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Focal alopecia in children: treatment regimens

Children's body is extremely susceptible to all changes in the world. Some of them are positive and favorable, while others cause certain problems.

The combination of certain external and internal factors can lead to alopecia, that is, to hair loss. Alopecia areata in a child requires a responsible approach from parents and doctors.

The success of treating alopecia, as well as in adults (in women and in men) depends largely on the accurate diagnosis at the initial stage.

Medical indications ↑

Focal alopecia in children - a reduction in the number or complete absence of hair on the head, followed by a violation of their growth. The structure of the hair becomes brittle, thin and fragile. In this situation, parents should consult with a trichologist dermatologist. It is impossible to self-medicate, since only after a complex of studies (hair microscopy, computer research, diagnostics of the nervous, endocrine, and digestive systems) can the cause and type of pathological alopecia of a child be identified.

In children with alopecia, the causes of development are as follows:

  • genetic heredity (there were bald relatives in the family),
  • hormonal hormonal disorders (puberty),
  • damage to the hair structure (blow-drying, the use of ploek),
  • head injuries
  • violation of the integrity of the skin on the head,
  • pathology of autoimmune nature, disease of bacterial, fungal etiology,
  • taking certain medications (antiplatelet agents, antidepressants, anti-gout agents and arthritis drugs),
  • radio and chemotherapy for cancer pathology (alopecia occurs in 9 out of 10 patients),
  • stress loads (physical, emotional, neuropsychic character),
  • long-term use of hormonal drugs.

Baldness can occur on the background of:

  • thyroid pathology,
  • infections, surgical interventions, intense heat,
  • systemic pathologies (systemic lupus erythematosus),
  • fungal lesions (ringworm, ringworm),
  • improper, poor nutrition,
  • improper hair care (frequent washing of the head, excessive use of balsams, sprays, conditioners),
  • irregular hairstyles (very tight tails, pigtails).

Detection of focal alopecia in children

According to statistics, alopecia diagnosed in approximately 3% of children aged one month to twelve years. In infants, focal baldness is temporary and is mainly triggered by constant friction in the occipital and temporal parts of the head.

If the hair falls out in a child over the age of three years, you should contact a specialist who will conduct a thorough diagnosis and prescribe the best course of treatment.

Alopecia areata is characterized by the appearance of hairless areas, differing in size and having a rounded or oval shape.

Sometimes the symptoms of this disease can suddenly and suddenly disappearwithout therapeutic intervention.

Pockets of hair loss on the child’s head usually appear within twenty-four hours. In each individual case, the disease manifests itself in different ways - the areas without hair cover can either remain single or join together with others in one continuous baldness area.

As the child grows, nesting alopecia begins to acquire more pronounced features, and, in the absence of proper treatment, runs the risk of becoming total. To prevent this, it is important to identify signs of illness at the initial stage and take appropriate measures.

Most often, alopecia areata in children develops in two age periods:

  • from 5 to 7 years
  • from 12 to 15 years.

In order to determine the best way to treat pediatric alopecia areata, complex diagnostics are needed, which includes a number of medical research conducted in the laboratory.

These include:

  • abdominal ultrasound,
  • computer diagnostics of the skin of the head,
  • tests for dysbacteriosis and the presence of worms eggs,
  • checking hormone levels
  • Thyroid ultrasound,
  • a blood test for the presence of antibodies to Giardia, helminths, streptococcus, herpes, as well as fungal infections,
  • hair biopsy.

As a result of laboratory research, the doctor prescribes the most appropriate therapeutic course. Now that you have learned a little more about focal alopecia in children, the causes and treatment are the following topics that will be covered in this article. You can read about other types of alopecia here.

Causes and stages of childhood hair loss

Most common The causes of alopecia areata in childhood and adolescence are infectious diseases, psychological trauma and thyroid disorders.

Also, this disease may be the result of injuries or burns in the scalp.

At the initial stage there are small single areas of baldness, which have an oval or rounded shape. Without treatment, over time, the lesions may grow in size and unite with each other.

During the progressive or active stage within a radius of 1.5-2 centimeters from the center of alopecia, the hairs are pulled out painlessly after a slight sling. If you look closely at such a hair, it is clear that it has no root gapas well as numerous splits.

The skin in this area redden and slightly swell. This is followed by a stationary stage in which the pockets of baldness become less pronounced, both in shape and color.

At the regressive stage, hairless areas are covered with hairs in the form of a gun. Later, the fluff becomes more dense and becomes a natural hair color.

Having dealt with the causes and stages of focal alopecia in a child, treatment is a matter of concern to many parents. The main stages of baldness in adults can also be found on our website.

Focal alopecia in a child: treatment

Diagnosed in the early stages of children's focal alopecia successfully treated. Before you begin therapy, it is important that the doctor identifies all the factors that could trigger the development of this ailment.

In approximately 60 cases out of 100, this disease passes naturally without a trace. If not, the child is prescribed complex therapy, as a result of which autoimmune imbalance is corrected in all organs and tissues.

A good effect can be achieved with the help of an internal intake of vitamin-mineral complexes and external exposure to tinctures or ointments based on garlic or red pepper extract.

In clinical and salon conditions for the treatment of nesting alopecia in children most often use the following physiotherapy methods:

Darsonvalization leads the ranking of the most effective and safe procedures. It involves the effects of currents on small vessels, nerve endings, fat and sweat glands, as a result of which their functions are activated.

This increases the nutrition of hair valuable components, as well as accelerated metabolic processes. As a result, hair grows faster, becoming strong and strong.

Cryomassage causes intense narrowing and dilation of the capillaries. As a result, the blood rushes to the tissues and stimulates active hair growth.

For this procedure, use a swab with liquid nitrogen at very low temperatures.

Procedure phonophoresis involves the introduction of drugs through ultrasound. After that, all metabolic processes are enhanced, and hair regeneration is accelerated. Preparations for this procedure can be made on the basis of ethyl alcohol or distilled water.

For the purpose of general strengthening therapy, doctors prescribe the intake of B vitamins, as well as drugs that have an immune-modeling effect.

For the treatment of severe stages, special injections or taking corticosteroids are prescribed. As you can see, it is important to recognize alopecia alopecia in time for a child, treatment will depend on timely referral to a specialist.

  • telogen hair loss what is it? Does the treatment for this type of alopecia?
  • How to recognize and cure total alopecia, what it is and how serious?

Folk remedies

For the treatment of alopecia in children should be selected only those folk remedies that act safely and effectively at the same time.

Well proven herbal teas based on nettle, chamomile, sage, calendula and burdock root.

They should be used for rinsing children's hair, and masks can be made from herbal gruel. This method guarantees an excellent anti-inflammatory and bactericidal effect.

Effective is the application of burdock oil on the areas of baldness and the area around them. It enhances hair growth and gives them strength.

Hair transplantation

When do you need a hair transplant? Hair transplantation procedure for focal alopecia in children extremely rare due to the unpredictability of development and the risk of recurrence.

However, in some cases this is the only method to get rid of the problem. Hair transplantation is recommended if other treatments have no effect.

This method helps to restore hair growth in areas with scars and other injuries of the skin. However, in any case, it is important to consult a doctor.

Timely diagnosis of alopecia areata in a child gives every chance for a quick recovery. The maximum effect can be achieved through an optimal combination of external and internal effects.

Types of pathology ↑

Experts identify the following types of baldness in a child:

  1. Under nestingal alopecia in children means pathology, which manifests itself in the form of smooth round spots on the head (instead of lost hair). The skin remains normal (without traces of dandruff, scars, damage, ulcers). This condition - focal baldness.
  2. Partial baldness - characterized by selective hair loss of the baby at the temples, at the crown. The hairline gradually shifts towards the back of the head.
  3. Complete baldness - hair becomes much thinner, starts to fall out over the entire surface of the head.
  4. Local - develops on the background of thinning hair. Their complete loss is observed only in some parts of the head.

After a detailed examination, collection of complaints and routine analyzes (complete blood count, urine test, blood test for sugar), the doctor may prescribe an examination by narrow specialists:

  • dermatologist
  • by a neurologist
  • a psychologist
  • gastroenterologist,
  • endocrinologist,
  • rheumatologist
  • ENT doctor,
  • infectious disease specialist
  • hematologist,
  • a dentist
  • a geneticist.

The above experts will help determine the exact cause of alopecia, prescribe an effective treatment.

Therapy methods ↑

It is possible to treat focal alopecia in children using several methods. Restorative therapy includes the following medications:

  • drugs that modulate the immune system (Viferon, Kipferon, Cycloferon, Anaferon, Immunal),
  • B vitamins - B1, B12, B6, A, E, C, K (vitamin therapy),
  • Phytin, Pantothenic acid, Methionine.

In case of total baldness, hormone therapy is indicated (Advantan, Lokoid, Elokom, Afloderm, use of prednisone ointment).

Treatment of pathology that could cause baldness:

  • anemia is treated with iron supplements,
  • infection - by taking antibiotics,
  • viral pathology - antiviral agents,
  • skin fungus - antimycotic drugs.

Additional methods of treatment of focal alopecia for children include experts such as:

  1. Photosensitizing therapy - treatment with ultraviolet light using Ammifurin cream, Beroxan.
  2. Darsonvalization - treatment of alopecia with Darsonval currents. Fights baldness, in particular, seborrheic etiology.
  3. Hair transplant is a “despair” method. It is used when other methods have been ineffective (after severe head injuries, chemical or thermal burns, after chemotherapy).

The use of Minoxidil in children is strictly prohibited. It causes a number of serious abnormalities in the child’s body. When child baldness is prohibited:

  1. Haircut bald - there is an opinion that this procedure eliminates baldness, making the hair thicker and more luxurious. But the thickness of the hair depends on the genes. Therefore, haircut bald bring the child discomfort.
  2. The use of tar - the effectiveness of such a procedure has not been proven, but there is a high risk of developing a strong allergic reaction.
  3. Masks based on essential oils - can serve the development of allergies, blockage of sebaceous glands, inflammation and disruption of their work.
  4. Use for the fight against childish alopecia adult drugs. They will be completely ineffective, since the causes of the development of pathology in children and adults are different. In addition, it is extremely dangerous: the components of such drugs can harm the child, causing a lot of adverse reactions, allergies.

The use of corticosteroids and other means ↑

Some types of baldness, including alopecia areata in children, can go away on their own. In such cases, young patients are observed by a physician for a year. The specialist monitors the condition of the hair, the speed of their growth.

Corticosteroid drugs for local use. This method of therapy is used for limited forms of the disease. More often used corticosteroids in the form of a cream, lotion. The drug is applied to the affected areas 1 time per day, in the evening, capturing at least 1 cm of healthy skin. Using a lotion may cause dry skin. In this case, apply the cream.

Extensive lesions are treated with occlusions using disposable shower caps. Preparations are applied overnight for 3 weeks, then a break of 1 week is indicated. Recommend to take at least 4-5 such courses.

Another way to use corticosteroids is injection inside the nidus. This is quite a painful procedure, it is performed after anesthesia of the skin surface with special creams. The procedure is allowed for children from 10 years of age. The drug is injected subcutaneously into the lesion in two ways: injections are made every 1-2 cm or in several places, followed by massaging (for better absorption). This treatment is carried out every 4-6 weeks.

Corticosteroids and their systemic use are indicated for severe forms of pathology or for the ineffectiveness of other treatment methods. The first 2 weeks of the drug is prescribed daily, then gradually reduce the dose throughout the month. Such use of corticosteroids is fraught with the development of side effects: hypertension, growth retardation, telangiectasia. Possible recurrence of the disease after the end of the course of treatment with corticosteroids.

Anthralin is a drug often used to treat psoriasis and alopecia. It is used to combat common baldness. It is used under the supervision of a physician. The drug is toxic, can cause severe dermatitis if used improperly. For children, the product is prepared by a pharmacist on the basis of an ointment or cream. Anthralin therapy is carried out according to a special scheme. The concentration of the substance and the duration of exposure means increase gradually - every 3 days.

Additional drugs ↑

Diphenylcyclopropenone is an effective remedy for the treatment of alopecia areata. Refer to the local immunomodulators, it is used to treat children over 12 years of age. This tool is not officially approved to combat alopecia, but has shown its effectiveness in clinical studies. Diphenylcyclopropenone does not have a mutagenic, teratogenic, toxic effect on the child's body. He has no side effects. Therapy with such a drug is carried out in large medical centers, under the constant supervision of doctors.

Minoxidil is often used to treat male pattern baldness. The effectiveness of the drug is not clinically proven. For the treatment of alopecia in children, this drug is rarely used (due to the development of adverse reactions).

Such drugs as Cyclosporin A, Tacrolimus, Interferon A are used as prescribed by a doctor.

Expert Tips ↑

Doctors recommend using only baby shampoos for washing the baby’s head. Such funds should be used no more than 1 time per week, in other cases, decoctions of herbs (nettle, chamomile, birch, rosemary) are prepared. The diet of the baby should include protein, vitamins, minerals and trace elements.

In winter, it is recommended to give your baby vitamin-mineral complexes and fish oil capsules. To combat the dryness of the scalp, masks based on black radish juice, aloe and avocado oil are used. Parents must properly comb the child's hair: long hair is combed from the tips to the roots, and short hair - on the contrary.You can not make a child tight hairstyle (tails, pigtails). For hairstyles it is necessary to use only soft elastic bands and small hairpins.

Prevention of the development of baldness in children includes the following procedures:

  1. Timely treatment of disease. The chronic form of any pathology may be complicated by hair loss.
  2. Full nutrition.
  3. Normalized daily routine, proper rest.
  4. Often and short cut boys.
  5. Shampooing no more than 2 times a week.

In early childhood, there is physiological alopecia, which does not require treatment.

The coat will recover on its own.

Content

If in adults hair loss can be justified by the way of life and impaired activity of the body, then focal alopecia in children raises many questions. She may be congenital or acquired, depending on the age at which symptoms appear. Photos and manifestations in both cases will be the same.

Causes of Fallout

Alopecia areata is a hair loss phenomenon in a specific area of ​​the head that is temporary. After hair fallout, the formation of new hair usually occurs in the damaged area. In the photo such baldness looks like bald spots on the head.

Due to the fact that the hairline is restored, this form of the disease is not the most dangerous possible. You can determine the appearance of pathology at home, just find a photo of alopecia and compare it with your case. In the photo you can see small pockets of round-shaped baldness, which have hair on the periphery that can be easily removed. Localization of spots occurs in the parietal and occipital part of the head. However, the diagnosis and treatment should be carried out by a doctor.

The reasons for the focal process in a child are as follows:

  1. Congenital causes are the realization of a genetic predisposition that manifests itself in the first 3 years of life. To control the occurrence of alopecia or prevent its development with this mechanism of disease is problematic.
  2. Acquired alopecia occurs because of a cause that depends on external factors. The first factor in this case is nutrition. Lack of trace elements (zinc, selenium, iron) leads to thinning hair.
  3. Alopecia of the child may be a sign of a deviation in the functioning of the endocrine glands. The most important are male sex hormones, regardless of the sex of the child.
  4. The psyche of the child is unstable, so baldness can occur due to a stressful situation. It may be the beginning of a kindergarten, school, change of residence or death of relatives.
  5. The causes of many acquired conditions are medication. Particularly affected by the long course of taking anticonvulsants, the treatment of a child for cancer or the correction of physical development lag.
  6. Serious infections contribute to the development of alopecia in children (tuberculosis, typhoid fever).
  7. The reasons for the development process are often the result of autoimmune reactions of the body.
  8. Alopecia in children can occur as a consequence of ringworm, which is manifested by itching, the appearance of scales on the skin and subsequent hair loss. Photos of this disease is different from the usual baldness.
  9. In some cases, helminthiasis leads to alopecia.

Treatment depends on the reasons that led to baldness in children. The effectiveness of the latter can be assessed by the photo "before" and "after."

Principles of treatment

Treatment of pathology is divided into etiological, tonic. Etiological treatment is the elimination of the cause of alopecia.

It includes the following options:

  • Correction of the hormonal status, if the causes of pathology are in violation of the level of hormones. In this case, corticosteroid hormones are prescribed only when absolutely necessary. Usually the case is to increase the level of male sex hormones.
  • Antifungal agents are most often applied topically, help to cope with depriving, eliminate the cause of loss. This treatment helps to prevent the spread of baldness in a short time.

The child often uses a wait-and-see tactic when specific treatment is not prescribed until a certain point.

As for the child, the parents try to treat baldness at home. This is a struggle with folk remedies, using herbal infusions and decoctions. The use of such methods is also possible after consultation with the doctor. Examples of photos show that the use of such measures effectively helps to cure it of alopecia in a shorter time than using only traditional medicine.

At home, plants that contain plant hormones can be used: hops, grapes, alfalfa are such folk remedies. Treatment in such situations implies the use of lotions from these plants or the intake of decoctions.

Treatment of a child with folk remedies in addition to the main therapy gives good results, which can be seen in the photo.

Alopecia in children of different ages

Children 6-7 years old usually go to school and are highly susceptible to stress. At this age, trichotillomania can occur - involuntary pulling of hair when they break off at different lengths. If the child does not control himself, the help of a psychiatrist will be needed. At the same age, baldness is possible on the background of stress, since hair follicles can react to the disorder of the body.

Children 6-7 years old may lose hair due to:

  • Taking antibiotics.
  • Monotonous nutrition.

    Seborrheic alopecia occurs in puberty and often develops against the background of seborrhea preceding it. Increased sebum secretion leads to thinning and brittle hair, the occurrence of dandruff.

    Oil masks can cause blockages in the sebaceous glands, since their work has not been fully established. A positive effect can cause a mask of oil, water and emulsifier - the components today can be purchased to create homemade cosmetics.

    Hair strengthening

    In all cases, immunomodulators are prescribed, pantothenic acid, methionine, vitamins A, C, E, B1, B6, B12 are preparations for general strengthening of the body.

    Fungal diseases can be treated by using antifungal ointments and lotions; in severe cases, antifungal agents will be needed.

    Hair care in children involves the systematic grooming of boys and the tying of weak tails to girls. Head to prevent loss of weak hair should be washed no more than twice a week.

    Hormonal alopecia in women

    Beautiful thick hair can not be in a person with poor health. Dull and brittle hair talk about health problems and failure in the body. Hair loss seems to warn of the existing danger to well-being. Before you run to the supermarket for a mask from hair loss, you should deal with the cause of hair loss.

    The most important factor in intensive hair loss are hormonal disruptions in the body.

    Alopecia occurs in violation of the ratio of male hormones - androgens and female - estrogen. Estrogens contribute to the nutrition of the hair roots, their radiance and strength. Androgens Damage hair follicles. increase the secretion of the sebaceous glands, inhibit their growth, cause thinning and brittle hair. In those cases, when the amount of androgens, more precisely testosterone, begins to predominate over the female sex hormones, hair loss is observed that cannot be self-treated. A feature of the hormone alopecia is considered that women never have complete baldness due to hormonal disruption.

    Disruption of hormonal levels is possible for several reasons.

    In girls at the age of 16-20, when androgens begin to be actively produced in the body. Sex hormones are produced in the adrenal glands and ovaries. Accordingly, with diseases in these organs, the balance between estrogens and androgens can be disturbed, with subsequent hair loss.

    A sharp decrease in the production of estrogen and increased production of androgens leads to a coarsening of the voice, the appearance of excess vegetation on the body, a decrease in libido, acne, dryness and hair loss.

    It is recommended if you have these signs to donate blood for the content of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, androgens, estrogens.

  • Diseases of the thyroid gland.
    Problems with the thyroid gland are manifested by dry skin, nail layering, brittleness and hair loss. Diseases of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism) lead to an insufficient or excessive amount of hormones, which further causes intense hair loss. If you suspect a hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, you should donate blood for the content of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, a thyreotropic hormone.
  • Menopause.

    In any human body there are both female and male sex hormones. Female hormones determine the condition of the skin, hair, nails of a woman. With the cessation of the formation of female sex hormones during menopause, the formation of estrogen by the ovaries decreases. The condition of the hair becomes threatened. As a rule, during menopause, every second woman complains of hair loss.

    Estrogens are produced not only in the female body, but also in plants. For a long time, people have known plants with an andandrogenic effect. Estrogens contained in plants are called phytoestrogens. And although their action is not as strong as synthetic estrogens, but they do not cause such side effects as the formation of tumors and inflammation of the veins, which are characteristic of receiving replacement therapy.

    Zinc and vitamin B6 have a strong natural estrogenic effect. Both substances reduce the activity of the sebaceous glands, prevent hair loss, strengthen hair follicles and accelerate hair growth.

    Most phytoestrogens are found in oregano, linden, dwarf palm, hops, boron uterus, linseed, St. John's wort, grapes, soybean, olive, palm, sesame oil. These plants are able to cause an effect in the body similar to human estrogen. Now on the pharmaceutical market, more and more plant complexes of phytoestrogens appear. But before taking plant estrogen it is worth analyzing the cause of hair loss and consult with a specialist.

    Alopecia due to hormonal imbalances is painless.

    Failures inside the body can not manifest themselves. It is because of this that it is not worthwhile to self-medicate and uncontrollably take medications for alopecia. After all, hormonal disorders can be aggravated. To avoid this, we recommend that you contact a trichologist, a hair problem specialist.

    Diagnosis in trichology.

    In order to identify the cause of baldness and to draw up a treatment plan during the consultation process, the trichologist will necessarily send you for tests:

    - general blood analysis,

    - biochemical blood test (with the inclusion of trace elements),

    - thyroid hormones,

    - mineralogram (analysis of the composition of nails or hair for the content of trace elements),

    - spectral analysis of hair.

    Based on the test results, an experienced trichologist will diagnose and write out the necessary treatment. Be patient, because hair restoration is a long process.

    Alopecia in children

    Alopecia in children

    Alopecia in children - chronic dermatosis. accompanied by intensive pathological thinning and hair loss in the scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes. In children, alopecia is less common than in adults, but it is an actual problem of modern pediatrics and pediatric dermatology. Since the causes of alopecia in children are in the field of consideration of various disciplines (pediatric gastroenterology, pediatric endocrinology, pediatric neurology), the diagnosis and treatment of the disease requires the integration of the efforts of various specialists.

    Causes of Alopecia in Children

    In general, the cause of alopecia in children is the effect on the hair follicles of various adverse factors leading to progressive hair loss. Alopecia in a child may be hereditary: there are reports of familial forms of baldness, when parents of children with alopecia have hair loss from an early age.

    The basis of alopecia in children may lie in the imbalance of trace elements. In this case, the problem usually develops in children with gastrointestinal diseases (gastroduodenitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, malabsorption syndrome, constipation, helminthiasis, dysbacteriosis, etc.). In the development of alopecia in children, a significant role is played by the lack of such elements as zinc, copper, selenium, chromium molybdenum, as well as vitamins - cyanocobalamin, folic acid, etc.

    According to clinical studies, there is a close relationship between baldness and immunological disorders: alopecia is often found in children with vitiligo and atopic dermatitis. Neuroendocrine disorders can lead to the occurrence of alopecia in children: thyroid dysfunction (hypothyroidism), nervous and mental trauma.

    Among other causes of alopecia in children, there are indications of burns. hair shaft injuries (for example, with tight braiding of girls' braids, trichotillomania), blood diseases (anemia), X-ray irradiation, infectious diseases (flu. pneumonia. erysipelas. pyoderma, chicken pox, etc.).

    Classification of alopecia in children

    Congenital alopecia in children is quite rare and is usually combined with a number of other anomalies: congenital epidermolysis, folded skin, endocrine disorders. The cause of congenital alopecia in children is ectomesodermal dysplasia, in which part of the hair follicles are simply absent, therefore the hair does not grow in certain areas of the scalp.

    In children of the first year of life, the so-called physiological alopecia is possible - hair loss in the forehead and neck region due to constant friction. In this case, hair growth resumes with time without special treatment.

    In most cases, children have focal or atrophy alopecia. Focal (epithelial) alopecia is characterized by the appearance of rounded hairless areas on the head. When atrophy of alopecia in children (Broca's pseudopelade), some small pockets of baldness are more often located in the frontal parietal areas, merging with each other, they form outlines resembling flames.

    Seborrheic alopecia in children usually manifests in the pubertal period and develops against the background of previous seborrhea.

    Symptoms of alopecia in children

    Focal (gnezdny) alopecia often develops in children older than 3 years. In typical cases, one or several centers of baldness appear on the head of the child. Sections devoid of hair, have clear borders, round or oval shape, the size from coin to palm. Outbreaks tend to increase peripherally and merge with each other. The typical localization of baldness zones is the occipital or parietal region. Loss of hair can also occur on the eyebrows.

    When nesting alopecia in children, the skin color in the area of ​​hair loss is not changed, hyperemia and desquamation are absent, however, there is a widening of the mouths of hair follicles visible by eye. Along the periphery of the foci of alopecia, the hairs are broken off, have a thickened root and a narrow rod, resembling an exclamation mark in shape. These hairs easily fall out, contributing to the expansion of the affected area. Quite often, a child with alopecia alopecia is diagnosed with vitiligo. atopic dermatitis. increased brittle nails, discoloration and shape of the nail plates.

    With a favorable course of focal alopecia in children, single foci eventually become covered with hair — initially discolored, then pigmented. The presence of multiple foci with a tendency to increase the area of ​​baldness may be accompanied by their merging into polymorphic figures and the transition to total baldness not only of the head, but also of other parts of the body.

    When atrophy of alopecia in children, the centers of baldness are formed in the form of flames. The skin in the area of ​​the affected areas is atrophic, smooth, shiny, without peeling and signs of inflammation, the mouth of the follicles are not visible. In the foci of baldness can be found some bunches of preserved hair. Restoration of natural hair growth with atrophating alopecia is impossible, but the progression of baldness can be stopped.

    Seborrheic alopecia in children begins with the appearance of oily hair, at the roots of which scales and crusts form. Peeling is accompanied by intense itching and scratching of the scalp, with which begins hair loss. The process of thinning the hair is replaced by the formation of a bald patch that extends from the forehead to the back of the head. Over time, at the top of the hair completely fall out, normal hair growth remains in the form of a border on the back of the head and temples.

    Diagnosis of alopecia in children

    If a pediatrician or the child’s parents notice signs of alopecia, an extended diagnostic search is needed to determine the causes of the disease. Children with alopecia need advice from a pediatric dermatologist. trichologist. pediatric gastroenterologist. pediatric endocrinologist. child neurologist.

    Examination of the gastrointestinal tract may include analysis of feces for dysbacteriosis, determination of Helicobacter ELISA and PCR. УЗИ брюшной полости. ФГДС. Производится исследование тиреоидных гормонов (ТТГ. Т4. АТ к тиреоглобулину ), УЗИ щитовидной железы. определение уровня ионизированного Ca и кортизола.To determine the microelement status in children with alopecia, a spectral study of the hair and blood for trace elements is performed. Using ELISA diagnostics revealed the presence of antibodies to hemolytic streptococcus. herpes mushrooms, giardia. helminths.

    The actual trichological diagnosis includes a trichogram. photo trichograms. computer diagnostics of the scalp. A biopsy of the scalp and subsequent histological examination is used only in clinically unclear cases to exclude cicatricial alopecia that accompanies systemic lupus erythematosus or lichen planus.

    Focal alopecia in children should be distinguished from nesting baldness in fungal diseases (trichophytia, microsporia). When in doubt about the diagnosis and the lack of clarity of the causes of baldness, the child should be consulted by a mycologist. With common forms of alopecia, children undergo rheoencephalography. allowing to exclude possible circulatory disorders in cerebral vessels.

    Treatment of alopecia in children

    Treatment of alopecia in children should be multi-layered and based on the causes of hair loss. The pathogenetic treatment of baldness is prescribed and monitored by a specialist.

    In all cases of alopecia in children, the appointment of general strengthening therapy is indicated: immunomodulators, vitamins (A, C, E, B1, B6, B12), phytin, pantothenic acid, methionine in age dosages. Systemic use of hormonal drugs is advisable only for total alopecia in children.

    Topical therapy of alopecia in children includes ultraviolet irradiation of foci of baldness after lubricating them with photosensitizing preparations based on the extract of parsnip, ammi large, methoxalene, darsonvalization of the scalp. A daily cooling of the scalp with chloroethyl is carried out, rubbing emulsions and tinctures, prednisone ointment (with Broca's pseudopelade). In cicatricial alopecia, which has developed as a result of a burn, conservative treatment is ineffective. In the future, such children can be hair transplanted.

    In the process of treating alopecia in children, the help of a child psychologist may be required. since baldness seriously injures the psyche of a child, lowers self-esteem, creates isolation and difficulty in communicating with peers.

    Prognosis of alopecia in children

    Some children have spontaneous regrowth of hair growth throughout the year without any treatment. Unfavorable in relation to the prognosis are cases of alopecia in children, developing in early childhood, accompanied by widespread baldness or complete loss of hair, associated lesions of smooth skin and nails. In the event that the causes of alopecia in children have not been identified or have not been eliminated, relapses are possible.

    Prevention of alopecia requires the medical examination of children for the timely detection of deviations in health, treatment of chronic infections, organization of good nutrition. Hair care in children includes the systematic grooming of boys, and the avoidance of braiding of tight braids in girls. To prevent the loss of weak hair in children with alopecia, it is recommended to wash your hair no more than 2 times a week.

    Details about alopecia in children

    For some specific reasons or a combination of predisposing circumstances, hair loss occurs with the formation of alopecia patches. The plots can be small and single or voluminous, merging with each other, forming whole islands without hair.

    The science that studies the process of hair loss is called trichology, and a specialist knowledgeable in this field of medicine is called a trichologist. Since the cause of alopecia is very often not in the hair itself, but in the pathological conditions of the body, specialists such as the following play an important role in eliminating this problem:

  • an immunologist,
  • gastroenterologist,
  • endocrinologist,
  • dermatologist,
  • neurologist.
  • In most cases, only the harmonious work of a few narrow specialists will successfully solve the problem of baldness in a child, because hair loss usually characterizes the secondary nature of the problem against the background of the manifestation of the underlying disease .

    Etiotropic factors

    Spilled or focal alopecia in children develops due to a number of etiotropic factors. The most common causes of hair loss in children of different ages, specialists trichologists determine the following:

  • congenital or acquired immune pathologies,
  • violation of metabolic processes in the body of the baby,
  • lack of vitamins in the child’s body, which is due to any nutritional nuances or unbalanced daily diet,
  • in some cases, the necessary vitamins and minerals may simply not be absorbed by the child’s gastrointestinal tract or be generally contraindicated due to the presence of systemic pathologies,
  • in adolescents, alopecia can manifest itself in the puberty period, when hormonal changes in the body occur,
  • large physical and psychological stress in adolescence, stressful situations, psycho-emotional features of the transition period can provoke the active appearance of alopecia,
  • Vitamin and mineral deficiencies in food, that is, if food products lack cyanocobalamin, thiamine, folic acid, zinc, copper, selenium, iron and calcium, the percentage ratio in the child’s body will be minimal, and therefore the risk of alopecia increases,
  • eating foods that are saturated with chemical elements, such as nitrates, pesticides, carcinogens, emulsifiers, flavor enhancers and various additives that increase shelf life, is a common cause of alopecia in the modern world,
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (chronic processes in the stomach, pathologies of the liver and gall bladder, chronic constipation or dysbacteriosis),
  • skin injuries that characterize damage to the hair follicle, for example, burns, daily squeezing or clamping in time of braiding or styling the hair,
  • skin problems preceding or accompanying alopecia, that is, seborrhea, chicken pox, pyoderma, manifesting herpes of various types,
  • acute pathologies provoking the appearance of alopecia, for example, influenza, anemia, including the malignant form,
  • alopecia in a child occurs in connection with the course of chemotherapy for advanced cancer processes,
  • vital activity of pathogenic microflora provokes purulent-septic processes that can cause hair loss.

    The destruction of the hair bulb is characteristic of many pathological conditions of the body in all age categories and social strata, which in most cases can be prevented, stopped and cured.

    The children's body is most vulnerable to the aggressive conditions of modern life, so alopecia in a child is not considered rare and have many methods of informative diagnosis and successful treatment.

    Clinical features

    There are several varieties of alopecia, which correspond to certain symptoms. So experts trichologists distinguish the following common forms of alopecia:

  • infant,
  • focal,
  • atrophic,
  • seborrheic,
  • mixed is a combination of etiotropic and pathological factors.

    Infant form

    Alopecia in children under 2–3 years of age is mainly caused by such factors as genetic predisposition, rickets and the usual mechanical damage to the hair due to prolonged lying (damage is noted on the occipital and temporal regions of the head). Active therapy of alopecia in children in this case is provided for the progression of rickets. After confirming the clinical diagnosis, child is given a comprehensive treatment aimed at replenishing vitamin D. After a few months in children, almost always, hair growth is completely restored, and all the symptoms of alopecia disappear.

    If the etiological factor lies in the genetic abnormalities of pathological hair growth, its complete or partial absence, the trichologist necessarily consults with an adjacent specialist, that is, with a geneticist. In the case of the establishment of a genetic pathology aggravated by a hereditary factor, hair may be completely absent.

    Focal form

    With focal alopecia, children have characteristic foci on the hair part of the head, with clear boundaries of areas without hair of the most diverse forms. The size of the pathological focus can vary from a five-kopeck coin to an average palm. There may be several sites of alopecia, which tend to merge with each other or remain in the form of islets. The structure of the hair itself is quite changed, that is, fragile ends are noted with a thickening of the root, which easily leaves the enlarged mouth of the hair follicle.

    Atrophic form

    Atrophic alopecia appears in the form of uneven areas of smooth skin with a complete lack of hair and traces of the hair follicle. This form is characterized by the lack of the possibility of hair restoration in children. but In most cases it is possible to stop the process of hair loss at an early stage. alopecia. The causes of the pathological process are usually in the impact on the child's body of some aggressive factor or mechanical damage.

    Seborrheic form

    Seborrheic form in children with alopecia is most often observed in the pubertal period, when hormonal surge and restructuring of the body occur. The following symptoms are noted:

  • greasy hair
  • intense itching
  • the formation of a large number of scales at the hair roots,
  • hair loss,
  • formation of bald patches, which usually grows afterwards.

    In this case, no special treatment is required. Usually the problem is solved with the help of a balanced diet with an increase in the amount of vitamins, minerals and amino acids. Also, experts recommend to strengthen the hair roots with the help of traditional medicine recipes, pharmacy masks and balms.

    Diagnostic measures

    The very first symptom of alopecia in a child is considered a good reason to visit a doctor. In this case, we need children's specialists, such as a dermatologist, gastroenterologist, pediatrician, mycologist, endocrinologist, and trichologist. Visual inspection is not effective enough, therefore, a comprehensive examination is appointed, including the following measures:

  • general blood and urine tests
  • the amount of glucose in the blood on an empty stomach and with a load
  • biochemical blood tests that will give information about the work of the liver, kidneys,
  • blood electrolyte composition
  • a blood test for the presence of a ToRCH infection (toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, herpes, rubella),
  • analysis of feces on the eggs of worms, the degree of digestibility of food, the presence of dysbiosis,
  • specific tests for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the gastrointestinal tract,
  • Ultrasound of the internal organs and the thyroid gland,
  • gastroduodenoscopy, however, due to the pronounced gag reflex in children is very rare,
  • a blood test for the presence of antibodies to all varieties of helminthic invasion,
  • scraping from the surface of the skin of the scalp to the possible activity of pathogenic microflora,
  • biopsy of scalp fragments to establish the exact cause and an effective plan for the treatment of focal alopecia,
  • Trichogramma allows you to find out the degree of damage to the hair follicle,
  • Computed and magnetic resonance imaging of the skin and other organs, for example, the gastrointestinal tract or blood-forming organs, are considered the most informative, especially in the case of atrophic alopecia.

    Alopecia Treatment

    Treatment of alopecia in children is to eliminate the cause. Usually, hair loss in a child is characterized as a sign of the vital activity of a pathological microflora, malfunction of the internal organs and systems, and, most often, elementary hypo or vitamin deficiency. The plan of therapeutic measures is determined by the doctor individually.. taking into account age, features of clinical manifestations and other physiological aspects. For example, in the treatment of alopecia areata the following methods and means are used:

  • multivitamin complexes,
  • physiotherapy,
  • drugs that improve microcirculation in the tissues surrounding the hair follicle,
  • immunomodulators are used in older children (12-16 years old).

    Most experts are of the opinion that the cause of baldness should be treated, and in relation to the restoration of hair, they choose the method of waiting.

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    Types of alopecia and symptoms

    Focal baldness

    The first symptoms are the appearance on the head of individual sections without hair - they have clear rounded borders. The skin looks healthy - without inflammation, scales and crusts. The disease can manifest only during the day, while the lesions may be several or just one.

    Causes of hair loss

    Hair loss associated with stress, goes away by itself: 1.5-3 months the hair falls out into pieces, then begin to grow again without the use of treatment.

    Depending on age, children may experience various causes of hair loss. Newborns have a risk to the development of rickets, as they receive less portion of the ultraviolet, especially those who were born in the autumn - this can cause baldness. Baldness can also occur due to genetic defects: then the hair can fall out on the face, including eyebrows and eyelashes.

    In children from 1 to 2, less than 3 years, there may be a desire to pull their hair - this is the same habit as sucking a finger or a pacifier. The child can be cut short to reduce the mechanical effect on the hair. In toddlers, baldness may occur from contact with a large number of people, animals.

    Alopecia areata is manifested in children from 3 years. Broca's pseudopelade - focal baldness, which is accompanied by atrophy of the skin on the head and hair restoration does not occur. The disease is quite rare and the causes of the occurrence are still not known.

  • Worm invasion.
  • Iron deficiency.

    About a year after the onset of baldness due to the above reasons, the hair begins to recover without treatment.

    What not to do when balding in children?

    When alopecia in children can not use drugs and lotions for adults. The causes of baldness are not identical, therefore, it is worth choosing the means according to age. There is no need to cut the baby's head, because children experience stress on this background - it ceases to be like adults who walk with long hair.

    Haircut bald does not help in increasing the thickness of the hair, because their thickness and lifetime are genetically engineered - a kind of correction can only be carried out by proper nutrition.

    Children should not experiment with tar, plant extracts and essential oils. Oils can cause skin burns - and even when diluted there is a high risk of allergies.

    To strengthen the hair of a child, you need to properly wash your hair. To do this, you need a baby shampoo that does not overdry skin and spray for easy combing (use no more than 1 time per week). Baby hair is not salted quickly, so if you bathe your baby every day, you can simply wash your hair with decoction of nettle, birch leaves, rosemary and chamomile.

    Proper nutrition - the guarantee of health. A full diet with a variety of foods, plus a vitamin-mineral complex and fish oil will help strengthen the hair.

    It is necessary to comb hair starting from the tips, girls are recommended to use soft elastic bands and hairpins that do not scratch the skin.

    On the problem of hair loss on video.

    Treatment of the disease

    The treatment is based on the causes of hair loss. It can include both medical therapy and the help of a psychologist, as well as traditional methods of dealing with the ailment.

    In children, ultraviolet irradiation of foci of hair loss is performed after lubrication with the preparations "Beroxan", "Meladinin", "Ammifurin". The head can be cooled daily with chloroethyl, rubbing emulsions, with Broca's pseudopelade, prednisolone ointment. The doctor may prescribe the use of hormones or steroids, the introduction of parenteral extracts of the placenta and aloe.

    Hormonal alopecia: types, causes and treatment

    Baldness in both women and men causes serious psychological discomfort. Most often, the reason lies in the violation of metabolic and hormonal processes. Of all patients with alopecia, women account for about 19% of the total.

    Stages of baldness in men and women

    Massive hair loss in women can be caused by various endocrine disorders, starvation, malabsorption syndrome, vitamin deficiency and insufficient consumption of trace elements in food. With diffuse alopecia, an important role is played by a hereditary factor. Stress can also trigger the onset of the disease. Disorders in the ovaries and thyroid gland are the main factors in the occurrence of hormone alopecia.

    Types of Alopecia

    All types of baldness are divided into 2 large groups:

  • Cicatricial - hair follicles atrophy completely, in this place the hair can no longer grow.
  • Нерубцовая – фолликулы находятся в «спящем» и угнетенном состоянии, правильно подобранная терапия делает возможным восстановление волосяного покрова.

    Non-ciliated include: diffuse, focal and androgenetic alopecia.

    Also baldness is divided into groups, relative to the main localization of hair loss and the type of baldness.

    Focal alopecia in children: features and causes

    The disease is characterized by its own characteristics, which have differences depending on the age of the child.

    • At babies of chest age most often the problem arises when rickets is suspected. Also, hair loss can be associated with constant contact with the pillow. The child rubs against its surface with a head, with the result that alopecia appears. This problem is solved independently as the child grows up.
    • Toddlers quite often they like to pull at their hair, touching them or twisting them on their fingers. If this habit is ignored, then a slight loss of strand from such a mechanical action is possible. This is a psychological problem that does not need to be treated. The task of the parents is to wean the baby from this habit and to consult a psychologist.
    • In children older than 3 years the cause of baldness can be a fungal disease due to contact with sick children or animals. These can be ringworm or microsporia infection. Also baldness can appear due to weakening of the immune system. Despite the treatment, some children have their hair restored on their own, and some, even after treatment, do not have the opportunity to achieve the same thickness.
    • Children 6-7 years and older experiencing mental stress, as they go to the garden or school. Stress, anxiety, fatigue can also cause baldness. Therefore, it is very important that parents monitor the emotional state of their children and, if necessary, visit specialists to restore mental health and nervous system.

    In this video, an expert will talk about the causes and treatment of lopetia in children:

    Diagnosis of the nest form of the disease

    If parents have found balding heads on their children, a visit to a dermatologist or trichologist is mandatory. Alopecia areata in children is rather difficult to be treated. And an important component is timely access to a doctor and carrying out all necessary diagnostic measures.

    First of all, you need to visit a pediatrician. According to his recommendations, if necessary, the pediatrician prescribes a consultation with a psychologist, a dermatologist or a trichologist. Specialists will conduct a medical examination and appoint the following activities:

    1. It is necessary to pass an analysis of feces to exclude the presence of parasites in the body.
    2. Conduct analysis to identify dysbiosis.
    3. Conduct an ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and the thyroid gland.
    4. To eliminate disturbances in the endocrine system, it is necessary to pass an analysis for hormones.
    5. The child is prescribed Trichogramma.
    6. If there is increased baldness, a biopsy of the tissue from the scalp is performed.

    Also, parents should know that when a disease is detected is prohibited:

    • Cut the baby bald.
    • For hair growth do not use masks or essential oils.
    • Do not use in the treatment of drugs for adults.

    Stages of the disease

    1. Active, in which in places where the loss occurs, redness of the skin and its slight swelling are visible. Child worried about burning. The skin is flaky, damaged hairs visible at the edges of the spot. When you pull the hair, it easily comes out of the skin.
    2. On stationary stage The place of baldness is white. The lesion is not so pronounced.
    3. recourse instead of healthy hairs, fluffy ones are noticeable, which have a paler color than other strands.

    Regardless of the area of ​​baldness, treatment is carried out comprehensively, since the disease is quite difficult to treat. With timely treatment to the doctor there is a high probability that children will stop hair loss. For each patient, the doctor selects an individual method of getting rid of alopecia.

    An important component is to eliminate not the symptoms, but the causes of baldness.. In addition, it is important to improve the microcirculation of blood in the scalp, restore the core structure of the hair, pick up drugs that will stimulate cell proliferation in the epidermis.

    Treatment can be divided into several stages:

    • the use of skin irritating drugs
    • use of immunosuppressive drugs
    • the use of stimulants that will affect the hair follicles,
    • the use of physiotherapy.

    In the initial stage of the disease, skin irritants are most commonly used. These are alcoholic tinctures of hot pepper, eucalyptus, horseradish, onion, garlic, lemongrass. You can use the drug Dithranol, which is a synthetic irritant.

    One of the funds applied to the scalp of the child and leave it for 20 minutes. The course of treatment is about a month., but it can vary depending on the area of ​​baldness.

    Regardless of the stage of the disease, children are prescribed a course of vitamins.. The most effective is Volvit, which includes all the trace elements necessary for growth and strengthening of hair. Also included in the preparation is biotin, which is a source of sulfur. It contributes to the qualitative production of collagen. In addition, it is advisable to drink a course of such drugs as:

    • Retinol.
    • Vitamin C.
    • Tocopherol.
    • Pantothenic acid.

    Steroids

    If the stage is active or stationary, steroid preparations are added to the irritating drugs.. Injections are not advisable, as they are quite painful. Prednisalon has established itself well, which is taken strictly according to the scheme (it must be written by the doctor). You can use Betamethasone ointment or Minoxidil.

    Ointments, solutions and gels are applied to the bald spots. The treatment scheme is most often as follows:

    1. one of the preparations that has an annoying property is applied to the bald areas,
    2. Florocort is then applied in a small amount.

    If the disease is at the stage of regression, Minoxidol is added to the above preparations. It has a beneficial effect on the hair follicles, increases the thickness of the hair, and lengthens its life cycle. For a better result, it is advisable to combine the drug with Dithranol.

    Physiotherapy

    The type of treatment is aimed at strengthening the hair follicles, to improve blood circulation, so that the hair will receive the necessary flow of blood with nutrients. The most commonly prescribed procedures are:

    1. darsonvalization, in which high frequency electric current regenerates the growth of young follicles,
    2. laser therapy, which contributes to the restoration of damaged cells and the growth of new, healthy hairs,
    3. cryotherapy, in which the affected areas are affected by liquid nitrogen,
    4. electrophoresis, which will allow microelements to penetrate the scalp, supplying all the necessary components to hair follicles.

    ethnoscience

    With the help of traditional medicine, alopecia can be cured if it is in its initial stage. There are safe recipes that can be used in the treatment of children. The most effective are:

    • Mask of gruel of onions, which is rubbed into the scalp of a child.
    • You can use a decoction of coltsfoot, which is rubbed into the scalp 2 times a day for a month.
    • Alcohol tincture, which includes red pepper. For its preparation you need 300 g of vodka and 2-3 pods of red pepper. The pods are crushed, poured gruel with vodka and insist 10 days in a dark place.

    Hormonal alopecia: causes

    Very often, a large number of women late in taking into account the fact of hair loss, referring to a specialist already with the appearance of bald patches. This is especially true during pregnancy and feeding. Due to changes in hormonal levels, the amount of testosterone in the blood increases. The hormone itself in women causes depression of the hair follicles. And as a result - massive hair loss. The process of reversible, prolonged therapy and thorough diagnosis of hormonal background will help to restore lost hair, properly selected therapy will help with this.

    Alopecia Alopecia

    With some skin diseases or pathological processes, an acute condition of hair loss occurs. Causes of alopecia areata, as well as the process of occurrence, are unclear. Chemotherapy and antibiotic treatment are a common cause of alopecia areata. Simultaneous hair loss occurs in a certain place, baldness of eyebrows and eyelashes is also possible.

    Clinical manifestations

    The most characteristic localization is the parietal or fronto-parietal part of the head. A distinctive feature of female baldness - it never happens completely, always remain in the focus of hair, thinning and shortened. The process may be accompanied by seborrhea.

    To clarify the causes, it is necessary to note other manifestations of increased testosterone levels in women: acne, male-type hair growth, a violation of the cycle or the absence of menstruation. Often, baldness can be the initial symptom of a serious impaired functioning of the adrenal cortex or ovaries.

    When alopecia areata is not observed a clear picture of clinical manifestations: they appear suddenly, also suddenly and regress. Perhaps a local location, extensive (more than 40% of the total area of ​​hair) and universal. Universal baldness with alopecia areata does not occur only on the head. It is possible and loss of eyebrows, eyelashes and vellus hair on the body. On the skin, in the outbreak, there is redness.

    Treatment and diagnosis

    The main drug used in therapy for treatment is minoxidil in the form of a solution having different concentrations. It is often used in a 2% solution and is used for rubbing into the scalp in places of baldness. With regular use and the initial stages of the manifestation of the disease visible results appear after 3 months. Alopecia caused by hormonal disorders is completely reversible. Properly selected therapy - and the problem of baldness in women disappears.

    The complex takes spironolactone to inhibit the action of testosterone (it reduces its concentration in the blood).

    The use of spironolactone is possible only after consultation with the doctor and in the absence of pregnancy planning. The drug has a teratogenic effect on the fetus, its use during pregnancy can seriously affect the condition of the child, especially male.

    With increased levels of the male hormone, the combined drug Diane-35 is prescribed. If the course of the disease is not severe, you can only get by with topical preparations. As an adjuvant therapy, taking vitamins with zinc content, substances containing natural phytoestrogens, such as flaxseed oil and soy, is suitable.

    Features of treatment of alopecia areata

    For the treatment of individual non-extensive foci of alopecia areata, apply ointment with corticosteroids. If there are several or large bald spots, it is effective to use glucocorticosteroids in the form of injections around the place with missing hair. When cutting off, each lesion is treated separately, with breaks of 7 days. Two-week therapy leads to the restoration of hair on a separate site.

    For severe currents of alopecia areata, corticosteroids are used orally, and steroid hormone therapy should result in a gradual decrease in dose.

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