresis is from 4: 1 to 3: 1. In some pathological conditions (initial forms of cardiac decompensation, cystopielitis, etc.), urine is excreted in larger quantities at night than during the day. This condition is called nocturia.
The color of urine normally ranges from straw yellow to saturated yellow. The color of urine depends on the content of pigments in it: urochrome, urobilin, uroerythrin, urosein, etc.
Urine saturated yellow color is usually concentrated, has a high density and is released in a relatively small amount. Pale (straw-colored) urine often has a low relative density and is excreted in large quantities.
In pathology, the color of urine may be red, green, brown, etc. depending on the presence in it is not found in normal dyes. For example, red or pink-red urine is observed with hematuria and hemoglobinuria, as well as after taking antipyrine, amidopyrine, santonin and other drugs. Brown or reddish brown color is found at high concentrations in the urine of urobilin and bilirubin.
Stercobilinogen is absorbed into the urine of a healthy person in very small quantities, absorbed through the system of hemorrhoidal veins. In the light and in the air, the colorless sterkobilinogen is oxidized to a colored pigment (stercobi-lin) (see Chapter 16). As noted, in clinical practice, urine stercobilin is often called urobilin. In diseases of the liver, when it loses the ability to destroy mesobilicogen (urobilinogen) absorbed from the small intestine to di- and tripyrroles, urobilinogen appears in the urine in large quantities (it turns into urobilin in light and in air). In such cases, the urine becomes dark in color.
Green or blue color of urine is observed when methylene blue is introduced into the body, as well as intensification of the processes of protein decay in the intestine. In the latter case, an increased amount of indoxylsulfuric acids appears in the urine, which can decompose to form indigo.
Normal urine is clear. Turbidity of urine can be caused by salts, cellular elements, bacteria, mucus, fat (Lipuria). The cause of urine turbidity can be determined either under a microscope (examination of urine sediment), or by chemical analysis.
The relative density of urine in an adult during the day varies within fairly wide limits (from 1.002 to 1.035), which is associated with the periodic ingestion of food, water and loss of body fluids (sweating, etc.). More often it is equal 1,012-1,020. The density of urine gives a certain idea of the amount of substances dissolved in it. From 50 to 75 g of solid substances are excreted in the urine per day. Approximate calculation of the content of dense residue in the urine (in grams per 1 liter) can be made by multiplying the last two figures of the relative density by a factor of 2.6.
In severe kidney failure, urine is secreted all the time with the same relative density equal to the density of the primary urine, or ultrafiltrate (
1,010). This condition is called isostenuria.
Constantly low urine density indicates a violation of the concentration of kidney function in chronic nephritis, primary or secondary shriveled kidney. In diabetes mellitus, low-density urine is also excreted (1.001–1.004), which is associated with impaired reverse reabsorption of water in the tubules. When oliguria (lowering the daily amount of urine), for example, in acute nephritis, urine has a high density. High density is characteristic of diabetes with polyuria, in this case it is due to the content in the urine of a large amount of glucose.
The reaction of urine (pH) is normal when mixed foods are acidic or slightly acidic (pH 5.3–6.5). Usually, from 40 to 75 meq of acids are excreted in the urine in a day. The nature of the food affects the pH of the urine. When consuming mainly meat food, urine has a more acidic reaction; when it is a vegetable diet, the urine reaction is alkaline.
The acid reaction of urine in humans depends on the presence of mainly mono-substituted phosphates (eg, KH2PO4 or Nah3PO4). In alkaline urine, disubstituted phosphates or potassium or sodium bicarbonates prevail.
A sharply acid reaction of urine is observed in febrile states, diabetes mellitus (especially in the presence of ketone bodies in the urine), fasting, etc. Alkaline urine is observed in cystitis and pyelites (microorganisms are able to decompose urea to form ammonia already in the bladder cavity), after severe vomiting, taking certain medications (for example, sodium bicarbonate), using alkaline mineral water, etc.
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Hypochromuria in the analysis in infants
Many young mothers, worrying about the health of their baby, are trying to understand all the medical terms that are found in his card. They study various survey indicators, try to determine if they are normal or not in their child.
Hypochromuria in the analysis of urine in infants is often observed. As a rule, it has a physiological character and only in very rare cases - pathological. What is this indicator and what does it indicate?
Why urine is colorless like water: causes of hypochromuria
Urine color can tell a lot about the state of the body. Is clear urine an alarm or a normal occurrence? Alertness in this matter will not be superfluous, since, apart from the causes of easily removable and completely harmless causes, quite serious diseases can lead to discoloration of urine.
Urine color is normal
Normally, the fluid secreted by the kidneys is stained with urochrome, urobilin, uroerythrin, urosein pigments. These dye substances are formed in the process of destruction of red blood cells, some of which are spent on the synthesis of bile acids. The amount of waste depends on many factors, but in a healthy organism there are no large fluctuations in the metabolism, therefore, normally, urine has a light yellow color.
However, the shade of urine may depend on age, amount of water consumed, exercise, frequency of urination, food eaten, etc. With a full bladder, it oxidizes and becomes darker in color. The baby urinates more often than an adult. This means that the residence time of the fluid in the bubble is very short, and it simply does not have time to color. The younger the baby, the lighter the urine is released. Urine also does not take proper color if you drink a lot of fluid. Then the share of each portion of urine has less dyes. If several liters of water or juice were drunk during the day, or many juicy fruits were eaten, urine can stand out, almost as clear as water.
Natural and artificial diuretics
Diuretics are substances that stimulate the excretion of urine by the kidneys. The cells of the paired organ have many receptors that capture the slightest fluctuations in blood pressure, acid-base balance and other important parameters. Of the drugs with a diuretic effect, furosemide (Lasix), veroshpiron, hypothiazide, etc. will be used to treat hypertension and edema.
The following products have a natural diuretic effect:
- Tomato, cherry, fig, beet, pineapple, apricot, dried apricots, lemon, banana, grapes. In addition to vitamins, they contain large amounts of potassium. The intake of large amounts of potassium by the body stimulates the production of the hormone aldosterone in the adrenal glands, which has a diuretic effect.
- Watermelon, cucumber and other juicy fruits and vegetables.
- Coffee and tea (especially green), or rather, the caffeine that is part of them.
- Buckwheat (contains rutin substance that acts as a soft diuretic).
- Greens and seasonings (parsley, celery, ginger, dill). It is believed that one glass of green juice is equivalent to a diuretic tablet, but it has a milder effect.
- Garlic (acts not only as a diuretic, but also removes excess uric acid from the body and has an antibacterial effect).
- Berries (rosehip, cranberry, blueberry).
- Milk also acts as a diuretic due to its high potassium content.
- Alcohol (beer can turn urine green).
Many women use natural and synthetic diuretics for weight loss. Excess fluid in the body can cause fluctuations in the weights of the scales, adding 2–3 kilograms to the actual weight. But it is important to remember that if a large amount of fluid is excreted in the urine for more than two days in a row, there is a danger of washing out the substances necessary for it that regulate acid-base and electrolyte balance (calcium, magnesium, potassium).
Clear urine as a sign of disease
A number of pathologies are accompanied by a change in the color of the urine. This may be a symptom of the following diseases:
- Diabetes. Glucose has the ability to carry water with it, therefore, when its content in the blood increases, the fluid enters from the intercellular space into the bloodstream. The cells are dehydrated and the person is thirsty. He drinks a lot of water and releases a lot of diluted urine with a sweet smell. At the same time, it can be noted that in the morning the urine is as light as in the evening (normally, the morning portion is always darker).
- Liver pathology (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, fatty degeneration of the liver). Urine is painted white due to the high fat content, with flakes and bubbles on the surface. All this is usually accompanied by abdominal pain, especially in the right hypochondrium. The chair can also become light, due to a violation of the synthesis of bile pigments in the liver.
- Renal failure. An abundant urine output (polyuria), especially at night (nocturia), may be an early sign of pathology. It can smell sharply with acetone (concomitant inflammation). Sometimes these are the only signs of latent kidney failure, which develops on the background of urolithiasis, pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis and other chronic pathologies of the kidneys. At the same time the waist can hurt from one or two sides.
- Cystitis. Inflammation of the bladder contributes to the spasm of its muscular wall during the accumulation of fluid in it.
"Female" and "male" causes pale yellow urine
In women, abundant and frequent urination also depends on hormonal levels. Many people note that after menstruation, they emit a large amount of light yellow urine. This is due to the action of the hormone progesterone, which has a diuretic effect. Its deficiency in the body leads to the predominance of the effects of estrogen, which, on the contrary, retains fluid in the body. In pregnant women, colorless urine can be observed for various reasons:
- drink plenty of water
- increasing the amount of glucose in the blood (diabetes of pregnancy)
- frequent urge to urinate due to compression of the bladder by the enlarged uterus,
- in the early stages, already existing chronic diseases (cystitis, pyelonephritis, diabetes) may worsen,
- taking medications (diuretics) to reduce pressure during late preeclampsia or preeclampsia (high pressure, edema, protein in the urine),
- a few weeks before giving birth, a woman may notice a cloudy white precipitate that consists of vaginal mucus,
- after childbirth, some women develop urinary incontinence.
In men, whitish urine can be the result of semen entering the urethra, while the urine is turbid, as it contains a white clot of sperm. This phenomenon occurs after intercourse and passes quickly. It may also mean that the prostate gland is enlarged, with strong urge to urinate at the slightest filling of the bladder. The characteristic is a frequent trip to the toilet and the release of light urine.
If baby urine is completely colorless
A newborn baby a few days after birth releases dark urine while the kidneys adapt to new conditions. In infants, the lack of urine coloring is the norm. This is due to the fact that the urinary fluid contains less substances, i.e. has a low specific weight. In addition, a child under one year old does not know how to restrain urine, it is released almost immediately after entering the bladder. A 7-month-old baby eats not only breast milk, but also mixtures and complementary foods, so the urine begins to change color to straw yellow.
During puberty, hypochromuria in a child's urine analysis may indicate hormonal imbalance or the development of endocrine diseases accompanied by an increase in the amount of urine released (diabetes insipidus, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, pituitary).
What to do?
If urine discoloration occurs in the absence of the habit of drinking more than two liters of fluid per day, as well as the fact that you use food or medication with a diuretic property, you should consult a doctor and check your health. Especially if the urine shade remains too light for more than 10 days. To find out exactly why urine has become colorless, like water, you should take a sample for analysis. The study of urine allows you to specify such an important indicator as its density. A low value is typical for renal pathology, and a high value is for diabetes mellitus. Doctors recommend to take a sample every six months, in time to detect the beginning of violations.
The transparency of the liquid provided is determined visually, for which it is poured into a transparent container, and the appearance of the light is evaluated. Experts examine the color of urine and the presence of sediment.
Normal urine should be completely transparent, if left to stand for some time, you can isolate the sediment in the form of lipids, cell elements, mucus and bacteria. Such clouding is determined by chemical analysis and in the field of view of the microscope.
- If the turbidity disappears when the liquid under study is heated, this indicates a significant number of urates, and a diagnosis of uraturia is made,
- If, when heated and the temperature rises, the turbidity remains, acetic acid is added to it, and when the suspension disappears, a diagnosis of phosphaturia is made,
- If, when adding acid, it starts to sizzle, it indicates the presence of carbonates in the composition of the liquid,
- When interacting with hydrochloric acid, the dregs disappear due to the high amount of oxalates,
- When reacting with potassium and alkali, urine becomes transparent due to the content of uric acid crystals,
- Lipuria is characterized by a clear color of heated urine when liquid ether is added due to the content of lipids in the chemical composition.
Urine color refers to visual indicators that are examined in reflected light. When a baby is born in a baby, the urine is transparent and almost colorless. After a couple of days of life, it acquires an amber-brown color, which indicates the release of a significant number of urates in the restructuring of the urinary system of the newborn.
More on the topic: What makes the cylinders appear in the urine?
У детей дошкольного возраста моча желто-соломенного цвета, и чем старше ребенок, тем более жёлтый оттенок приобретает урина. Естественный окрас мочи зависит от содержания в ней урохрома. Интенсивный цвет указывает на заболевания сердца и печени, гемолитические патологии и гипертиреозид.
In case of toxicosis, high temperature, vomiting or diarrhea, the amount of urine is reduced and hypochromuria is diagnosed. It is also observed in renal failure and diabetes. In this case, the urine is painted very weakly.
The color of the test fluid depends not only on the presence of pathology in the body, but also on the intake of certain medications or food consumed. For example, with a significant use of fresh beets or carrots, as well as blueberries, the liquid changes its color. Human disease can also affect the shade of urine, the typical changes with the following:
- when taking alcohol of any strength or diabetes in the initial stage, the urine is clear and colorless,
- with chiluria and / or purulent formations in the urogenital system, the color becomes milky-white,
- a feverish state and increased perspiration will give the orange color of the liquid,
- gross hematuria and hemoglobinuria change shade to red,
- obstructive jaundice or urine with bile give a dark yellow color with a brown or greenish tint,
- the presence of pus in the urine provokes a yellow-green tint,
- high concentration of urine, bilirubinuria or high temperature are characterized by dark brown, dark yellow or reddish brown colors,
- with bleeding and porphyria in the urinary tract, urine becomes black or black-brown.
When excreting urine from a healthy organism, it should have a slight odor, which is caused by the presence of volatile substances in its composition.
If there is a sharp unpleasant smell, this indicates the presence of urinoids in the composition. The appearance of rotting apples indicates the presence of acetone and indicates diabetes. It is important to remember that taking certain medications also changes both the smell of urine and its color.
More on the topic: How to treat such a bladder inflammation as cystitis?
Laboratory diagnosis of urine (OAM) - basic concepts
The kidneys, as an excretory organ, excrete metabolites from the body, in particular, nitrogenous end products of protein origin and other analytes. In addition, as an endocrine organ, the kidneys are involved in the metabolism of the renin-angiotensin and kinin-kallikrein systems, the metabolism of glucose, produce erythropoietin, prostaglandin, vitamin D.
Urine is the end product of kidney activity. The formation and excretion of urine by the kidneys is carried out by glomerular filtration and diffusion, tubular reabsorption and secretion. The functional activity of the kidneys causes the maintenance of the acid-base state and the regulation of the electrolyte and water balance of the body, the regulation of the osmotic state of the blood and tissues, contributes to the preservation of homeostasis.
Urine contains water, metabolic products, electrolytes, trace elements, hormones, vitamins, desiccated cells of the urinary tract and mucous membranes, leukocytes, salts, mucus.
Structural and functional unit of the kidney is the nephron, which consists of the glomerulus and tubule. The glomerular filtrate (primary urine) contains all non-protein low-molecular parts of the blood plasma, in the same concentration as in the plasma. The relative density of primary urine is 1.010, pH 7.4, viscosity 1.02. Primary urine contains proteins with a molecular weight of less than 70 kDa. Their number varies from 30–50 to 70–80 mg per day.
In the tubules of the kidneys, reabsorption and secretion of substances takes place due to the vigorous activity of the renal epithelium of the tubules. The reabsorption of substances from the primary urine and the secretion of the renal epithelium into the lumen of the tubules of substances from the peri-canal capillaries or formed in the tubular epithelium leads to the formation of the final urine.
The cells of the proximal tubules mainly provide preservation for the body of most of the substances filtered in the glomerulus. In them protein, amino acids, glucose, vitamins, various electrolytes and about 80% of water are reabsorbed. The function of the proximal tubule is judged by the transport of glucose.
The loop of Henle (thin tubule segment) plays the role of a counter-multiplying system: a system of two adjacent tubules, in which fluid flows in opposite directions, providing for the concentration and dilution of urine.
Distal tubules and collecting tubules ensure the stability of the acid-base state, regulate the constancy of the water balance and electrolyte composition of the internal environment of the body, ensuring a certain concentration of blood ions - K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, HPO4 and others. The maintenance of the acid-base state also depends on the ability of the renal epithelium cells to secrete substances (H-ions as a result of acidogenesis and ammonia due to ammoniogenesis), which replace Na, retaining alkaline valencies for the body, and as a base are used to eliminate acid valences.
Osmotic dilution of urine and its concentration allows to make a conclusion about the state of the distal segment of the nephron and collecting tubes.
Collective tubes are a continuation of the distal tubules. Ending in the papillae, the collecting tubes open in the kidney cups. From there, urine flows through the ureters into the bladder. The structure of the walls of the renal cups, pelvis, ureter, bladder, excretory ducts of the prostate and urethra is similar. Their mucosa is lined with transitional epithelium. Multiple layered epithelium is lined with the urethra, the vagina, the external genitalia of the woman and the distal (outer) part of the urethra of men.
In the sediment of normal urine, a small number of squamous epithelial cells and single cells in the preparation of transitional epithelium can be detected. An increase in the number of transitional epithelial cells and the appearance of renal epithelium is characteristic of kidney and urinary tract diseases.
The basis of kidney disease is the defeat of the glomerular membrane or epithelium of the tubules by inflammatory, infectious, toxic or other processes, or genetically determined defects that cause a violation of their structure and function.
There are kidney diseases with a primary lesion of the glomeruli (acute and chronic glomerulonephritis, nephroangiosclerosis, nephrosis) and with a primary lesion of the renal tubules (acute and chronic pyelonephritis, acute and chronic renal failure of any etiology).
Amount of urine
Urine formation depends on air temperature, exercise, rest, sleep. The mechanism of reducing diuresis during sleep is due to the action of the antidiuretic hormone of the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Muscle exercise leads to a decrease in renal plasma production, which causes a decrease in sodium excretion. Heat reduces glomerular filtration, causing oliguria, and also reduces sodium excretion.
The amount of urine excreted per day also depends on age, and is in:
- newborns - 0–60 ml
- children of the first month of life - 200–350 ml
- children 1–5 years old - 600–900 ml
- children 10–14 years old - 1000–1500 ml
- adults 1000–2000 ml
Normally, an increase in diuresis (physiological polyuria) occurs when:
- taking a large amount of fluid
- eating some foods (watermelons, melons, other fruits)
Physiological oliguria (decrease in diuresis) occurs when:
- limiting fluid intake
- excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea (extrarenal factors)
- in premature babies
Rare urination (olakizuria) is a physiological phenomenon in the first days after birth.
Frequent urination (physiological polakisuria) - when taking large amounts of fluid.
The ratio of day and night diuresis normally ranges from 4: 1 to 3: 1.
What is hypochromuria?
Hypochromuria is a laboratory indicator that indicates a pale yellow, light or colorless urine color. The study of biological fluid in the laboratory is carried out in two ways:
- physical - a visual assessment of the color, transparency and smell of the biomaterial,
- chemical - determination of indicators of urine using chemical compounds and reagents.
Hypochromuria is often detected in the urine in infants up to 1 year. As a rule, this phenomenon is physiological in nature and only in rare cases is it a sign of pathology.
Too light color of urine may be due to natural and pathological factors. The physiological causes of urine discoloration include the following:
- Acceptance of certain medication, including diuretics. Broths and infusions of medicinal plants are also able to give the urine a light shade.
- Age. The younger the child, the brighter his urine. In infants up to 1 year, the biological fluid is almost colorless due to insufficient development of coloring pigments.
- A large amount of fluid consumed. The more water a baby drinks, the less concentrated is the color of its urine.
- Excessive exercise. This factor is inherent in older children.
- Ambient temperature and other climatic conditions.
- The use of products with diuretic properties.
Along with this, urine discoloration may indicate the following dangerous pathologies:
- Renal failure. In addition to the discoloration of the urine, the presence of the disease may be indicated by the following symptoms: frequent urination, complaints of the baby to pain in the lumbar spine from one or both sides. Often, with urolithiasis, pyelonephritis and nephrosclerosis, urine begins to smell like acetone and foam.
- Diabetes. Accompanied by constant thirst.
- Cystitis. When the bladder becomes inflamed, urination becomes more frequent, as a result of which the pigments do not have time to color the urine.
- Pathology of the liver. The defeat of the cells of this organ indicates the presence of bubbles and flakes on the surface of urine. At the same time, not only urine, but also feces is subject to discoloration. Along with this, the baby may complain of pain in the right hypochondrium.
Bleached urine: what should parents do?
When hypochromuria is detected in a child's urine analysis, parents should exclude physiological factors. For this you need:
- Reduce the amount of liquid used by the kid.
- Check the effect of drugs taken crumbs. If drugs have diuretic properties, you should ask the doctor to replace them with counterparts that do not have such an effect.
- Eliminate or reduce to a minimum the use of products with diuretic properties.
After following these recommendations, you must re-pass the urine of the baby for analysis. If the results of the study again show the presence of hypochromuria, it is recommended to contact a pediatrician to determine the pathological factor that provoked the discoloration of the urine.
What is the danger of hypochromuria?
The danger of this symptom is that parents in most cases do not attach importance to the poorly colored urine of the child. If urine discoloration is associated with excessive fluid intake or other physiological factors, the baby’s health is out of danger. If a low concentration of biological fluid is associated with a malfunction of the internal organs, it is necessary to proceed to its elimination immediately.
In order to avoid dangerous consequences for the health of the baby, parents should constantly visually assess the external indicators of his urine and regularly take it for analysis. Experts recommend conducting research at least once every six months. Only such measures will allow to identify the child in a timely manner.
pathology and avoid dangerous complications.
Which doctor to contact?
The direction to the analysis and interpretation of the urine test results is carried out by the pediatrician. If a deviation in the values of the indicators from the norm is found, the small patient after additional examination may need to consult narrow specialists: pediatric urologist, nephrologist, endocrinologist, infectiologist, cardiologist, gastroenterologist.
How to treat?
Along with preserving the light shade of urine for 10 days, the reason for an immediate visit to the doctor should be the identification of the following symptoms in a baby:
- constant thirst
- frequent prolonged crying
- light color of feces,
- hyperthermic syndrome
- frequent urination,
- crying during miccation
- acute viral infectious diseases on the background of hypochromic anemia.
The prescription of drugs is strictly individual. The calculation of the dosage of drugs depends on the age and weight of the baby. In addition, the physician must evaluate the risk of side effects and other factors that play a crucial role in the effectiveness and safety of the therapy being carried out. Also taken into account such features of the child's body as the binding capacity of proteins, the amount of distribution of fat and muscle mass.
Along with taking medicines, parents must follow a number of rules. When detecting urolithiasis in a small patient, it is recommended to consume a large amount of fluid, reduce the use of salt to a minimum during cooking, almost completely exclude from the child's diet foods containing proteins, as well as some types of plant foods.
Memo to parents: how to collect urine from infants?
The accuracy of the results of its research directly depends on the accuracy of the collection of children's urine. The main condition is that the urine was collected in the morning immediately after washing the baby. During the procedure, use an exclusively clean container. It is best to buy in the pharmacy container for collecting biomaterial. It is recommended that an infant fluid be collected using a urinal.
Another important factor affecting the accuracy of the results of urine tests is the time of delivery of the biomaterial to the laboratory. Between the collection of urine and the transfer of a container with a biological fluid to a medical officer should take no more than 3 hours.
However, the famous pediatric doctor E.O. Komarovsky has a different opinion on this. Yevgeny Olegovich believes that only those results of urine analysis, which was submitted within one and a half hours after collection, have the greatest accuracy. In any case, the earlier the parents bring the biological fluid collected from the baby to the laboratory, the more accurate the research will be.