The amazing properties of peptides
Many athletes, in particular, bodybuilders use a variety of drugs that can multiply the effect of training. Some people prefer steroids and anabolics, but they have a great alternative - peptides. They are sold absolutely legally and help in the shortest possible time to achieve the desired result. Speech in this article will focus on these drugs.
What are peptides?
Peptides are preparations consisting of amino acids. They are of both natural origin and synthetic. A huge plus of such substances is that the number of different variations of amino acid compounds is very large. Therefore, everyone can find the most suitable drug in the peptide store.
There are several kinds of peptides, but in bodybuilding the following are most often used:
- GHRP - or otherwise known as the group of Grelin, drugs, in which, can instantly increase the concentration of growth hormone in the body.
- GHRH - or otherwise called the group releasing hormone, drugs, which are included in, allow to increase the concentration of growth hormone in waves, without disrupting the natural cycles.
- HGH Frag is only a fragment of the hormone responsible for burning fat.
Many people think that it is much easier to buy artificial growth hormone and take it, but peptides still have a number of advantages. First, the growth hormone is somewhat more expensive. Secondly, peptides allow you to more finely control the processes in the body, which gives the best result. Thirdly, peptides are absolutely legal, which allows ordering them in any online store without fear. Also, these drugs are very quickly destroyed in the body and do not leave traces, so the doping control will not detect them.
Some people also advise you to include products containing peptides in your diet. Here are some of them:
- Milk products
- Rice, buckwheat, barley and millet
- Corn and Sunflower
- Spinach and radish
The positive effect of peptides on the human body has long been scientifically proven, many studies have been conducted that have shown a link between taking these drugs and increasing the growth hormone in the body.
Side effects of peptides
As with any drugs, peptides have their own side effects, which need to be remembered during the course. Of course, all this can be easily avoided if you have correctly calculated the dosage and consulted with a specialist. So, here are some side effects caused by peptides:
- High blood pressure
- Increased fatigue
- Fluid retention
- Tunnel syndrome
- Increased appetite
As you can see, peptides do not carry any serious danger to the body, so you can not worry about anything while undergoing the course of this drug. Even if side effects arise, the benefits of peptides are much more important and noticeable than these small problems that can be tolerated, and they also pass very quickly.
However, there are still a number of diseases in which you should not take these drugs. If you are not sure that you do not have the problems listed below, then it is better to go to the doctor and conduct the necessary examinations. Here are a number of contraindications for peptides:
- Severe obesity
- Closed growth areas
- Severe infectious diseases
- Diabetic retinopathy
- Oncological pathology
- Individual intolerance of peptides or their components
In general, the list of contraindications is not very large, but if you have one of these diseases, it would be better to pay attention to any other drugs.
What are peptides used for?
Many use peptides for weight loss. Indeed, extra weight worries a lot of people, everyone is looking for ways to get rid of it. Peptides are great for this. They help to burn subcutaneous fat, for this you need to do subcutaneous injections. Fat burning peptides are a cheap and effective way to lose weight in the shortest possible time.
Bodybuilders also use peptides to gain muscle mass. This is very effective, as these drugs have a complex effect on your body. First, your bundles are strengthened, you can not be afraid of getting injured when working with large weights. All existing muscle damage is healed, the pituitary gland is stimulated. Bones are also strengthened, they begin to recover and grow faster. In addition, peptides help strengthen the immune system and improve sleep. All this leads to the fact that you can successfully build muscle, so the whole body contributes to this. There is a huge amount of peptides for gaining lean muscle mass, consult with your doctor and he will help you choose the most suitable option.
Which peptides are better to choose?
So, we figured out the purpose for which to take peptides. But now there are other questions - which drugs to choose? Which of them are most effective? Now we will try to give answers to these questions.
Which peptides are better for weight gain? At the moment, the following drugs are the best option for this purpose:
It is best to use these peptides in conjunction with each other, this will give the best result. However, if it is wrong to calculate the dosage or skip the methods of drugs, then the effectiveness will noticeably decrease. Now the stores offer to purchase ready-made sets of drugs, so-called ready-made peptide courses, which allow you to comprehensively increase the effectiveness of your workouts.
There are not only peptides to mass, but many others, which include various anabolic steroids and many other drugs that allow you to increase strength, form relief and much more. For example, the rate of peptides for strength includes the following ashes: GHRP-2, CJC-1295 and Peg-MGF. Many mass courses include, in combination, such drugs as GHRP6 and GHRP2. And peptides HGH176-191 and CJC-1295 DAC can often be found on courses for fat burning.
Also in bodybuilding is very important to have strong ligaments and joints, so as not to get injured during training. There are special peptides for ligaments and joints, which are quite popular among athletes. Here are some of these drugs:
Peptide preparations can be bought either at the pharmacy, or in the sports shops of your city, or ordered online. In any case, it is important to study information about a particular product and feedback from people who have already used it. This will help you make the right choice.
The peptides are ingested either by injection or in pills. We will analyze subcutaneous injections a little later, while we talk about peptides in tablets. Now many athletes are quite skeptical of injections and prefer drugs in pill form. As a rule, peptides practically do not change depending on whether you take them in tablets or injections. But this is quite common in steroid drugs.
Many peptides are well combined with each other, there are special tables by which one can understand how justified the combined use of certain drugs. Those peptides that cannot be used together are very few, but for reliability it is better to make sure that the drugs you use do not harm your body.
How to take peptides?
If you purchased the peptides in tablet form, then there are no difficulties with their reception, it is enough just to follow the dosage. However, if you decide to give yourself a subcutaneous injection, then here you need to remember a few rules.
Dissolve peptides are advised in bacteriostatic water, and not in ordinary water for injection, while its temperature should not be below room temperature. From the vial of peptide, take the dose calculated by the doctor and dissolve in the appropriate volume of water. It is necessary to pour the liquid gently along the wall of the vial, while shaking it so that the drug dissolves faster, it should not, because the peptides dissolve so well, and when shaken, the substance simply begins to break down.
The use of bacteriostatic water allows the prepared solution to retain its properties longer. If you dissolve the peptide in water for injection, it will deteriorate five days earlier. The solution must be maintained at a temperature of about four degrees, but not more than eight. Freeze the solution is not advised.
The powder itself must be stored in a dark and dry place, with a temperature in the region of four degrees. In such conditions, the drug may contain about two months. If you need to store the peptide more than this time, then the temperature should be about minus twenty degrees. It is important to ensure that the powder does not get light, otherwise the drug will begin to deteriorate.
Peptides - These are proteins whose molecules are formed from residues of alpha-amino acids linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Peptides are continuously produced in all living organisms for the regulation of cellular and tissue processes. Their activity is mainly determined by their structure - the sequence of amino acids, as well as the structure of the particle and its position in space.
Peptides are divided into polypeptides and oligopeptides. Polypeptides are made up of hundreds of amino acids, whereas oligopeptides (short peptides) are formed by no more than 10-50 amino acids.
Also, peptides are classified according to their constituent components:
1. Homomeric peptides - formed exclusively by amino acid residues.
2. Heteromeric peptides - also contain compounds of non-protein nature.
In addition, peptides are classified according to the way of communication of amino acids:
1. Homodetic - particles whose amino acid residues are connected only by amide bonds.
2. Hetero-child particles are also formed by disulfide, ether and thioester bonds.
Peptides, having a pronounced biological activity, regulate a number of physiological processes. According to their regulatory functions they are classified as follows:
- substances characterized by hormonal activity (glucagon, oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone, etc.),
- compounds responsible for digestion (gastrin, gastroinhibitory peptide, etc.),
- substances responsible for nutritional behavior (endorphins, neuropeptide Y, leptin, etc.),
- pain relievers (opioid peptides),
- organic compounds that regulate higher nervous activity, chemical reactions responsible for memory, learning, emotions, etc. (vasopressin, oxytocin),
- compounds that regulate pressure in the arteries and the diameter of the lumen of blood vessels (angiotensin II, bradykinin, etc.).
However, this classification is very conditional, since many peptides perform several important functions. For example, vasopressin, in addition to controlling memory, is responsible for vascular tone and the function of reducing urine production.
Ancient defense mechanism
Immunity is not synonymous with the concept of “immune system”, since it consists not only in the synthesis of immunoglobulins and the activation of phagocytes. Representatives of the plant and animal kingdom are fighting against pathogenic bacteria with the help of special peptides. Antimicrobial peptides of plants, unicellular organisms, insects and animals, incl. human, similar in structure. This suggests that they are the oldest mechanism of protection of the body against bacteria, which is even in animals with an effective immune system almost intact. Despite its “ancient origin”, this class of peptides effectively copes with bacteria, which led scientists to the idea of their use in medicine.
It is well known that the immune system serves as the highest animal defense system against infectious diseases. Its activity is embodied in the fight against primitive unicellular pathogens: bacteria, protists, fungi and viruses. However, few people think that the lower representatives of the animal kingdom, for example, insects, also have immunity. Research in this field of biology contributed to the discovery of a previously unknown class of unique biologically active substances.
The fact is that the immune system, like the human, in insects is absent. They have no mechanisms for the synthesis of protective protein molecules - immunoglobulins capable of destroying alien organisms entering the body. However, biologists have long found that insects are able to successfully resist infectious microorganisms. But in what way? The first substantiated assumption was made in 1980 by a group of scientists led by Hans Bomann from the University of Stockholm. The peacock-eye caterpillar introduced a solution containing pathogenic bacteria, and then collected and studied bioactive substances that the infected insect released in response to the infection. As a result, chemists found two new organic substances - peptide molecules formed from 35-39 amino acids. They were given the name - cecropins. The antibacterial effect of cecropins was extremely high. Later similar compounds found in butterflies and flies.
In general, antimicrobial compounds, which are short proteins from 24-40 amino acids, have been discovered by scientists for a long time. As early as the middle of the 20th century, gramicidin and nisin substances were obtained, which are actively used in the production of food and medicines. Plant antimicrobial peptides, and bee venom peptides, have long been studied. However, the discovery of Hans Boman became special. The resulting peptides are similar in structure to the long-open compound, melittin, found in bee venom. However, it was found an important difference - cecropins are effective only against E. coli. Such high selectivity of exposure interested drug manufacturers. In addition, it became clear that cecropins and peptides similar to them provide the caterpillars with protection against a number of diseases, i.e. provide immunity.
Following cecropins, a number of other compounds from secretory secretions of some insects were discovered and studied. Some selectively act on gram-positive bacteria, others - on pathogenic fungi. A large variety of antibacterial peptides obtained from the poisons of various insects and reptiles: snakes, scorpions, arachnids, bees. In the late 80s in the USA, it was found that in the frog's skin, in the event of an infectious lesion or damage, a powerful antimicrobial defense mechanism is activated — peptides formed from 23 amino acids are secreted in high concentrations. Open substances called "magaynin." The discoverer, Michael Zasloff, already in 1988 created the pharmaceutical company Magainin Pharmaceuticals, which is still very successfully engaged in the production of pharmaceuticals.
At first, among scientists, it was widely believed that antibacterial peptides can only be created by lower animals that do not have a developed immune system. But in 1988 it was found that mammals — mice, cows, and even humans — are capable of producing such compounds. Moreover, this process takes place mainly in the intestines, respiratory system and ureters. Peptides are continuously created even in a stable state of the body, and during inflammatory reactions or tissue damage, their synthesis increases dramatically. Therefore, now scientists are actively looking for compounds that activate the secretion of antibacterial peptides in the human body. To their surprise, a substance that activates natural immunity was found in yeast and yogurt. This is the fatty amino acid isoleucine. The human body is not able to produce it, so it comes only through food.
As already mentioned, even representatives of the plant kingdom produce antimicrobial peptides. Peptides of plant origin, thionins, were discovered in the middle of the 20th century. By structure, they are similar to the antimicrobial peptides of insects, and no less effective against pathogenic fungi, and against bacteria completely useless. Drosomycin peptide produced by the fruit fly Drosophila is structurally similar to radish defensin. Lepidoptera antimicrobial peptides are similar to barley and wheat thionins.
Many scientists believed that in insects and reptiles antimicrobial peptides are the only protection against infectious diseases, and in mammals supplied with an immune system, this is only an atavism. But later, as a result of numerous experiments, the researchers recognized that antimicrobial peptides are extremely necessary and higher animals. So, in 1999, in the University of California, white mice blocked the gene that activated the process of formation of an enzyme that participated in the production of an antimicrobial peptide in the small intestine. Compared with the control groups of mice, the former were more quickly infected with certain intestinal infections, and more often they died from them.
Mechanism of action
Каков механизм быстрого и эффективного уничтожения микроорганизмов антимикробными пептидами, до сих пор достоверно неизвестно. Однако некоторые закономерности в строении и особенностях их действия учёные уже выявили. Today it is already known that most of the antibacterial peptides affect the bacterial membrane, more precisely, on its fatty layer. In addition, such peptides always have a positive charge, and the fatty layer of the bacterial membrane is negatively charged. Therefore, it is clear that the main principle of the antibacterial effect is the electrostatic effect. However, only this explanation, scientists are not satisfied. Indeed, sometimes peptides are effective against one type of microorganism, while others with identical charge of the membrane do not damage at all. In addition, there is no explanation of how positively charged peptides affect the electrically neutral lipid layer of the mammalian cell membrane. And the main mystery is that the peptides, causing the death of the cells of higher animals, never destroy the cells of the organism in which they were synthesized.
Much explains the fact that the molecules of the main known antimicrobial peptides, when approaching the fats of the cell membrane, are converted from linear to right-sided helical. Apparently, the spiral form is required in order to pass through the membrane of an infectious cell. But one more important manifestation of peptides is amphiphilicity. This means that the charged and neutral amino acids are on opposite sides of the chain, i.e. the charge does not belong to the entire peptide, but only to one end of it. Peptide as it collected the entire charge in one point to destroy the membrane of a foreign cell.
To describe the process of destruction of the cell membrane by the peptide, scientists have developed a number of models. The most famous so-called. A “pore-forming” model, in accordance with which peptides, when released into the environment of lipids, enters the membrane, penetrating it through, and the structure of the pores formed may vary. Sometimes several peptides take a position perpendicular to the membrane, tightly crowded, creating a cylindrical barrel. Hence the name of such a model - “barrel”. In other models, pore walls are formed from both peptides and fat particles. In this case, the pore takes the form of a toroid (“toroidal” model). When a large number of pores form in the membrane, it loses its stability, and then the cytoplasm, along with cellular organoids, enters the external environment - and the microorganism dies. There is another model (referred to as “carpet”), according to which positively charged particles of peptides uniformly cover the cell membrane, creating a molecular “carpet”. In this case, the membrane of the microorganism begins to actively collapse in several places at once.
Replacement with antibiotics
Antimicrobial peptides may well replace antibiotics, to the majority of which the bacteria have already become insensitive. To resist pathogens, scientists are developing more and more new types of antibiotics, which in fact are only derivatives of old ones. Such work requires enormous labor and time resources, and patients have no time to wait. Antibacterial peptides, although to some extent weaker than antibiotics in terms of their effectiveness, work much faster and, most importantly, destroy bacteria that are resistant to outdated antibiotics.
But the fact is that only those peptides that do not affect mammalian cells can be used in medicine as antibacterial and antimycotic drugs. Alas, the main spectrum of natural peptides, along with antimicrobials, are capable of destroying red blood cells. Of course, a good idea is the creation of synthetic twins of natural peptides that would destroy microorganisms, but would not affect red blood cells. However, the mechanism of action of peptides is basically still a mystery, and therefore directed synthesis of molecules is not yet possible.
But despite this, in recent years, prospects for the use of antimicrobial peptides in clinical practice have been outlined. Thus, in Europe, clinical trials of the drug, which is based on an antimicrobial peptide derived from the secret of the fruit fly Drosophila, are already undergoing. It shows a sufficient level of effectiveness in the fight against severe fungal infection, which often progresses after chemotherapy or organ transplantation. Antimicrobial peptides begin to be actively produced by cells of the human body with localized damage or the presence of pathogens. Therefore, they are optimal in the treatment of local inflammation. Magaynins are successfully used (albeit, so far only in clinical studies) in the treatment of multiple foot infections in diabetes mellitus. In the United States, peptide neutrophil granulocyte studies are being carried out. It is planned to be used in the treatment of oral ulcers in cancer patients after chemotherapy and radiation therapy, as well as (in the form of a spray) severe forms of pneumonia, which require their artificial ventilation. Modern antibiotic preparations are not sufficiently effective in the destruction of gram-positive bacteria - they are not highly susceptible to all medications known today. Such bacteria are often localized to tissues in contact with the catheters. At the same time, peptides obtained by Canadian scientists effectively destroy them.
Scope of application
The scope of application of antibacterial peptides is quite wide. Thus, nisin is used as a food preservative, to prolong the freshness of flowers, and even as a medicine for fish. Scientists see the possibility of using cecropins for storing and processing contact lenses. Not so long ago, it was established that magaynins are capable of not only destroying the infection causing STDs (including the human immunodeficiency virus), but also destroying spermatozoa, which makes it possible to develop an agent based on it that is both an antiseptic and a contraceptive.
A number of studies have found that, for unexplained reasons, malignant cells are more susceptible to antimicrobial peptides than healthy ones. Perhaps this is because the tumor cells have a more pronounced negative charge of the membrane. But it is more likely that the anti-cancer effect of antimicrobial peptides is far from the sole factor. Anyway, there are already registered encouraging data indicating successful treatment of melanoma, ovarian malignant neoplasms and lymphoma, but so far only in animals.
What are neuropeptides?
Recently, after a new type of biochemical substances, neuropeptides, was found in the human brain, the number of known systems of biochemical mediators in the central nervous system has increased dramatically. Neuropeptides are bioactive substances produced mainly in neurons. They take part in the regulation of metabolism and the maintenance of the body's self-regulation system, regulate immune responses, play an important role in memory, learning, the sleep mechanism, etc. They can act as neurotransmitters and hormones. Often the same peptide is involved in various mechanisms. Used in medicine as a medicine.
Initially, the effect of these substances on the tone of blood vessels was studied. However, it was later proved that certain neuropeptides activate the process of inflammation, called “neurogenic”.
Neuropeptides are any peptides that are in the nervous system and are involved in the bioregulation of the central nervous system. To date, approximately 100 neuropeptides, which are created by various types of brain neurons, have been discovered. Their molecules are composed of several amino acids, and are formed as a result of the separation of protein precursor molecules by proteolysis enzymes only in a specific place and at a certain time, depending on the need for them in the body. The life cycle of neuropeptides lasts only a few seconds, but the duration of their effect is measured in hours.
Opioid peptides are a group of neuropeptides naturally associated with opiate receptors.
Endogenous opioid peptides - enkephalins and endorphins - are found in the hypothalamus and in the brain, in the endocrine glands (in the lower cerebral appendage, adrenal glands, as well as in the female and male sex glands). Also, the above peptides are present in the gastrointestinal tract (including in the pancreas). These peptides form a special class of about 10-15 substances. The molecule of each of the opioid peptides consists of 5-31 amino acids.
These peptides have several properties:
- analgesic effect similar to that of morphine,
- influence on behavior
- the ability to perform the functions of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators.
Opioid peptides can take part in a number of physiological processes, such as memorization, learning ability, reaction to stress, reproduction, pain signal transmission, appetite bioregulation, body temperature and respiratory function. There is also reason to believe that the activity of enkephalins and endorphins determines the placebo reaction, the reduction of pain through acupuncture, as well as amenorrhea and shock, triggered by stress. In addition, phenomena such as are associated with the activity of endorphins:
- sedative effect
- psychomotor agitation,
- catatonic syndrome.
Other behavioral pathologies, such as tobacco smoking, alcoholism, drug addiction, may be due to a biochemical imbalance in this system.
Biological effects of opioid peptides on the body:
- elimination of pain
- catatonic states
- body temperature control
- regulation of appetite
- sexual behavior
- drop in blood pressure
- stress response
- secretion of the hormones of podbugorya and lower brain appendage,
- memory impairment
- breath control,
- modulating the immune response.
Endogenous opioid peptides play an intermediate role in the analgesic effect provoked by the acupuncture procedure. A number of studies have shown that analgesia as a result of acupuncture was accompanied by an increase in the concentration of endorphins in the cerebrospinal fluid, while the simultaneous introduction of opioid receptor antagonists with acupuncture blocked the analgesic effect. In the same way, the placebo effect can be explained by the body's ability to activate the opioid peptide system. During tests in which the operation to remove the tooth served as the source of pain, the analgesic effect achieved due to placebo was blocked by the administration of opioid receptor antagonists.
Injection of opioid neuropeptides in animals in quantities insufficient to achieve an analgesic effect leads to the emergence of specific and striking changes in behavior. In rats that were injected with beta-endorphin into the cerebrospinal fluid, a condition similar to catatonia as a result of convulsive seizures occurred. Certain stereotypical behavioral responses also arose, such as “shaking a soaked dog”. Cats have a rage reaction.
What is a person sleeping for? Why we feel the need to spend a third of our lives in stillness and unconsciousness. Scientists, philosophers and doctors from ancient times struggled with these questions. The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle represented the dream as a kind of intermediate state between life and death, between existence and non-existence. In those days, this view of the nature of sleep seemed logical.
In the second half of the 20th century, the sleep process was deeply studied. Today, it is known that sleep is a much more complex process than previously thought. In the 50s, it was proved that this process is divided into phases - slow (orthodox) sleep, and the following paradoxical (fast) sleep, during which we see dreams. Paradoxical sleep was given this name, because during it the neurons of the brain are no less active than in the waking state, however, the muscles remain relaxed and there is no perception through the senses.
Since the beginning of the twentieth century, many scientists have tried to find and isolate a certain “sleep substance”, under the influence of which a phase change takes place. Such substances were discovered quite recently - these are bioregulatory peptides. They stand out as a result of targeted cleavage of proteins, and playing the role of information transmitters in the body, thus regulating a number of basic physiological processes.
The assumption that certain peptides can regulate the sleep process appeared as early as the 1970s – 1980s, when a group of scientists from the United States isolated 30 micrograms of “sleep provoking substance” from several thousand rabbit brains and four tons of human urine. This substance is called muramyl peptide. Such peptides are created as a result of fermentation in bacterial cells, and are “building blocks” for murein, the most important component of the bacterial cell wall. In humans, muramyl peptides are created in two ways - as a waste product of intestinal microorganisms, or released by phagocytes when destroying infectious microorganisms.
Due to the peculiarities of its structure, these peptides have a high degree of resistance to splitting in the human body. They are able to overcome the hemato-encephalic barrier, and have a tangible impact on a number of processes in the body, even in small quantities. Such effects can be classified into two types: short-term and long-term. Prolonged exposure, measured in days and even weeks, is associated with the activity of the immune system. However, in this case, we are interested in precisely short-term effects on physiological reactions, measured by hours. The main one is the effect on sleep and wakefulness, as well as on body temperature.
The Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences has conducted research on the study of some natural muramyl peptides, their synthetic analogues, as well as fragments in tests on rabbits, during which surprising results were found. It turned out that muramyl peptides of natural origin, when injected directly into the blood or into the brain, provoke a change in the sleep phase (an increase in the orthodoxy and an inhibition of the fast phase), a sharp increase in body temperature. With increasing doses, severe intoxication occurs, the animals die.
However, with the enteral administration of sleep peptides, this reaction does not manifest itself: with a significant increase in dose, an increase in the slow phase is observed without changing the structure of sleep. In this case, the body temperature remains unchanged, and intoxication does not occur. The results of these studies suggest that muramyl peptides from pathogenic bacteria are factors of common symptoms of bacterial infectious diseases (hypersomnia, restless sleep, fever).
On the other hand, the same sleep peptides secreted by harmless intestinal bacteria can serve as regulators of the normal structure of sleep. This information is of great importance for medicine, since muramyl peptides have already found use as components of drugs used in the treatment of cancer, as well as diseases associated with the immune system. In this case, it is important for the attending physician to know about their effect on the patient's sleep.
Delta sleep peptide
Sleep regulators were sought not only in the United States, but also in Europe. Monier and Schonenberg, a Swiss researcher, extracted 300 μg of “sleep substance” from the blood of experimental rabbits using an “artificial kidney” apparatus.
Having investigated the obtained substance, the scientists determined that it was an unknown short peptide. He was given the name “peptide causing delta sleep” because of its properties (according to Monnier and Schonenberg) to intensify the deepest stage of slow-wave sleep. However, numerous clinical studies carried out in different countries of the world did not confirm its “hypnotic manifestations”. However, later it was found that the delta-sleep peptide is extremely unstable, and when ingested, several minutes later it is broken down by the action of enzymes. Specialists of the Institute for Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences conducted a new study in which animals were not injected with the peptide itself, but with its more stable synthetic analogs, whose chemical structure is similar to the structure of the delta-sleep peptide.
A large group of such related substances was created at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Moscow) and at the Institute of Chemistry at St. Petersburg University. Scientists investigated their effect on the sleep of experimental animals at various dosages and methods of administration in the body. It turned out that by changing the delta-sleep peptide molecule, one can achieve both an increase and a decrease in the duration of sleep. The severity, nature and dynamics of the observed changes depend on the structure of the injected substance. Например, одни пептиды усиливают преимущественно медленноволновую фазу сна, другие – быстроволновую, а третьи – обе фазы. У одних максимальный эффект достигается через несколько минут после введения медикамента, а у других – через несколько часов.
Широкий спектр разнообразия эффектов позволяет предположить, что процесс сна регулируется сотнями различных по структуре биохимических веществ. При этом имеется возможность воздействовать на сон, изменяя строение молекулы всего одного вещества. The role of this peptide and its analogues in the sleep process is not yet clear enough. However, it has now been reliably established that the delta-sleep peptide is involved in the endocrine regulation of the body, inhibiting the secretion of stress hormones and activating the release of growth hormones. Since both of these hormones play an important role in the regulation of sleep, it is possible that the delta-sleep peptide affects sleep not only directly, but also indirectly, through the endocrine systems with which it is associated. In this regard, it was suggested that the delta-sleep peptide belongs to the class of “high-level” regulators, which previously existed only in theory, since it regulates the activity of various organs and body systems.
Thus, as a result of the study of sleep peptides, a complex, multi-component system of the biochemical regulation of sleep begins to form from a set of unstructured facts and assumptions. Analogs of the delta-sleep peptide have a mild, modulating effect that is fundamentally different from the action of pharmaceutical hypnotic drugs, which are still made on the basis of substances foreign to the human body (barbiturates, ethanolamines, aldehydes, etc.). Therefore, the creation of a new type of hypnotic drugs based on analogues of the delta-sleep peptide looks extremely promising and innovative. Such drugs, similar in structure to our natural sleep regulators, are safer and more effective. They will have amazing properties, for example, provoke a fast falling asleep, or completely eliminate insomnia, etc.
Such drugs will be administered, apparently, drip through the nasopharynx. The demand for such preparations is extremely high. It is worth noting that the study of the effect of various peptide drugs on the sleep of experimental animals is quite time-consuming and requires a large amount of time. Therefore, it is quite natural that until recently, such work was carried out rather slowly. However, today, thanks to the use of the latest developments in the field of computer technology, the duration and complexity of such work has decreased significantly.
Benefits of Peptide Cosmetics
Peptides have the property to slow down the aging process. In this case, the complex of peptides works not only with the consequences, but also with the original causes of the aging process.
The most important advantage of peptides compared with amino acids and proteins in cosmetics is that their action can be clearly differentiated and measured. Although proteins and amino acids are also biologically active in the body, from the point of view of cosmetology, protein molecules are too large to be absorbed by the skin, and amino acids are too primitive to have a significant effect in the composition of a cosmetic. Peptides are extremely small compared to proteins, which allows them to be absorbed by the skin, at the same time, their structure is already quite difficult, so that they are able to influence biochemical processes. Peptides are completely safe for the body, characterized by high chemical purity (in particular, synthesized, as opposed to the protein resulting from the cleavage). Considerable intellectual resources are invested in the creation of peptide cosmetics. Before a peptide-based product appears on the market, the peptide itself goes through numerous biochemical and clinical trials. All of the above factors indicate that peptides are one of the most promising components of cosmetic products.
There are a number of peptide manufacturing companies used as a basis for cosmetic products.
Argireline (acetyl hexapeptide-3) - peptide inhibiting the activity of the neurotransmitter catecholamine, which causes nerve impulses. It prevents muscle tension, the reduction of which leads to mimic wrinkles. This effect is achieved by blocking the skin receptors with which the information protein catecholamine is connected. By its action, argireline is comparable to botulinum toxin A, however, its action does not cause mimic muscle paralysis, which leads to a “mask” effect.
Matrixyl TM (Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4) - regulatory peptide that activates the restoration of the building components of the skin - collagen, elastin, fibronectin and mucopolysaccharides, by activating the cells responsible for the synthesis of the above components (fibroblasts). The use of cosmetics based on matrix leads to a significant improvement in the condition and appearance of the skin.
Melanostatin-5TM (aqua-dextran-nonapeptide-1) - peptide, giving the skin a light color tone. Inhibits the action of alpha-melanocytes (cells that produce melanin under the action of certain hormones). It prevents the activation of the melanin production process by the action of hormones, inhibiting hyperchromia and whitening the skin.
Palmitoyl tetrapeptide-3 - part of immunoglobulin G, attached to hexadecanoic acid for more efficient absorption by the skin, active peptide complex, made using modern technology from soy and rice. It has a pronounced anti-inflammatory and protective effect, strengthens the immune system, moisturizes, tightens and improves skin elasticity. It also activates the restoration of connective tissue and the strengthening of the intima of the capillaries. It serves as the basis of cosmetic products to eliminate swelling and dark spots under the eyes. Inhibits the activity of elastase and collagenase, eliminating disruptions in the formation of collagen and elastin. Shows pronounced antioxidant properties.
Rigin (palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7) - peptide inhibiting the activity of inflammatory mediators. Significantly reduces the synthesis of interleukins, especially interleukin 6, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, whose production in the body has increased over the years. Rigin is able to optimize the ratio of cytokines in the body, promoting skin rejuvenation.
New snap-8 (acetyl octapeptide-3) - peptide containing 8 amino acids. It smoothes wrinkles by destabilizing a long chain of protein responsible for the reduction of facial muscles. The mechanism of the obstruction of the action of biocurrents on the receptors of facial muscles is comparable to the effect of the above described Argirelin, but the relaxing effect of Snap-8 is more pronounced.
New Syn-Ake (dipeptide diaminobutyrol benzylamide diacetate) - a complex of peptides, reproducing the effect of the neuro-muscular antidote of the venom of the viper of the temple keffiy. This complex blocks cholinergic receptors of the facial muscles, thereby preventing their reduction.
New Syn-Coll (Palmitoil Tripeptide-5) - peptide formed by three amino acid residues: aminoacetic acid, histidine and lysine. It penetrates the skin well, activates the production of collagen and mucopolysaccharides of the skin, and also increases its elasticity. It activates fibroblasts, stimulates the restoration and regeneration of connective tissue and the vascular wall. Strengthening the formation of endogenous TRF-beta (transforming growth factor beta) helps to strengthen the skin and the disappearance of deep wrinkles.
Peptide Classification and Peptide Chain Structure Edit
A peptide molecule is a sequence of amino acids: two or more amino acid residues connected by an amide bond form a peptide. The amount of amino acids in a peptide can vary greatly. And in accordance with their number distinguish:
- oligopeptides - molecules containing up to ten amino acid residues, sometimes in their name the number of amino acids contained in them is mentioned, for example, dipeptide, Tripeptide, Pentapeptide, etc.,
- polypeptides are molecules that contain more than ten amino acids.
Compounds containing more than one hundred amino acid residues are commonly called proteins. However, this division is conditional, some molecules, for example, the hormone glucagon, containing only twenty-nine amino acids, are called the protein hormone. By qualitative composition are distinguished:
- homomeric peptides - compounds consisting of only amino acid residues,
- heteromeric peptides are substances that also contain non-protein components.
Peptides are also divided according to the way the amino acids are linked to each other:
- homodetic - peptides, amino acid residues of which are connected only by peptide bonds,
- heterodetic peptides are those compounds in which, in addition to peptide bonds, disulfide, ether, and thioester bonds are also found.
The chain of repeating atoms is called the peptide backbone: (—NH — CH — OC —). A plot (—CH—) with an amino acid radical forms a compound (—NH — C (R1) H — OC-), called an amino acid residue. The N-terminal amino acid residue has a free α-amino group (—NH), while at the C-terminal amino acid residue the free is an α-carboxyl group (OC—). Peptides differ not only in amino acid composition, but also in quantity, as well as the location and connection of amino acid residues in the polypeptide chain. Example: Pro-Ser-Pro-Ala-His and His-Ala-Pro-Ser-Pro Despite the same quantitative and qualitative composition, these peptides have completely different properties.
Peptide Coupling Edit
A peptide (amide) bond is a type of chemical bond that occurs due to the interaction of the α-amino group of one amino acid and the α-carboxy group of another amino acid. The amide bond is very strong, and under normal cellular conditions (37 ° C, neutral pH) it does not spontaneously break. The peptide bond is destroyed by the action of special proteolytic enzymes (proteases, peptide hydrolases) on it.
Peptide hormones and neuropeptides, for example, regulate most of the processes of the human body, including taking part in cell regeneration processes. Immunological peptides protect the body from toxins in it. For proper functioning of cells and tissues, an adequate amount of peptides is necessary. However, with age and pathology, there is a shortage of peptides, which significantly accelerates the wear of tissues, which leads to aging of the whole organism. Today, the problem of lack of peptides in the body learned to solve. Peptide pool cells replenish synthesized in the laboratory with short peptides.
Peptide Synthesis Edit
The formation of peptides in the body occurs within a few minutes, while chemical synthesis in a laboratory is a rather lengthy process that can take several days, and the development of synthesis technology takes several years. However, despite this, there are quite weighty arguments in favor of work on the synthesis of analogues of natural peptides. First, by chemical modification of peptides, it is possible to confirm the hypothesis of the primary structure. Amino acid sequences of certain hormones became known precisely because of the synthesis of their analogues in the laboratory.
Secondly, synthetic peptides make it possible to study in more detail the connection between the structure of the amino acid sequence and its activity. To clarify the connection between the specific structure of the peptide and its biological activity, a great deal of work was done on the synthesis of more than one thousand analogs. As a result, it was found out that replacing only one amino acid in the structure of a peptide can increase its biological activity severalfold or change its direction. A change in the length of the amino acid sequence helps to determine the location of the active centers of the peptide and the site of receptor interaction.
Thirdly, due to the modification of the original amino acid sequence, it became possible to obtain pharmacological agents. The creation of analogues of natural peptides makes it possible to identify more “effective” configurations of molecules that enhance the biological effect or make it more long lasting.
Fourth, chemical peptide synthesis is economically viable. Most therapeutic drugs would be worth ten times more if they were made on the basis of a natural product.
Often, active peptides are found in nature only in nanogram quantities. Plus, the methods of purification and extraction of peptides from natural sources cannot completely separate the desired amino acid sequence with peptides of opposite or other action. And in the case of specific peptides synthesized by the human body, they can be obtained only by synthesis in laboratory conditions.
Biologically active peptides Edit
Peptides, possessing high physiological activity, regulate various biological processes. According to the bioregulatory effect, peptides can be divided into several groups:
- compounds with hormonal activity (glucagon, oxytocin, vasopressin, etc.),
- substances that regulate digestive processes (gastrin, gastric inhibitory peptide, etc.),
- peptides that regulate appetite (endorphins, neuropeptide-Y, leptin, etc.),
- compounds with analgesic effect (opioid peptides),
- organic substances that regulate higher nervous activity, biochemical processes associated with the mechanisms of memory, learning, the emergence of feelings of fear, rage, etc.,
- peptides that regulate blood pressure and vascular tone (angiotensin II, bradykinin, etc.).
- peptides that have antitumor and anti-inflammatory properties (Lunazin)
However, such a division is arbitrary, since the action of many peptides is not limited to any one direction. For example, vasopressin, in addition to vasoconstrictor and antidiuretic action, improves memory.
Peptide Hormones Edit
Peptide hormones are the numerous and most diverse in composition class of hormonal compounds, which are biologically active substances. Their formation occurs in specialized cells of the glandular organs, after which the active compounds enter the circulatory system for transportation to the target organs. Upon reaching the goal, hormones specifically act on certain cells, interacting with the corresponding receptor.
Peptide bioregulators Edit
On the basis of the technology developed by Petersburg scientists, peptides with tissuespecific action, capable of restoring metabolism at the optimal level in the cells of the tissues from which they were isolated, were isolated from animal organs and tissues. An important distinction of these peptides is their regulatory action: when they suppress the function of the cell, they stimulate it, and when elevated, they decrease it to a normal level. This allowed us to create a new class of drugs - peptide bioregulators.
The first of these, the immunomodulator thymalin, has been on the pharmaceutical market for over 28 years and is used to restore the function of the immune system in diseases of various origins, including cancer. He was followed by epithalamin (a bioregulator of the neuroendocrine system), prostatilen (a substance for treating prostate diseases), cortexin (a drug for treating a wide range of neurological diseases), retinalamin (a drug for treating degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the retina). Over 25 years of widespread use of peptide bioregulators, more than 15 million people have received them. However, there were no contraindications to their use and side effects.
It has now been found that thymalin and the like are contraindicated in autoimmune diseases, since thymalin stimulates, among other things, the area of over-excited immunity. Apparently, suppressor function is completely lacking in thymalin, which is extremely important in the fight against autoimmune diseases.
Terminology: Oligopeptides and Polypeptides
The line between oligopeptides and polypeptides (the size at which a protein molecule ceases to be considered an oligopeptide and becomes a polypeptide) is rather arbitrary. Often peptides containing less than 10–20 amino acid residues are called oligopeptides, and substances with a large number of amino acid units - polypeptides. In many cases, this line is not drawn in the scientific literature at all, and a small protein molecule (such as oxytocin) is referred to as a polypeptide (or simply as a peptide).
Peptides were first isolated from protein hydrolysates obtained by fermentation.
- Term peptide proposed by E. Fisher, who by 1905 developed a general method for peptide synthesis.
In 1953, V. Du Vigno synthesized oxytocin, the first polypeptide hormone. In 1963, based on the concept of solid-phase peptide synthesis (P. Merrifield), automatic peptide synthesizers were created. The use of methods for the synthesis of polypeptides made it possible to obtain synthetic insulin and some enzymes.
To date, more than 1,500 types of peptides are known, their properties have been determined, and synthesis methods have been developed.
A bit of history
The first peptides were discovered at the beginning of the last century, in 1900-1905. Тогда их рассматривали как биорегуляторы, с помощью которых можно оздоровить организм. Отзывы принимавших пептиды изначально показали их высокую результативность, вследствие чего работы в этом направлении продолжились. Уже в 1953 году был синтезирован первый полипептидный гормон, то есть пептид, состоящий из большого количества аминокислот, столь нужных нашему организму. Работа в этом направлении была продолжена и на сегодняшний день подробно изучено более тысячи видов пептидов, каждый из которых отличается своим воздействием на организм.However, only in Russia there was a study of peptides as drugs for the treatment and rehabilitation of the body. Neither Western medicine nor Western cosmetology do not consider them in this way. Perhaps that is why the reviews have taken peptides as bioregulators, in some cases they are negative, that is, people have not achieved the effect they expected.
Impact on the body
In fact, these substances are constantly produced by the body and carry their functional load. First of all, they work on the regulation of the endocrine system. That is, peptides are essential for the regulation of hormone production. In turn, they protect the body from free radicals and toxins. Why does the body need additional peptides? With their lack of tissue regeneration slows down, and the processes of destruction, on the contrary, accelerate. Medicine has long known that many age-related changes in the body are associated precisely with a lack of peptides.
This situation, of course, raises the question of artificially replacing natural peptides, that is, of developing them in the laboratory. However, if these processes in the body take minutes, their artificial synthesis is very complex. That is why the cost of manufactured drugs is very high.
Use of peptides
With the advent of these amino acid complexes in the market, the demand for them only grows. Why do people take peptides? Reviews of the host say that with their help, they caused the growth of muscles, and it was just dry muscle mass. But keep in mind that today the choice of these drugs is very wide, and therefore the direction of action is also different from each other. Peptides help to slow down the destruction of muscles and reduce body fat, improve energy use, have a rejuvenating effect and stimulate cell renewal of internal organs. In addition, these drugs cause bone growth and stimulate growth in young people (under 25). Without exception, they contribute to the strengthening of immunity, and therefore can be used for recovery after a serious illness. At first glance, it is a really important and necessary drug that can be useful at any age, however, some doubts creep in why it is not actively used by doctors. If you go further in your investigation, it turns out that people who use peptides do not always get the desired effect. Testimonials often say that a person has not reached his goal. Why it happens? Let's consider the use of peptides to solve various problems, and at the end we will give the opinion of official medicine.
Fat burning peptides
The eternal problem of humanity - how to lose weight without doing anything. Indeed, today peptides are used not only in professional sports, but also among ordinary people who want to be slim and beautiful. Substances of this group act as stimulants of activity. This, in turn, stimulates the burning of fat mass and the removal of excess fluid. We have already said that these are dietary supplements, which are traditionally used in big-time sports. They increase the production of adrenaline, the very substance that is responsible for the work of the body at the limit of possibilities. At the same time, athletes know that high loads are accompanied by serious nervous exhaustion and pain, as muscle fibers tend to be injured. All these points are also leveled after you start taking these substances.
To date, there are two large groups of peptides:
- The first is structural, which have an effect not immediately, but gradually. They supply the body with a loading dose of amino acids, accelerate muscle growth and dry the body. As a result, you get lean muscle mass without fat.
- The second group is functional. Reviews taken peptides (injections), confirm that it is this group can effectively reduce body fat reserves. Under their influence reduces appetite and increases the rate of fat splitting, strengthens the immune system. Of course, in order for weight loss to go effectively, it is necessary to put some effort, increase athletic load and change diet.
Which peptides are fat burning
It should be said that peptides are natural dietary supplements. You can buy them today at the pharmacy and in specialized health food stores. Of course, a consultation of a doctor or at least a fitness instructor will not be superfluous. The most well-known in terms of the fat burning effect of peptides are endorphins. Normal levels of endorphin in the blood allows a person to keep an appetite under control and not to overeat, and especially controls the use of sweets.
Excellent proven in losing weight and peptide leptin. It reduces the body's hunger hormone. Reviews taking peptides, the course of such treatment is called the road to harmony. Indeed, it happens over the years people torture themselves with all sorts of diets, but they cannot achieve what they get after a series of injections.
In addition, fat burning peptides include "Ipamoneril". Judging by the reviews, under its influence fat is burned and aging of the body slows down, and also sleep improves, the mood rises.
If you are configured not only to burn fat, but also actively train, then try HGH Frag 176-191. Reviews of those who took peptides to the mass suggest that this particular drug perfectly stimulates the growth of muscle mass. In addition, it helps muscles recover faster under intense load. This is extremely important in big sports.
GHRP-6 (hexaril) is also quite popular, it stimulates the appetite and burns fat, as a result of which the body builds up lean muscle mass. Finally, we can recommend “Glucagon”, which enhances the work of brain areas responsible for adrenaline production, which means that you will be able to start training with renewed energy and achieve your goals sooner.
Surely you are embarrassed by the term "hormone." In fact, these drugs are natural and familiar to the body, as evidenced by numerous studies, as well as reviews of those who took peptides. The hormone is not artificially synthesized, moreover, these substances have undergone pharmacological studies that have not revealed serious, side effects. These substances do not belong to either anabolic or doping, so they can be safely used by athletes even before major competitions. There is also a very important property, due to which peptides are becoming increasingly popular for losing weight. Dropped kilograms do not come back, as is most often the case when you cancel a diet.
Peptides and bodybuilding
The above effects could not fail to interest professional athletes. Moreover, today hormonal drugs, anabolics and steroids have long been banned, and their use is fraught with disqualification. In particular, reviews of those who took peptides to the mass say that under their influence the production of natural anabolic hormones is enhanced. These are, first of all, growth hormone and testosterone, which are extremely important for increasing endurance and the ability to train on the edge of opportunity. Extremely important is the effect of enhancing regeneration processes. In addition, it is very important that the drug has a point effect on problem areas and on the mechanisms of cell division at the cellular level.
Pay special attention to the last lines. Reviews of the peptides who took the best courses especially emphasize this feature. Unlike conventional hormones or steroids, which beat throughout the body as a whole, peptides can affect individual organs and systems. Thus, the effectiveness of drugs significantly increases, that is, training will give much more noticeable results. In parallel with this, the risk of side effects is reduced.
Types of peptides and their use
After reading reviews of those who took peptides, what these drugs are for, you can understand quickly. The load, which falls on the shoulders of the athlete, is enormous, so it is extremely important that there is a drug on hand that will help to overcome it. At the same time, their use does not differ from most drugs, these are ordinary intramuscular injections. Production and storage of preparations does not cause any difficulties. All vials are stored in the refrigerator and diluted before use with saline. But with specific recommendations the situation is more complicated, we have already said that today there are about 2000 types of peptides. Therefore, it is impossible to give universal advice on the frequency of injections, dosage and other universal tips; everything depends on the type of peptide and the individual characteristics of the organism. However, we are reassured by feedback from peptide takers. How to take, they advise you to ask the sports coach additionally, and then arm yourself with an insulin needle and give yourself a subcutaneous injection. Some of the drugs are very painful, others are quite tolerable, but for the sake of your goal you can suffer a little.
One of the most accessible is peptide HGH FRAG 176-191. One vial of 2 mg will cost you 520 rubles. However, there are drugs that are much more expensive, for example, Follistatin-344, its cost is 4790 for a single vial of 2 mg.
In addition, on specialized sites you can see hundreds of different names, with each drug has its own characteristics. To understand a little bit, we look again at the reviews of those who took peptides. Of course, there is no preparation that would suit everyone, but most often they use combined courses consisting of six or more amino acids. For example, the course GHRP-2 will cost 1950 rubles. Five such bottles are required per month. Surely you are interested in reviews taking course. Peptides affect the mass very well. In particular, after this course, according to the testimony of the athletes, the appetite greatly increases and, as a result, the muscle tissues effectively grow.
But the athletes went further and began to experiment with a combination of certain courses of peptides. And GHRP-2 + CJC1295 + Peg-MGF was considered the most effective among them. Combined reception in the best way affects the rate of growth of muscle tissue and the regeneration of ligaments and joints, as well as the strengthening of bones. Reviews taken peptides in bodybuilding suggest that this course provides a reduction in the amount of adipose tissue in the body. This makes it possible to achieve muscle relief without reducing the calorie intake ration and not conducting additional “body drying” courses.
In fact, this is not a magic pill that is guaranteed to solve all your problems. But it is not so. Peptides such a huge amount that the market is saturated with fakes, as well as completely useless drugs. In addition, the effects of peptides are so individual that they can have no effect on you personally. But the most important thing is different. Many of the peptides have the same side effects as anabolic steroids. This is primarily due to the fact that many of them affect the secretion of testosterone and insulin, as well as other hormones. As a result, you can get a violation of the work of your own secretion organs, and after the course is discontinued, various disorders will begin to slowly develop. That is why the responses of those taking peptides (growth hormone) are far from uniform. Some received a fantastic result in a short time, while others received a referral to an endocrinologist and a long-term recovery.
Official medicine suggests that the effect of peptides is still not fully understood. Only basic properties are known, but how indirectly this will affect other organs and systems is a big question. Indeed, experiments were conducted that show excellent results. However, an attempt to repeat them on other groups may not fix weight loss or weight gain, the same situation may occur if you change the peptide used previously. That is, today the game of roulette and peptides is about the same. Reviews of doctors do not deny that these drugs can give good results. However, their side effects are unpredictable. And, worst of all, they may appear several years after the course has already been completed. Therefore, doctors recommend that you do not set up experiments on your own health. It is much safer, though longer, to gain muscle mass through proper nutrition and exercise, than to use peptides. Reviews of doctors do not recommend using these drugs primarily because of the difficulty in selecting the optimal peptide and predicting its effects on the body.
Summing up, I would like to say that each of us wants to achieve his goal quickly and with minimal cost. Therefore, the idea of taking steroids or peptides is very attractive. But first, you should think carefully and consult with your doctors, because the most important thing is to preserve your health.
Currently on the market more and more peptides that are stimulators of growth hormone (GH). The most popular peptides in bodybuilding:
- From the group Grelina (GHRP): (create a pronounced peak in the concentration of GH immediately after administration, regardless of the time of day and the presence of somatostatin in the blood.)
- GHRP-6 and Hexarelin
- From the group Release hormone growth hormone (GHRH): (Introduction to the body causes a wave-like rise in concentration, which will be weak during hours when natural GH secretion is reduced by somatostatin, and high during a natural rise in GH concentration (for example, at night). In other words, GHRH increases GHR secretion without disrupting the natural pulse-like curve. )
- GRF (1-29) Sermorelin
- HGH Frag (176-191) - fragment of growth hormone (fat burner)
Many have questions, why use new peptide substances if there is an artificial growth hormone? The answer is simple: peptide stimulants have several weighty advantages:
- Peptides are much cheaper than growth hormone. The cost of a similar course will be several times lower.
- Different mechanisms of action and half-life allow you to manipulate the concentration curve, achieving an optimal anabolic response.
- Various effects on hunger and metabolism, allows you to give preference to certain substances.
- At the moment, the production and distribution of peptides is not regulated by law, so they can safely be ordered online.
- Quickly and completely destroyed, so you can not be afraid for doping control.
Peptides, as well as classic GH, are easy to check for authenticity. To do this, it is enough to pass tests for the level of somatotropin in the plasma after drug administration.
Other peptides 
- Melanotan 2 - means for suntan and strengthening of a libido
- Bremelanotide - enhances sexual desire and erection
- Gonadorelin - stimulates testosterone secretion
- TB500 - for the treatment of injuries and joint repair
- SARMs (selective androgen receptor modulators)
- Growth Hormone Stimulants
- Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)
- Mechanical Growth Factor (MGF)
- Delta Sleep Peptide (DSIP)
- Prolonged peptides
Scientists reviews 
Studies have shown that growth hormone secretion peptides (GHRP), as well as other non-peptide substances that increase secretion, do affect the production of growth hormone. 
These observations served as the basis for the creation of food additives — growth hormone stimulants (for example, amino acids, pituitary peptides, Macuna pruriens, fava beans, choline alfoscerate, etc.). Currently, there is evidence that peptides stimulating growth hormone secretion and some non-peptide substances can increase the level of growth hormones, as well as insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), both at rest and during exercise. However, the effect of these substances on the increase in lean muscle mass was not observed (however, this study was conducted among men and women over 60 years old). 
How to breed peptides and properly store 
The recommendations of Yuri Bombella, relevant for all peptides:
A solution of peptides obtained using bacteriostatic water (water for injection with the addition of benzyl alcohol) remains stable for an average of 2-5 days longer than the solution obtained with ordinary water for injection. If these days turn out to be critical for you, you can try to create bacteriostatic water yourself. Almost all laboratories use bacteriostatic water as a solvent.
Lyophilized powder is recommended to be stored in a dark dry place at a temperature of about 4 ° C - if we are talking about a short (1-2 month) period of time. At a temperature of minus 18-20 ° C, the powder can be stored up to several years.
Tightness and light
Light can destroy powder, as well as oxygen, although the peptides are not susceptible to the same effect to the latter. In any case, do not violate the tightness of the package - the air that has entered inside will slowly lead to the destruction of the peptide.
Юрий Бомбела считает, что "полученный раствор можно замораживать один раз (не больше), но только в том случае, если его рН превышает 8. То есть, лишь тот, который приготовлен с помощью физраствора." Ошибка автора заключается в том, что физиологический раствор, также как и вода для инъекций имеет рН=7.
Хранить раствор лучше всего при температуре около 2-4°С, допустим подъем до 8°С.
Приготовление раствора [ править ]
- Перед приготовлением раствора температуру флакона следует довести до комнатной.
- Direct contact with the solvent in the powder should be avoided - the solvent should flow down the vial wall.
- It is not recommended to shake the vial to accelerate dissolution. You can shake it with slow smooth movements from side to side, but it is best to put the bottle in the fridge - after a while all the powder will dissolve.
The introduction is performed according to the standard technique of subcutaneous or intramuscular injection.
Use case 
How to use ghrp + cjc
Diluted peptides Ghrp + Cjc with ordinary water for injection (2 ml per bottle)
We get Ghrp = 5mg = 5000 μg and cjc = 2mg = 2000 μg, in vials
Do not forget the solutions: Ghrp, cjc, after dilution store in the refrigerator at a temperature of +2 to +8 degrees.
Before use, disinfect the rubber cap and the injection site (with alcohol). It is forbidden to mix peptides in bottles.
How to set Ghrp + Cjc correctly.
Calculation on the approximate weight of 75 - 85 kg (for convenience, we use an insulin syringe for 100 divisions)
Approximate course for 8 weeks. But first take not the full volume, take 5 bottles of Ghrp, and 10 bottles of Cjc. Then purchase. Here we pursue 2 goals, economic feasibility and track the result (perhaps enough and so much, because the body can give accelerated progress).
In one division, the Ghrp insulin syringe solution will be 25 µg, and Cjc in one division will be 10 µg.
On the weight of 75 - 85 kg in Ghrp we take 300 mg / day and Cjc - 240 mg / day.
Divide the dosage into two doses (morning and evening) Ghrp 150 µg each and Cjc 120 µg each.
Put the peptides in the abdomen, at an angle of 45 degrees. You can recruit in one syringe.