Vacuum pump do it yourself from a compressor
Vacuum-type pumping equipment has found application in industry and domestic conditions. The design is commonly used for pumping out gaseous, vaporous substances. There are enough finished products on the market, but the price is excessively high. It is enough to have ingenuity and some improvised means to assemble the pump with your own hands.
Vacuum pump do it yourself
The principle of operation of the vacuum pump
Before assembling the structure, it is necessary to disassemble what parts it consists of and how it works. The principle of operation is not much different from the work of conventional pumping equipment, when the valves turn the back side, a vacuum device is obtained. Pump performance is achieved by sealing the system; otherwise, power is reduced.
You should also monitor the condition of the intake tract, because When pumping out, garbage can enter, which clogs the installation channels.
There are basic principles of the vacuum pump:
- A moving element consisting of a piston, a membrane, or a rotor creates a vacuum in the cylinder by the suction mode. At this moment, the exhaust valve is in the closed state, the inlet is as open as possible.
- During the return stroke, the inlet valve changes to a closed state, while remaining low pressure in the inlet chamber. The gas is released through the exhaust port, the cylinder fullness comes to a minimum.
This cycle of operation is applied to piston installations; the rotor has a blade arrangement that moves the suction chamber in a circle, at certain points connecting with the inlet and outlet openings. The principle of operation will help to figure out how to properly make a vacuum pump with your own hands.
Making a vakuumnik do it yourself
Household pump, with their own hands can be made in various ways and settings. The simplest design consists of parts that can be combined at home. Domestic conditions vacuum systems can be used for packing things, products, etc.
The components of a self-made vacuum pump:
- driven piston
- a pen,
- drain tube
- nut with washer,
- rubber gland
- inlet valve
- fitting flange type.
Modification of various versions occurs with the help of a bicycle or automobile pump, aquarium compressor, and an old refrigeration compressor.
Lip pump conversion
Lip designs are used manual automotive pumping products. For the manufacture of the required device you will need the mechanism itself, several tubes and a valve. Alteration takes place in several steps, the homemade vacuum pump does not require the use of complex tools.
- The mechanism is being disassembled, for this it is necessary to unscrew the lock nut, remove the contents. Inside the product there is a cuff, a spring, locked with a washer and a nut, which must be dismantled.
- Next, you need to deploy the cuff opposite side, the solution is suitable for operations that do not require a powerful vacuum.
- The product is assembled in reverse order, before installing the cuff, it can be lubricated with a small layer of grease, this will extend the service life, increase the softness of the stroke.
- To maintain the state of the vacuum, a check valve is needed. Its installation is performed in a selected tube of a suitable size, to the base of the modification. Tightness is achieved by installing clamps on the joints, sealant is used during installation.
The finished product, subject to technical conditions, is capable of delivering efficiency up to 85%. It is enough to observe the parameters of tightness, the technical condition of the cuff.
Low vacuum pump
The modification works on a centrifugal scheme, similar to rotor structures. Finished products have different characteristics, it is quite difficult to make a homemade vacuum pump of this type. In the manufacture can not do without the services of a turner, with its help is the shaft, a flat cylindrical body. The product performs the suction by applying the blade design, when the liquid is injected, it rotates, a centrifugal force is created, which injects vacuum.
The operation of the device is impossible without the use of an electric motor, the installation of the axis of the blades is not in the center, to implement pushing gas into the holes of the system. The main disadvantage is the overheating of water, which over time needs to be changed. The craft is supplied with inlet and outlet openings for liquids, gases.
The operation of the mechanism occurs in large-scale production and rural areas, where a large amount of soot and dust is observed in the exhaust gas.
Prolonged actions occur with the gas exhaust system, motor cooling, constant fluid supply.
The simplest vacuum pump
Manual exhaust of air may be needed at any time under living conditions. This function can withstand a vacuum pump, made by hand from plastic bottles. For the manufacture will need:
- hose, small diameter, great for this purpose cycling,
- plastic bottles of different diameters
- drill or other hand tool for cutting holes.
The selection of bottles must be made of the same shape, one of which is slightly smaller in diameter, is a kind of piston. The vacuum pump for air exhaust is collected as follows:
- the top of the big bottle is cut off,
- in the center of the bottle of smaller diameter, in the lower part, a hole is cut through,
- after fitting, the sealing ring of their tape or tape is made.
The hose is connected to the cover, testing of the action of the pump takes place. When moving a small bottle, a vacuum is created that is sufficient for domestic needs.
Vacuum supercharger from bicycle pump
The design of the bicycle supercharger does not differ from the automobile pump. It is important to note that it is necessary to install an additional mechanism, otherwise the product will work through only one cycle. If there is no special check valve, the spool will do, but you need to make a tight connection. A vacuum pump for pumping air acts on the vacuum, so the valve or valve should be installed in the opposite direction.
The process takes place manually, after reworking it is necessary to pull the handle with an effort towards yourself, which is difficult to do in some situations. To modify, it is possible not to turn the cuff upside down, but to seal the lower opening of the outlet fitting, to make a gas outlet on top of the product. With such a performance, the mechanism will operate normally, but creating a vacuum. Implementation is more difficult, but with a certain tool, you can do it yourself.
Vacuum pump from automobile compressor
Portable air is used as a donor to maintain the pressure in automobile tires. A performance is made if there is an available car accessory in the garage, but if you purchase it on the market, then it is better to immediately buy the finished product. The self-made vacuum pump is manufactured according to an uncomplicated principle; it suffices to remake the device with minimal intervention.
Vacuum pump do it yourself from a car compressor
For manufacturing, you need to swap the inlet and exhaust valve, in place of the inlet put a locking mechanism of another sample. Hose is mounted, to the direction of air intake, the piston mechanism thereby creates a vacuum. When using, you can add a vacuum-type gauge to monitor the vacuum state. A full-fledged camera can be obtained with the use of an airtight pan.
Modifying aquarium compressor
In cases where high levels of sparseness are required, it is possible to notice more productive technical elements. Household aquarium compressors for pumping air, can withstand a load for a long time, give the desired figure. A modified product is used in a variety of experiments and domestic acts where an increased index of rarefaction is required. To make a homemade vacuum mechanism is quite easy, no additional tools or knowledge are required.
Aquarium compressor device
It is important to follow the sequence of actions to get the most productive product at the exit:
- with the help of a screwdriver, fixing the case,
- after removing the cover, the composition of the compressor has a node with valves, it must be dismantled,
- a hole is sawn off in the corner of the body, to connect the prepared hose,
- a hole is drilled in the bottom wall to remove condensate and moisture,
- The gas exhaust system is made with an adhesive, suitable tube.
The assembly is performed in the reverse order, the output should be a hand-made device capable of pumping out air instead of pressure. This device can reduce the boiling point of liquids in experiments, but the level of gases should be monitored.
Water ring pump
Low-vacuum equipment is used with the necessary long-term environment in production. The device has a housing inside with plates attached to the rotor, immersed in water. The process involves the creation of 90% vacuum, it is possible to increase the rate using a liquid with a higher boiling point. The advantages of this device are that it has an increased resource due to the absence of moving parts and seals.
Water ring units have several disadvantages:
- it is important to organize a device for capturing or recycling fluid, exhaust gases,
- it is necessary to monitor the level of the working fluid, otherwise when rotating into a “dry” device, it will overheat, fail,
- complex technical solution does not allow to build their own hands in the absence of special skills.
However, when preparing specialized parts, it is possible to produce a light construction. It is necessary to use the drawing for assembly, to prepare a cylindrical body and a suitable size. The shaft, with blades, is placed to the working part, then a test portion of water is supplied. The fluid is fed at an angle to influence the blades.
Medical syringe conversion
Creating a simple tool from a medical syringe does not require special skills. This device is applied to tanks of small volume, from which you need to pump out air. You will need an ordinary syringe consisting of a nozzle and a core, as well as a plastic tee, a fitting. The assembly does not have increased complexity, it is necessary to follow the sequence of steps to get a quality result.
- The nozzle is inserted into one of the sides of the tee, then the fitting is screwed onto the thread, connected to a hose no longer than 15 cm.
- The additional hose is connected to branch of a tee, falls to the required level.
- A core is installed at the end of the hose, a short water outlet hose is supplied to the opposite side.
Vacuum pump do it yourself from a syringe
The assembly is considered complete after the test run. Water is supplied and a vacuum is created, due to which gas or liquid is pumped out. It is worth emphasizing that a device made with its own hands can disrupt the operation of the entire system; it is inferior in reliability to purchased counterparts. Therefore, more reliable constructions are selected for responsible needs.
Use of refrigeration compressor
For operation as a vacuum pump, an old compressor from a refrigerator can be used, the main requirement is its operability. A self-made vacuum pump can continue to act as a supercharger or vacuum device. Before assembling, you will need several elements that can be found on parses:
- frame, all parts will be fastened on it, made of corners by welding or bolting,
- as a receiver it is allowed to use a cylinder of freon or propane of small size,
- pressure gauge
- connection hoses,
- moisture separator filter
- machine and wires
- cross, acting as a collector.
Vacuum pump do it yourself from a compressor from a refrigerator
In the case of building a universal design, it is necessary to provide a pressure switch that turns off the supercharger on reaching a certain level. Before assembly, waste oil is removed, a new one is poured in to prolong the durability of the device. The assembly procedure is as follows:
- The compressor is screwed to the frame with the receiver, the supercharger is installed in a vertical position, anti-vibration material or pillows are used.
- Hose joining all parts of the filter.
- Installation of power supply is made with the obligatory inclusion in the circuit of the automaton, in order to avoid breakage by the result of a short circuit.
When a compressor is needed, just swap the hoses. The universal design allows to use the device in many directions.
The operation of primitive tools does not require maintaining a constant pressure system. Manual vacuum pump for pumping air is effective only in the course of the stroke of the piston, while there are jumps.
Gas Cylinder Receiver
When performing precise actions, no interruptions are allowed; a receiver is used for this.
The principle of operation of the receiver is to maintain the buffer state during pressure surges; an old gas cylinder can be used as an instrument.
The device is connected in series, equipped with a pressure gauge, the calculation is made in accordance with the material and capacity. The use of a vacuum receiver can be performed with an ordinary glass bottle.
Features of operation
Vacuum pumps are designed to create a vacuum space in separate volumes. It is used for household purposes, automotive, manufacturing. Using your own cooked appliance can significantly shorten the time it takes to pump gas.
Vacuum blower is not the first household device, most use a conventional vacuum cleaner. However, there are tasks that can not cope without a special device. The presence of the device will help to perform most tasks with their own hands, without the help of experts.
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What is a vacuum pump
The vacuum pump is, in principle, a fairly simple design. The principle of its operation is the evacuation of air from a given volume. For pumping, of course, you need a device that can be an analogue of a pump or a conventional pump itself. But first it is worth considering the scope of the device in everyday life.
Powerful models of industrial vacuum pumps are used in technological processes of the chemical industry, for pumping large volumes of non-aggressive gases and liquids. Also, it is impossible to do without a vacuum pump when molding plastic and polyurethane products. To do this, use vacuum containers with a pump of different sizes and different capacities.
What are vacuum pumps used for?
In order to understand why a vacuum pump in everyday life is needed, and not to build an exclusively hypothetically useful device, let’s look at a few examples:
- Vacuum packaging. The most reliable and simple option for long-term storage of food. Due to the fact that oxygen is not in contact with the surface of the product, the food does not dry out and is reliably protected from bacteria. Actually, this is necessary for long-term storage. The vacuum pump evacuates air from a given volume, in our case, a plastic bag, completely enveloping the product.
- Packing bulk soft items. Vacuum pump can be useful when packing blankets, feathers, soft toys. For what? Very simple. When transporting such products take up quite a lot of space. If you use vacuum packaging, the volume occupied by the object will be reduced several times.
- Wood lamination, plywood. A vacuum pump with their own hands from a compressor, of course, will not allow the lamination of large products, but small details, for modeling, for example, are perfectly laminated using such a device.
- Manufacture of molded plastic molded products - packages, boxes, containers.
- For pumping air, liquids and gases not by a pump directly, but using a receiver.
The principle of operation and the simplest vacuum pump
The simplest vacuum pump is a medical syringe and non-return valve from an aquarium compressor. No need to explain the principle of operation of the device - for several cycles of suction with a syringe, you can pump out air from a small volume, no more than a small package the size of a matchbox.
Для работы с более серьезными объемами необходимо пользоваться либо более производительными насосами с некоторыми переделками, либо компрессором. Compressor power depends on the need for a vacuum cleaner, and the compressor can be either miniature, from an aquarium, or more powerful - for pumping car tires, painting works. But the essence of the alterations from this does not change.
We use a membrane compressor from the aquarium
For example, to be used as a vacuum pump of a compressor from an aquarium with a minimum capacity, it is enough to modify the site where the valves are located and to build in a pipe for draining condensate and moisture.
For this it is necessary to swap the valve, then the diaphragm pump will not pump air, but will pump it out of a certain volume. The design of diaphragm pumps is different, but the principle of modernization is one. An example of converting a small aquarium pump into a vacuum one is shown in the photo.
For more serious tasks, you need to use a more powerful compressor. For example, you can use the device from the old refrigerator. As a rule, with the help of such an oil-type compressor, a pressure of about 5 atm can be achieved, which is quite enough for domestic needs. The device assembly scheme is quite simple.
High performance oil and oil free compressors
The oil compressor is connected to the receiver, which can be any small gas cylinder or similar vessel. The pump has three outputs:
- for the gulf of oil,
- for air intake,
- for air supply.
Then everything is simple - the usual engine oil is poured into the compressor through a corresponding tube, a dust collecting filter is connected to the air intake tube, and a receiver is connected to the air supply tube through a splitter. Now the device can be used as a compressor with a receiver, and as a vacuum pump with a fairly high performance. For use as a compressor, it is enough to connect the air supply hose to the splitter from the receiver. If the device is needed as a vacuum pump, then the hose is connected to the air intake pipe.
This is not all methods and options for converting compressors into vacuum pumps. In the case of an oil-free compressor, there is no need to install an oil separator, but the filter on the air inlet must be installed without fail. Experiment, and to solve any problems, you can assemble a vacuum pump from improvised means.
Materials and tools
- soldering iron
- welding machine.
In addition to the compressor from the refrigerator will need to get:
- oil resistant tubes (available on the car market),
- brass foil
- a piece of linoleum.
It will take a steel corner 25x25 mm.
A lot of time has passed since the creation of the first pumps and now there are many types of units for all kinds of needs. Why do we need a screw pump and what is its principle of operation, read on.
Technology implementation of tapping under pressure in the water supply will consider here.
The system of automatic pumping of water from the basement is the most convenient way to keep the basement dry. Here http://aquacomm.ru/cancliz/zagorodnyie-doma/avtonomnaya/drenazh/drenazhnyie-nasosy/nasos-dlya-otkachki-vody-iz-podvala.html consider in more detail how to organize such a system.
It is most convenient to place a self-made vacuum pump under the table, so that only the suction and delivery tubes from it lie on the table.
With this placement in the electrical circuit of the unit, it is advisable to build a pedal, by pressing which it will be activated. Vacuum gauge is also better placed on the table.
Since it is not very convenient to use an oil level gauge in the case of placing a vacuum pump under the table due to a lack of light, you can additionally equip the device with a backlight.
Using a homemade vacuum pump, you can not only pump air out of food storage containers, but also make various products from two-component silicone rubbers by vacuuming. However, it should be noted that this unit will not cope with too thick material, for example, Viksint.
The pump for dirty water is a very useful unit, which is used not only for pumping out waste water, but also for watering, pumping wells and other needs. Submersible pump for dirty water - the main characteristics and popular models.
Why the pumping station often turns on and how to fix this type of failure, you will learn in this topic.
What is a vacuum pump for?
Taking up the manufacture of a vacuum pump, it is important to clearly understand what it is for, because it will take a lot of time, effort and money to make such a unit.
Many people know what a vacuum package is. It has the form of a plastic bag that has a valve. With the help of it, food is well stored, the food is fresh, and the products do not dry out and the bacteria do not multiply on them. Air is simply squeezed out of the most primitive vacuum packaging, and a vacuum pump is applied to the kit for more complex packaging. Thus, the manufacture of home-made devices will allow you to pump air from any package, but it will have to ensure the tightness of such packaging.
Vacuum packaging is also great for storing clothes, as it reduces its volume by several times. This is especially encouraging when you need to fit things in a suitcase or bag.
Those who make wood products know that in order to give it an attractive look, it is necessary to soak it with oil. To speed up this process, as well as to make it more efficient, you just need to place the oil in a vacuum chamber. Thus, wood with its internal pressure squeezes the air out of itself and absorbs the oil.
Also, a manual vacuum pump for pumping air can pump out a liquid, but not directly, but with the additional use of the receiver and special capacity.
Types of homemade pumps
Pumps can be different, it all depends on their purpose.
The simplest pump is considered to be the medical syringe. True, it can be used to create a vacuum in very small volumes. But it is the most affordable, and if it is not at home, then without any problems you can buy at any pharmacy, the main thing is to pay attention to size.
Also, a household vacuum pump for exhausting air can be made from a conventional automobile pump.
For more discharge, you can make a fixture of a refrigeration compressor. And for these purposes, a converted aquarium compressor will do.
Reworking car pump
Homemade vacuum pump for everyday life is the easiest to make of automobile or bicycle pumps, which are probably available in farms.
These actions are extremely simple:
- you first need to do disassembly of the pump, unscrew the cap with thread, which is at the top of the sleeve,
- remove the piston and remove the sealing ring from the stem (to do this, unscrew the screw located in the middle),
- turning over the sealing ring, screw it back to the stem,
- to collect the pump.
Using such simple actions, a device is obtained that creates a weak vacuum in tanks with a small volume. But for the vacuum pump you also need a check valve.
Check valves for self-made vacuum pumps can be purchased at the store, which sells equipment for aquariums. This inexpensive plastic part is installed in an aquarium compressor. Perhaps friends or acquaintances have such an idle compressor. In this case, nothing happens with a check valve (because there is nothing to break there). Thus, it can be obtained and put in our self-made vacuum pump for air exhaust.
The valve is fixed in a special opening of the device, and a tube is connected to it, which leads to the container. Of course, this element must be installed correctly - it is necessary that the air passes from the tank to the pump. To check the direction of operation of the valve before you install it, you need to blow it into it, while the air does not have to pass, this will mean that this valve end is attached to the pump. If the part is of high quality, and all manual connections are sealed thoroughly, then using a manual vacuum pump you can provide a residual vacuum pressure of up to 200 Mbar.
Making a vacuum pump with a compressor
A small vacuum pump for air exhaust is not able to solve all problems. In order to create a higher vacuum or pump out large volumes of air, use an electrically driven pump. To make it will need any household compressor.
At the same time, there is little work: the tube with which air is sucked away is attached to the instrument inlet (before that, the filter must be removed). After the tube is attached, you can turn on the compressor.
When the tank is filled with liquid or high-moisture products, the air that is pumped out will contain water vapor in large quantities. In such conditions, the compressor will not work for a long time. In order for the compressor not to break down, an additional dehumidification package should be in the system, in which there is a receiver and a sump.
Vacuum pump for pumping air made from a fridge
Household compressor is not always at hand, so you can use the supercharger from the broken refrigeration systems or air conditioners.
Such a vacuum pump is made in the following way:
- with a hacksaw, you need to cut off the copper tubes, by means of which the compressor is attached to the condenser and the evaporator,
- here you need to pay attention to how the compressor connects to the mains and the relay correctly, if the wires are connected incorrectly, the compressor will not just not work, but may break,
- after that, a durite hose should be put on the copper piece and attached to a vacuum tank,
- Now you can connect the compressor to the network.
Of course, a homemade product from a domestic compressor will not turn out to be very powerful, but as a vacuum pump for pumping air from the packages it will fit perfectly, and it will perform basic household tasks.
How to remake aquarium compressor
The vacuum pump for pumping air from the cans can be made from an aquarium compressor, which has already been mentioned above. This is a fairly practical option. This design does not need serious refinement, you only need to slightly change its appearance:
- carefully inspect the compressor and fix the fasteners
- removing them, to dismantle the check valves,
- after removing the valves, they need to be swapped,
- assemble the product, attach the tube to the vacuum tank and start working.
To prevent moisture from entering the compressor, condensate can be drained through small openings in the housing.
Possible damage to the vacuum pump
- Motor malfunction or incorrect connection.
- Violation of the consistency of the drive and the shaft of the injection mechanism.
- Jamming of the working element in the discharge.
- Failure of bearings in support units.
- Appearance of scale on the work items.
- Overheating of the pump and subsequent wear of parts.
- Excess or leakage of working medium.
A vacuum pump for pumping air, like any other mechanism, may break or fail. We listed the most common failures above, and now we need to figure out how to fix them:
- Malfunction of the engine or its wrong connection. The most common mistake is a broken connection pattern. Initially, you need to check the power, that is, the integrity of the power cord. For this you will need a probe indicator. If the probe lights up, and after the power is applied, the motor rotates, then the cause of failure is not the case. If not, then this means a malfunction of the engine, it will have to be repaired.
- Violation of the consistency of the drive and the shaft of the injection mechanism. This problem is most often solved by installing a gasket under the engine or under the injection mechanism. If the pump operation has not resumed after that, then the clutch should be inspected for displacement or deformation. In this case, the part is installed in place or changed.
- Work element is jammed in the injection mechanism. Usually this problem occurs due to contaminated pumped medium. To eliminate the malfunction it is necessary to disassemble the product and clean it.
- Bearing failure in the support nodes. This problem is accompanied by loud noise and strong vibration. This means that the bearing has failed and needs to be replaced.
- Appearance of scale on the work items. Such a problem usually appears on water ring pumps, in which the working medium is water. For the resuscitation of the unit you need to get rid of salt deposits with a special composition.
- Overheating of the pump and subsequent wear of parts. This problem is particularly relevant for oil-free rotary plate units. Even the most advanced materials, such as Teflon, are unable to fully compensate for the missing lubricant. Therefore, it is important to observe the temperature regime. If overheating has occurred, the damaged parts will have to be replaced.
- Excessive or leaking working environment. If the water ring pump has reduced its performance, you need to check the pressure of the service fluid. It could fall due to leakage. The solution is to replace the seal in the hole.
If the seal is in a satisfactory condition, then it is a matter of flange connections - you need to replace the gaskets there.
Also, the intensity of the fluid flow may be due to severe wear of parts. This usually happens when the pump has already served its time, and it needs to be replaced or checked by the unit, perhaps it is still maintainable, and only the most worn parts should be replaced.
With a high pressure of the service environment, due to its excess or overheating, the device may also break. If you set the optimal values, the pump will work fine again. If the temperature is observed, then you need to reduce the flow of water or close the valve on the discharge pipe.
three-way taps from what?
Bought on the market, taps from pressure gauges.
Can you pour oil on the compressor with heavy use?
I wanted to do a wheel like that for such a long time with such a compressor? I also wanted to do it, but everyone who did in one voice said that it was very weak.
I am interested in fiberglass, I wonder, can such a compressor be used for vacuum infusion, does it create an absolute vacuum, and how long can it work under load?
buy a normal vacuum pump, and do not invent lisaped)))
Honestly, I don’t even know how it should look).
There are special portable vacuum pumps. They are used by refrigerators to vacuum the system before refilling with freon. There are several more areas of application, but there are already powerful units. Just hammer "the vacuum pump" and you learn everything.
buy a normal vacuum pump, and do not invent lisaped)))
I have, on the 2nd photo is visible.
yes yes, it is he)))
Looks like a factory product.
hah but on the contrary, I have compressed air from such a refrigeration compressor))) we paint motorcycles)
I would like more details. If possible.
It turned out great! I made this design 10 years ago, now I use it all the time. How did the probes do? I took the washer tube, gas tank ventilation (it is thicker), stretched the shirt from the bicycle cable into a spiral, and inserted into the hose, it works perfectly.
Normal plastic tube, sold in the auto shop, high pressure. Excellent work does not flatten.
Yeah, I see. When I did, it was difficult to find. And the balloon will not fold if the hose clog? I used a 10-liter cylinder for compressed air (but this is a rarity) it is designed for a working pressure of 300 atmospheres. It is also useful to install a vacuum gauge to see the vacuum in the cylinder.
In general, I always wanted to make an ejector head like a professional equipment.
This compressor creates a vacuum in the tank -1 bar. So there is nothing that does not work out.
Before you make a device, you need to understand its work. Almost all consumers are daily faced with vacuum packaging and know what it is. They are presented in the form of a cellophane product, in which products are perfectly preserved, while not drying out. In the simplest packages, the air is squeezed out manually, and the more complex ones involve the use of a working mechanism. Thanks to the homemade device, you can create a vacuum in any package, although the package will need to be sealed.
Vacuum packaging is also used for storing clothes, as the volume decreases, and all things can be placed in a bag or suitcase. Especially common the use of the apparatus on industry for such purposes:
- Use for the production of bags and packaging tapes,
- Distilling the chemical, drying the chemical and compressing the gaseous substance
- Cleaning fish or vegetables, food processing,
- In the printing industry, compressors are used in printing and processing mechanisms,
- Use in cleaning devices for cleaning the environment:
- In medical breathing apparatus and dental equipment.
Распространено использование вакуумирования для обработки дерева и придания ему эстетичности. To do this, the wooden product is impregnated with oil, and to speed up the process and greater efficiency, the wooden object is placed in the chamber, and the air is pumped out. In this case, the internal pressure of the wood pushes the air and sucks the oil substance.
Air pumping process
With a detailed analysis of the process, it can be understood that the difference in the technology of injection and pumping is insignificant, since it is worthwhile to turn the air flow and the pressure pump will immediately become vacuum. The peculiarity is a more thorough sealing of the device when pumping air or liquid. A filter for the intake valve may also be required to prevent the entry of debris.
The overall work of the mechanism can be described by two cycles of the process:
- When air is sucked in the chamber, a vacuum is created, and the intake valve opens and the exhaust valve is sealed. In the selection chamber, the maximum air volume and low pressure are reached.
- At the stage of the return action of the mechanism, a low pressure at the intake stroke is maintained, the inlet valve closes, after which the exhaust valve opens and air is displaced. The pressure in the sampling chamber is normalized.
This type of process applies only to piston and diaphragm devices, and in rotor systems the air moves with the help of blades into the selection chamber, and the inlet and exhaust valves open in stages.
Types and improvised analogues
There are many types of vacuum pumps and their analogues, but All pumps share the type of workpiece:
- Rotary vane (oily and dry).
The most common are piston and membrane, as well as membrane-piston, which can be done with little effort at home.
For manufacturing from scratch, you will have to face many difficulties, however, you can simplify the task. For example, a vacuum pump from a car compressor is easy to do with your own hands. And also there are also other units suitable for alteration. For this can be used:
- Refrigeration compressor,
- Aquarium air compressor,
- Hand bike pump.
Depending on the nature of the application, it is necessary to select and improve the design of the future device.
Making a syringe
To create a device you will need:
- Gum dripper - creating a compartment with a valve.
- Syringe 50 vat - for use at home it will be more than enough.
- Steel ball from a small bearing - acts as a valve. The ball should fit freely inside the exit constriction of the syringe, which is usually put on the needle.
- PVC tube - you need to choose a hard, resistant to pressure. The tube from the dropper will not work.
- Steel sewing needle.
To begin with, plastic inserts are removed from the gum, and the rubber itself is cut in half. Further, half of the length is cut from the narrow part of the gum. Now a piece of a narrow rubber product needs to be inserted into the tip of the syringe, and shove a long object until fully sealed. A ball is installed as an inlet valve and supported by a second piece of elastic with a narrow end so that the ball is free-running.
Opposite the ball valve with a heated needle, the hole that will act as an exhaust valve is burnt. To complete the assembly, the remaining rubber ring is put on the nose in such a way that it closes the outlet. It is better to fix the ring using superglue.
The vacuum pump is ready for air pumping with your own hands, and it can be checked by putting one end of the tube on the spout of the syringe, and fixing the second one in the lid of the plastic bottle, using the plastic insert previously removed.
For the manufacture of the pump compressor can be redone by doing the following:
- Remove the liner cover and remove the stem on which the cuff is attached,
- Unscrew the fixing screw, detach the cuff,
- Fasten the cuff, turning it upside down,
- Prepare a non-return plastic valve connected to the discharge tube, which will now be used as a retractor,
When operating, it is important to properly install the valve so that it passes air. Further, a rigid tube is attached to the free part of the valve that will withstand the effects of low pressure. The device can be used for packing clothes or pumping air from a container with products.
Pump from refrigeration
The compressor of the refrigerator is great for a homemade vacuum, but to convert it into a full-fledged working device, need to work a little:
- Hacksaw metal cut the top of the compressor cover,
- Inside there is a motor connected to the case by springs, which must be removed. Conduct the connection of the pull-in and discharge copper outlets with an oil-resistant tube.
- Making a cover for the case. New cover must be made of brass material. The diameter should be smaller than the diameter of the compressor housing, and it is recommended that the cover be trimmed with linoleum trim as a sound insulation material. If the connection between the cover and the housing is quite tight, then the pressure inside will be equal to the atmospheric pressure, but if you wish you can install a breather.
- The future vacuum pump from the compressor from the refrigerator will be similar to the oil one, and the oil level will constantly decrease, as it will be sprayed and leave the discharge channel. Therefore, the oil level is recommended to control, and therefore the need to install the level gauge. As such a device, you can use the transparent shell of a ballpoint pen, which is connected to the compressor through a piece of oil-resistant tube. The casing cap must not be completely tightened: air must pass.
- This type of oil device should not be exposed to moisture from the inside, so you need to build a filter in front of the inlet channel. To do this, you can use the air filter of the car, but if the humidity of the air is very high, then you need to install the receiver and sump.
- A filter - an oil trap is connected to the discharge channel, in which there is a drain plug.
At the end of the work, a pressure relief valve is installed in front of the oil separator. An electropneumatic valve connected with a motor can act as such.
Remaking aquarium compressor
Aquarium fixture is quite practical to make a device for pumping air. The device for supplying air to the aquarium does not require major changes, but only a change in the valve system. For this you need:
- Disassemble fasteners
- Remove the check valves,
- After dismantling, swap the valves,
- Fold the structure and fastening system.
To prevent moisture from entering the device, you must create a small hole in the housing or install a dry filter.
Device water ring mechanism
This option is an inefficient type of equipment. It is based on the case and the plates fixed in the rotor. Plunging into the liquid, the plates displace it, and at the same time air is pumped out with an efficiency up to 95%. When replacing a fluid with a higher density and providing cooling rate increases.
One of the advantages of this unit is a long service life, but there are some disadvantages:
- It is necessary to dispose or recycle the working fluid,
- Constant consumption of working fluid and the need to replenish it,
- The working fluid is heated, thereby increasing the vapor pressure. Therefore, the liquid must be cooled.
Assembly of the water ring device can be carried out in several stages:
- Preparing a cylindrical billet for the body,
- Install the impeller on the shaft into the housing. The wheel is equipped with blades, slightly smaller in diameter than the inner diameter of the body.
- It is necessary to ensure the supply of water to the housing. Under the action of water, the wheel with blades should rotate, as a result of which centrifugal force is formed and a vacuum is created in the device.
Such an installation can be used in agriculture, for private homes or in industry.
Changing the work of a bicycle pump
From a simple lip pump, you can quickly and easily make the necessary device for pumping air. Such a device is widespread, as cyclists, car owners and motorcyclists use the pump. Feature of use and process of alteration remains almost invariable, in comparison with cuff devices.
Phased creation of a vacuum cleaner:
- Unscrew the main nut and disassemble the pump,
- Unscrew the fastening screw and turn the cuff upside down,
- Assemble the unit in reverse order.
- Install a valve between the pump and the hose.
After making such changes, you can pump out air from a can or other container, and as a valve you can use the valve of the discharge aquarium compressor.
Recommendations for use
In the process of working in the compressor, malfunctions and various breakdowns can occur, but when studying a structure, it is possible to carry out repairs independently without the involvement of specialists. When creating a vacuum cleaner, the presence of the source material is necessary, and the complexity of the work and the field of application of the apparatus will depend on the type of material. When using complex designs of a vacuum pump, it is better to use settlers and receivers to extend the life of the unit.
Use of hand air pumps
To solve simple problems associated with the creation of a shallow vacuum, any air pumping device will be suitable - a hand or foot car pump and even a medical syringe. For example, the last show the assembly of the simplest vacuum pump. The work will require the following materials:
- syringe with a capacity of 10-20 ml
- plastic check valve - 2 pcs.,
- transparent tubes from dropper,
Reference. Small check valves are sold in zoological stores, aquarium fixtures department. Prices literally penny.
Assemble the manual air pumping unit in this order:
- Cut from the tube dropper 3 pieces of a length of 5-6 cm.
- Slip the segments onto the tee outlets, connect the syringe to the middle one.
- Install check valves at the ends of the 2 remaining pipes so that the arrows on the body point in different directions.
- Connect a tube leading to the evacuation object to the valve outlet whose arrow is pointing towards the syringe. You can check the operation of the pump liter plastic bottle.
The principle of operation is as follows: when you pull the piston, the air passes through the valve from the side of the bottle, the second line is blocked. After pressing the rod, the valve of the first tube no longer allows air, but the second one is open. If you work intensively with a piston, then a vacuum rather quickly forms inside the bottle, which is shown in the video:
More productive manual installations are made of various piston devices. The usual pump intended for pumping of tires of the car will approach. To convert a simple device into a vacuum pump, follow the instructions:
- Unscrew the ribbed nut from the top of the case and remove the stem with the cuff.
- Using a 10 mm wrench, unscrew the nut securing the cuff and move the element with the skirt up, as shown in the photo. Tighten the fasteners back.
- Assemble the tool and place a check valve on the supply hose.
After rework, the pump will begin to draw air through the main hose and throw it through the hole in the housing. If you need to swap the wheels of cars, the cuff is easy to return to its original position. How to make a vacuum pump from a small bicycle pump, look at the video:
How to make a unit of the compressor
Not all tasks can be solved with the help of hand-held devices that are unable to create a deep vacuum (minus 1 Bar). To increase performance, you should use electrical pumping devices - compressors.
For the manufacture of self-made vacuum pumps will fit various types of such units:
- aquarium oxygen blower
- old fridge compressor
- Chinese car electric pump
- multipurpose household compressor series with a capacity of 350 l / min.
Note. There are often instructions on the Internet for making a water-type vacuum pump. The device is difficult to assemble (it is necessary to grind out some parts) and operation, because it requires the organization of cooling of the make-up water and intake air. We do not recommend adopting this idea.
Alteration of the aquarium supercharger
The device is a plastic case where a membrane micropump with two valves and a small motor powered by electricity are placed. The upgrade is done in the following order:
- Using a screwdriver, unscrew the screws and remove the housing cover.
- Using a wrench and tweezers, uncouple the thrust that drives the rubber membrane. Pull the pressure element out of the socket.
- Disassemble the assembly into 2 parts - the diaphragm and the valve group.
- Swap the valves and gently file one corner of the plastic cover, as shown in the photo.
- Assemble the elements in the reverse order and arrange for the discharge of air pumped in through the hole.
Council To protect the diaphragm assembly from dust, debris and moisture, install a gasoline filter on the supply hose.
If you did everything correctly, the blower is converted into a homemade aspirator of average performance. The apparatus will not create a deep vacuum, but it will definitely help to solve various small tasks. Unfortunately, the compressor cannot be repaired and returned to its original state - it is necessary to change the valve group.
Modernization of other devices
Portable Chinese pumps used for pumping car tires, are not well suited for reworking in a vacuum apparatus, performance is too low. It is easy to check this fact: disassemble the plastic case of the unit and look at the dimensions of the cylinder with the piston. The latter is driven by a connecting rod mounted on the motor shaft.
To convert such a supercharger into an aspirator, it is enough to solder a plastic tube to the inlet valve opening. The easiest way is to use a glue gun. Next, follow the previous instructions - install a filter and a pressure gauge on the suction side.
The tube must be glued to the suction valve opening.
Note. In order to use a vacuum pump made from a mini-compressor under domestic conditions, it is necessary to find or mount a 12 volt DC source.
Multi-purpose compressor on wheels (mainly made in China) is the best donor for the manufacture of a vacuum pump. Thanks to the hardware performance of 350 l / min, the supercharger can instantly create the effect of a vacuum up to 1 Bar deep. This is enough for the work of various home-made machines - vacuum packer and molder.
Making the unit is quite simple:
- Unscrew the air filter installed on the cylinder head. Attach in its place a hose or pipe leading to the receiver, pressure gauge and evacuation object. On the same line do not forget to put a filter.
- In the standard receiver, remove the condensate drain plug.
- If necessary, make a button to turn on the unit remotely.
A large propane tank with a capacity of 50 liters should be used as the receiver of this vacuum pump. It will serve as a desiccant of the pumped air and will smooth out the pressure surge at the moment the engine starts.
Where vacuum is applied
The manufacture of vacuum pumps interests home craftsmen - craftsmen who know their use. For most ordinary people, the aggregate is of no value. In fact, many useful things are realized with the help of air pumping:
- Long storage of clothes and products. It is enough to put them in a plastic bag, connect the pump and seal it immediately. Packaging will turn into a reliable container, where there are no bacteria and harmful microorganisms.
- Vacuum canning in banks.
- Filtration of various solutions through the smallest mesh.
- Remove air and moisture from the evaporator and condenser units when installing a domestic air conditioner.
- Oil suction when repairing automotive diesel or gasoline engines.
Such devices are also used for vacuum massage of the body and the work of machine tools - presses, packers and formers.
Vacuum pumps can not be called an essential tool. When in need, most homeowners use household appliances - a vacuum cleaner. But this device - the vacuum truck is designed to solve other problems, the long creation of a vacuum is not his strong point. And yet, air pumping devices help realize a lot of useful things and therefore are a good help in the household.