Pros and cons of the intrauterine device from pregnancy
Contraceptive coil is one of the most common intrauterine contraceptives that are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy.
The intrauterine contraceptive coil (IUD) can be of the drug and non-drug type. The non-drug-type IUD mechanically closes the entrance to the uterine cavity and thus prevents sperm from penetrating inside. However, today non-drug contraceptive spirals are not used.
The first type of spiral is a copper wire that coils around an elastic rod. Its length is from 3 to 4 centimeters. At the ends of the rod attached two threads of nylon, with which subsequently the helix is removed from the uterus.
The contraceptive effect of the drug helix is caused by two components. Firstly, the medical-type IUD, being a foreign body in the uterus, mechanically prevents sperm from entering. Secondly, copper has a spermicidal effect and has a detrimental effect on the vital activity of spermatozoa. Copper also reduces the stage of the egg, during which it is active and ready for fertilization. Thirdly, the contraceptive coil, touching the walls of the uterus and fallopian tubes, stimulates their contraction, which leads to a special controlled inflammatory process. To develop any complications due to this inflammation does not allow the silver contained in the navy, which has an aseptic effect. Such specially created conditions prevent fertilization of the egg and its attachment to the uterine lining.
However, a common problem of copper-containing coils is an allergic reaction, so many women tend to navy with a hormone of synthetic nature - levonorgestrel, which in addition to the above effects affects the viscosity of mucus in the neck. It becomes much thicker, which slows down the movement of sperm until their immobilization.
A feature of this type of contraception is the mandatory installation of a spiral by a gynecologist. In addition, before the procedure, you must be tested for the absence of sexually transmitted infections.
How does the Navy
The purpose of the Navy - protection from unplanned pregnancy. The name "intrauterine device" means that it is introduced into the uterine cavity, and it is obtained because of the previous appearance of the product, since it looked like a spiral. Currently, the Navy is a T-shaped rod made of flexible inert plastic. This material is completely safe for women's health.
Spirals come in two forms:
- The upper part of the spiral in the form of a thin copper wire.
- The spiral contains a container of hormones that enter the uterus throughout the life of the product.
It has both the first and the second type of intrauterine device, the pros and cons. The photo above shows what this type of contraception looks like at present.
The principle of the spiral:
- There are changes in the endometrium that do not allow the fertilized egg to penetrate into the uterus. This can be compared to a micro-abortion.
- The IUD increases peristalsis of the fallopian tubes, which contributes to an increase in the speed of the egg and its movement into the uterus without fertilization by the sperm.
- Coils that contain copper slow down the activity of male gametes and interfere with egg implantation.
- The process of ovulation is blocked due to the effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary system.
The cost of a doctor's appointment
Among modern women, many people use the intrauterine device to prevent unwanted pregnancies in their bodies. But not everyone fully understands the principle of action of the spiral intrauterine.
The principle of operation of the intrauterine device
The intrauterine device is a gynecological device that mechanically prevents unwanted fertilization of a woman:
• The spiral accelerates the fertilized egg through the fallopian tubes. In such a short period of time, a fertilized egg does not have time to enrich itself with all the necessary qualities. These qualities, in turn, with natural conception, contribute to the further fixation of the embryo inside the uterine cavity.
• In addition, the IUD mechanically prevents the egg from entering the uterine cavity. A fertilized egg, not finding a cozy little place for itself, eventually dies and is eliminated from the female body during menstruation.
• The components of the intrauterine device reduce the ability of the spermatozoon to perform its functional duties. This greatly enhances the contraceptive effect of this type of female contraception.
Benefits of the IUD
What are the advantages of the Navy:
• The first positive point when using an intrauterine device is the high efficacy of this contraceptive method. About 97% guarantee.
• Spirals are very easy to use and do not require preliminary preparatory measures before sexual intercourse.
• The presence of a spiral in the uterine cavity does not affect the normal course of a woman’s life.
• At the same time, the complete absence of discomfort during intimacy and the prevention of unwanted pregnancy.
• The intrauterine device does not affect the lactation period and is perfect for newly born and lactating women.
• The principle of operation of the spiral intrauterine does not affect the natural process of the reproductive function of the female body. Namely: during ovulation, the egg cell continues to mature, and the growing layer of the intrauterine epithelium periodically rejects. This is evidenced by monthly menstrual bleeding.
• After removing the intrauterine device, a woman can easily become pregnant in the near future.
Disadvantages of the IUD
But this method of contraception has disadvantages:
• The spiral is somehow a foreign body inside the female body. That is, the intrauterine device can be rejected by adjacent tissues. This is indicated by the occurrence of inflammatory processes in the uterine cavity after the installation of this contraceptive device.
• Do not use intrauterine device for unborn women. Because of the possible inflammatory process in the region of the internal genital organs, a woman may remain barren forever.
• May cause more painful menstruation with heavy bleeding.
• Does not guarantee 100% absence of unwanted conception and can lead to an ectopic pregnancy.
It should be noted that the installation of the intrauterine device should be carried out only by a gynecologist and after a complete medical examination of the woman. Come to our medical center in Moscow, and we are guaranteed to find you the best way to contraception, taking into account all the features of your body. Modern medical equipment and the experience of medical specialists of our clinic will help to detect the presence of diseases of your genital organs even at the very early stage. This will help to preserve your female health as much as possible and prevent undesirable consequences after the installation of the intrauterine device.
Types of intrauterine devices
Means for intrauterine contraception are of two types:
Inert intrauterine contraceptives (IUDs) are plastic products of various shapes that are inserted into the uterine cavity. It is not recommended to use them since 1989, when the World Health Organization declared their ineffectiveness and danger to the health of a woman.
Currently, only spirals containing metals (copper, silver) or hormones are used. They have a plastic base of different shapes, close to the shape of the inner space of the uterus. The addition of metals or hormones can increase the effectiveness of the coils and reduce the number of side effects.
In Russia, the following VCCs gained the most popularity:
- Multiload Cu 375 - has the shape of the letter F, covered with a copper winding with an area of 375 mm 2, designed for 5 years,
- Nova-T - in the form of the letter T, has a copper winding with an area of 200 mm 2, designed for 5 years,
- Cooper T 380 A - copper T-shaped, serves up to 8 years,
- hormonal intrauterine system "Mirena" - contains levonorgestrel, which is gradually released into the uterus, providing a therapeutic effect, designed for 5 years.
Less commonly used are IUDs that produce medroxyprogesterone or norethisterone.
Which intrauterine device is better?
This question can only be answered after an individual consultation, taking into account the age of the woman, her health, smoking, the presence of gynecological diseases, future planning of pregnancy and other factors.
Mechanism of action
The principle of action of the intrauterine device is the destruction of spermatozoa and the violation of the process of attachment of the embryo in the uterus. Copper, which is part of many IUDs, has a spermatotoxic effect, that is, it kills spermatozoa that have entered the uterus. In addition, it enhances the capture and processing of sperm cells by special cells - macrophages.
If fertilization does occur, the abortive effect of the contraceptive begins, preventing the implantation of the fertilized egg:
- contractions of the fallopian tube increase, and the fertilized egg too quickly enters the uterus and dies,
- the presence of a foreign body in the uterus leads to aseptic (non-infectious) inflammation and metabolic disorders,
- as a result of the production of prostaglandins in response to a foreign body, the contractility of the walls of the uterus is activated,
- when using the endometrial system of hormonal endometrial atrophy occurs.
The Mirena intrauterine system from a special reservoir constantly releases the hormone levonorgestrel at a dose of 20 micrograms per day. This substance has a gestagenic effect, suppresses regular proliferation of endometrial cells and causes its atrophy. As a result, menstruation becomes scarce or disappears altogether. Ovulation is not disturbed, hormones are not changed.
Is it possible to get pregnant if the intrauterine device is worth? The effectiveness of intrauterine contraception reaches 98%. When using copper-containing products, pregnancy occurs within a year in 1-2 women out of a hundred. The effectiveness of the Mirena system is several times higher; only 2-5 out of a thousand women become pregnant for a year.
How to put the intrauterine device
Before you enter the IUD, you need to make sure there is no pregnancy. The procedure can be carried out regardless of the phase of the menstrual cycle, but it is best for 4-8 day of the cycle (counting from the first day of menstruation). Be sure to analyze smears on the microflora and the degree of purity, as well as ultrasound to determine the size of the uterus.
The procedure takes place on an outpatient basis without anesthesia. This is virtually painless manipulation. In the first days after the insertion, the spirals can be disturbed by aching pain in the lower abdomen, caused by contractions of the uterus. The first and 2-3 subsequent menstruation can be abundant. At this time, spontaneous expulsion of the spiral is not excluded.
After an artificial abortion, the helix is usually set immediately after the manipulation, after birth - 2-3 months later.
Introduction of IUD after cesarean section is carried out six months later to reduce the risk of infectious complications. Spirals can be used during breastfeeding, which is a great advantage.
After the introduction of the IUD during the week the woman is prohibited:
- intense exercise
- hot tubs
- taking laxatives
- sex life.
The next examination is scheduled for 7-10 days, and then in the absence of complications after 3 months. A woman should independently after each menstruation check the presence of threads of the IUD in the vagina. Examination by a gynecologist is sufficient to take place once every six months, if there are no complaints.
Removal of the intrauterine device
Removal of the IUD is carried out as desired, with the development of some complications or after the expiration of use. In the latter case, you can enter a new contraceptive immediately after removing the previous one. To extract the IUD, first conduct an ultrasound and specify the location of the spiral. Then, under the control of the hysteroscope, the cervical canal is dilated and the helix is removed, sipping the antennae. If the "antennae" break, the procedure is repeated in the hospital. If the intrauterine device enters the wall of the uterus and does not cause complaints, it is not recommended to remove it unnecessarily, as this can lead to complications.
Complications of intrauterine contraception
Side effects from the intrauterine device:
- lower abdominal pain
- genital infection,
- uterine bleeding.
These symptoms do not develop in all patients and are related to complications.
Lower abdominal pain
Occur in 5-9% of patients. Cramping pain, accompanied by bloody discharge, is a sign of spontaneous expulsion of the IUD from the uterus. For the prevention of this complication in the period after the administration, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed.
Persistent intense pain occurs if the contraceptive does not fit the uterus in size. In this case, it is replaced.
Sudden sharp pains can be a sign of perforation of the uterus with the penetration of a part of the spiral into the abdominal cavity. The frequency of this complication is 0.5%. Incomplete perforation often goes unnoticed and is diagnosed after unsuccessful attempts to remove the IUD. At full perforation, an emergency laparoscopy or laparotomy is performed.
The frequency of infectious and inflammatory complications (endometritis and others) is from 0.5 to 4%. They are difficult to carry, accompanied by severe pain in the lower abdomen, fever, purulent discharge from the genital tract. Such processes are complicated by the destruction of the tissues of the uterus and appendages. For their prevention within a few days after administration of the IUD, broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed.
uterine bleeding develops in 24% of cases. Most often it is manifested by abundant menstruation (menorrhagia), less often - intermenstrual blood loss (metrorrhagia). Bleeding leads to the development of chronic iron deficiency anemia, manifested by pallor, weakness, shortness of breath, brittle hair and nails, dystrophic changes in the internal organs. For the prevention of bleeding two months before the installation of the spiral and for 2 months after that it is recommended to take combined oral contraceptives. If menorrhagia leads to anemia, the IUD is removed.
Onset of pregnancy
VMC reduces the likelihood of pregnancy. However, if it does occur, the risk of ectopic pregnancy is higher than among other women.
If during the period of use of the spiral comes pregnancy, there are three options for the development of events:
- Artificial interruption, because such a pregnancy increases the risk of infection of the embryo and in half of the cases ends in a spontaneous abortion.
- Removal of the IUD, which can lead to spontaneous abortion.
- The preservation of pregnancy, while the spiral does not harm the child and is released together with the fetal membranes during childbirth. This increases the risk of pregnancy complications.
The ability to conceive and bear a child is restored immediately after the removal of intrauterine contraception, pregnancy occurs within a year in 90% of women who have not used other methods of contraception.
Indications for use
This type of contraception in birthless babies can cause serious complications that prevent future pregnancies. Intrauterine device for non-giving women can be used only if it is impossible or unwilling to use other methods. For such patients are designed mini-helix with a copper content, for example, Flower Cuproom.
It does not make sense to establish an IUD for a short time, so a woman should not plan a pregnancy for the next year or a longer period.
VMCs do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. It is believed that they, on the contrary, increase the risk of developing and worsen the course of such diseases.
Most often VMCs are used in the following situations:
- increased fertility, frequent pregnancies on the background of active sex life,
- temporary or permanent reluctance to have children
- extragenital diseases in which pregnancy is contraindicated,
- the presence of severe genetic diseases in a woman or her partner.
Contraindications to the intrauterine device
- endometritis, adnexitis, colpitis and other inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs, especially acute or chronic with constant exacerbations,
- cervical or uterine cancer,
- previous ectopic pregnancy.
- uterine bleeding, including heavy menstruation,
- endometrial hyperplasia,
- painful menstruation,
- congenital or acquired uterine deformity,
- болезни крови,
- субмукозная миома матки,
- тяжелые воспалительные заболевания внутренних органов,
- случавшееся ранее самопроизвольное изгнание (экспульсия) ВМК,
- непереносимость компонентов спирали (медь, левоноргестрел),
- отсутствие родов.
In these situations, the appointment of an endometrial hormone system is often justified. Its use is indicated for uterine myoma, endometrial pathology, heavy bleeding, and painful menstruation. Therefore, the gynecologist will be able to choose the right intrauterine device after examining and examining the patient.
What is an intrauterine device?
An IUD is a small fixture that can be made from plastic, copper, silver, or gold.
The principle of its operation is as follows: the helix inserted into the uterus does not allow the cavity to close and interferes with the fixation of the ovum. In addition, there are hormonal spirals of complex action, which not only prevent the onset of pregnancy by mechanical means, but also affect the hormonal background. As a result, the thickness of the endometrium, which lines the uterus, decreases, and thick mucus is produced in the cervix, which prevents sperm from penetrating inside. There are such contraceptives for about 5 years.
It should be noted that after the coil from pregnancy is removed from the uterus, the body quickly restores the ability to bear children, so this method of contraception is considered one of the safest for women's health.
The Multilayer Navy is a contraceptive helix in the form of a semi-dual, equipped with soft spikes, which help it to catch well on the wall of the uterus, which significantly reduces the risk of spontaneous excretion. Duration - 5 years.
The spiral is in the form of a T-shaped rod, equipped with flexible hangers and a ring for easy removal. The rod also contains a container with the drug levonorgestrel with a special shell that provides a uniform release of the drug into the uterine cavity.
Intrauterine device Mirena is considered one of the most expensive, but at the same time the most effective contraceptives, as it acts as an IUD and as an oral contraceptive. Duration - 5 years.
One of the most significant shortcomings of this spiral is amenorrhea, that is, the complete disappearance of menstruation, which occurs in about 20% of women, and is associated with the suppression of endometrial growth with small doses of hormones.
Which spiral is considered the best? It is impossible to give an answer to this question, since the universal navy, which is suitable for every woman, simply does not exist.
Side effects and possible complications
Every woman who chooses to put the helix must be aware of possible side effects and complications that use of this contraceptive method may entail.
The side effects of the IUD include:
- an increase in the duration of the menstrual cycle and the amount of discharge,
- the appearance of a "daub" between menstruation,
- spasms and discomfort in the pelvic region during menstruation,
- risk of ectopic pregnancy
- the appearance of an unpleasant smell from the genital tract,
- a decrease in the thickness of the endometrium, which may make it harder to carry a pregnancy in the future, as well as increase the miscarriage figure.
In some cases, with the wrong selection of the spiral or insufficient qualification of a gynecologist, the following complications can occur:
- infection of the pelvic organs or the development of inflammation, which may be the result of inadequate adherence to the rules of hygiene or the disease that was not detected in time, which the woman suffered
- perforation of the uterine wall is a rare occurrence, which manifests itself after some time by drawing pain and bleeding,
- spontaneous loss of the spiral.
What you need to know about the Navy before installation?
In order for the spiral to fulfill its functions to the full, it is necessary not only to choose the system correctly, but also to know some features of its functioning.
In addition, they can not guarantee protection against unwanted pregnancy at 100%, so in 1-2% of cases it can occur.
Finally, self-installation or removal of the device is strictly prohibited - to know exactly how to put the spiral and how to remove it, can only be experienced and qualified gynecologist.
When should I see a doctor?
Another important point when using the IUD is to understand in time that there are problems with a contraceptive.
What signs may indicate this? First of all, constant control of the length of the filaments in the vagina is necessary - if it has changed, this may indicate that the helix has moved, moved deep into the uterine cavity or fell out.
In addition, a doctor must be contacted in the following situations:
- temperature increase of unknown etiology a few days after the installation of the helix,
- severe pain or discomfort in the pelvic region,
- vaginal discharge unusual color or smell
- loss or displacement of the spiral,
- monthly delay by 3-4 weeks.
Contraindications to the installation of intrauterine device
Absolute contraindications to the installation of the Navy are:
- chronic inflammatory diseases of the genital organs,
- congenital or acquired pathologies of the uterus (fibromatosis, biopsy, etc.),
- pregnancy (presumptive or confirmed),
- uterine bleeding of unknown etiology,
- the presence of malignant tumors in the body.
In addition, women who use the IUD as a contraceptive need to visit the doctor about once every six months and get tested, as the coil leaves the cervix open, causing infections to enter the cavity.
Who recommend the Navy
Before the doctor recommends the intrauterine device as a means of contraception, he must take into account many factors, ranging from age to general health.
Who can install the spiral:
- Giving birth to a woman who is over 35 years old.
- Women with children after an abortion without complications.
- No pathology of the cervix.
- If it is not recommended to be protected by oral contraceptives.
- Women who have a low incidence of sexually transmitted infections.
Contraindications to the Navy
Before using this method of contraception, it is necessary to take into account all the pros and cons of the intrauterine device. And also make sure that there are no contraindications:
- There was no birth.
- Constant change of sexual partner.
- Cancers of the pelvic organs.
- The presence of injuries and stitches on the cervix.
- Ectopic pregnancy.
- Blood disorders. Anemia.
- Vaginal infections.
- The presence of inflammatory processes in the reproductive system.
How to prepare for the installation of the spiral
First of all, it is necessary to select a suitable spiral and pass an examination, which includes:
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs.
- General analysis of blood and urine.
- Blood for HIV and RW, hepatitis C.
- Smear from the cervix and vagina.
- Analysis for hidden genital infections.
Next, the doctor must probe the uterine cavity, determine the distance between the uterine angles. And only after a thorough examination and the absence of contraindications, the intrauterine device is established. The pros and cons of the BMC should already be considered.
1-2 days before the process is recommended to use anesthetic candles. Install the intrauterine device is best during the first days of the menstrual cycle. After the procedure, you need to rest for 30-40 minutes.
Features of the first days with a spiral
It is worth noting that only the doctor can install and take off the intrauterine device. For several days after the installation of the helix, the following side effects may appear:
- Lower abdominal pain.
It is also worth adhering to the following recommendations. It is necessary to refuse from the first 5 days:
- Take a bath.
- Visits to the pool, sauna, bath.
- From douching.
- From intimate life.
- Do not take acetylsalicylic acid in food or tablets.
- Do not use tampons.
You should also avoid increased physical exertion. It is necessary to adhere to proper nutrition, more rest, lie down.
The manifestation of side effects can occur within six months and eventually disappear altogether.
You must regularly undergo a medical examination after the IUD is installed. After installation in a month, then in 3 months, then once every six months.
What are the advantages of the Navy
If you chose a contraceptive method such as an intrauterine device, you need to know all the pros and cons.
Let us dwell on the positive aspects:
- It does not require special care. After installation, after a period of rehabilitation is almost not felt.
- Efficiency is 95-98%.
- Can be installed for several years.
- For many women, the menstrual cycle becomes shorter, and the periods themselves are practically painless.
- It has a positive therapeutic effect in uterine myoma and other gynecological pathologies.
- Can be used with breastfeeding.
- Does not affect the reproductive function in the body.
- Efficiency is maintained regardless of the intake of any drugs.
- Economical and convenient. You do not need to follow the schedule and spend money on the regular purchase of contraceptives.
What are the cons of the Navy
There are also disadvantages of using an IUD:
- High risk of ectopic pregnancy.
- No protection against sexually transmitted diseases.
- The risk of inflammatory diseases increases.
- Do not use women who have not given birth.
- Painful monthly first six months.
- Large blood loss is possible.
We considered what contraceptive means such as intrauterine device, pros and cons. The implications of the BMC are discussed below.
What can be complications when using IUD
Of great importance is the qualifications and experience of the doctor, as the correct installation or removal of an inexperienced specialist can cause removal of the uterus. Knowing the pros and cons of the intrauterine device, it is necessary to know what complications are possible when using it.
Possible complications when using IUDs:
- Perforation of the walls of the uterus.
- Rupture of the cervix.
- Bleeding after installation.
- The spiral can grow into the uterus.
- Antennae may irritate the walls of the cervix.
- The spiral can shift or fall out with the wrong selection and installation.
- Lower abdominal pain.
An urgent need to visit a specialist if:
- There were severe pains in the lower abdomen.
- There is a suspicion of pregnancy.
- Bleeding lasts a long period of time.
- There are signs of infection: fever, unusual vaginal discharge.
- Sexual intercourse causes pain or bleeding.
- Navy threads are longer or shorter.
We considered what the intrauterine device is, the advantages and disadvantages of this method of protection, as well as possible complications. Next, consider the reviews of patients.
Reviews on the application of the Navy
Of course, before you start using such a contraceptive as intrauterine device, the pros and cons, feedback and advice from a doctor should be taken into account.
So having read the reviews of women on the use of the Navy, we can draw several conclusions.
There are a lot of positive reviews that the menstrual cycle is improving and often it becomes much shorter. Many have improved intimate life with a partner, since there are no special requirements for the spiral, it is easy to use, not felt, does not cause discomfort.
Many emphasize the importance of making the right choice, both in size, so that it does not fall out or shift, and also in its composition. So, copper may not be suitable, or vice versa. Note the importance of the fact that the procedure for establishing or removing the spiral must perform a competent experienced gynecologist. Only in this case it is almost painless. Also emphasize the need for regular inspections and timely removal of the spiral to avoid complications such as ingrowth or the development of the infectious process. And before installing a thorough examination and treatment of existing diseases. Without this, there can be big health problems, even the loss of the uterus.
Economically, affordable and efficiently, the intrauterine device from pregnancy gives a 95% guarantee. The pros and cons of each category of patients is their own.
In negative reviews, on the contrary, long periods, but painless, persistent discharge are noted. There are also many reviews about the occurrence of pregnancy when using the intrauterine device. It is believed that if there were genital cancers in the genus, then establishing a spiral is a big risk. Some spiral does not survive.
It should be noted that all reviews emphasize that this type of contraception will be an effective means of protection only if all the advantages and disadvantages of the intrauterine device are taken into account, and all issues are discussed with a gynecologist who has sufficient experience and level of knowledge.
Protection against unwanted pregnancy will help avoid problems and preserve the health of the woman. Do not let this process take its course, in the hope that it will carry it, it is better to err and enjoy intimacy with your loved one.
What is a navy (spiral)?
IUD is an intrauterine device, which, respectively, is installed inside the uterus. This device is made of various materials, but most often women are asked to insert a spiral of plastic and copper. The main purpose of the spiral - to perform the function of a contraceptive, which is installed for a long time and has almost 99% efficiency.
It is better when children become planned joy, therefore even for women who are married, the issue of protection always remains relevant. The Navy spiral in this case seems to them a very convenient way, since they are active in sex life, but they are also burdened with other concerns: so such methods of contraception as taking pills, calculating “safe” days that require strict discipline do not suit them. At the same time, the Navy does not hit the family budget as condoms or gels, it is set for a period of 3 years and can be removed at any time if the owner wishes. If there were no complications while wearing the helix, then the reproductive function of the uterus is restored in about 3 months.
This "pleasure" will cost about $ 30. It all depends on the material and clinic, which would prefer a woman. However, not every patient can install this device in the uterus, since such contraception has many contraindications. It is necessary to consult with an experienced doctor, who will not only be able to figure out whether his patient needs a coil, but also install the device correctly in the uterus.
Action of intrauterine devices
The Navy Spiral is a contraceptive that actually acts as an abortive means.
The fact is that the IUD does not prevent sperm from entering the uterus. Although the creators of the spirals argue that it impedes the promotion of male germ cells, but this is not always the case. The main purpose of the spiral is to prevent the fertilization of an already fertilized egg in the cavity of an organ.
Such an action of the Navy spiral is due to the fact that when introduced into the uterus, it causes inflammation of the epithelium. If the surface layer of the uterus is inflamed, then the fertilized egg cannot enrich with the necessary qualities and attach to the wall of the uterus. As a result, the fertilized egg is forced to leave the uterine cavity, along with the monthly.
If you call a spade a spade, the helix constantly provokes miscarriages. That is why it is impossible to guarantee that after removing a spiral, a woman can become pregnant 100%. Doctors and do not hide the fact that the negative outcome of pregnancy is a habit, and for some women, the recovery period takes from six to twelve cycles. But under unfavorable circumstances, trying to get pregnant can last for many years. Therefore, gynecologists recommend spiraling to put to patients who have already fulfilled their maternal duty and no longer plan to give birth to children.
History of the Navy
The Navy Spiral celebrated its 100th anniversary back in 2009, because in 1909 the scientist Richter first mentioned it in his writings. Even then, contraceptive issues were very acute: the change of morals, the sexual revolution, the demarche of feminism. Relationships between the opposite sex became freer, women began to be interested in many more things besides their families, and as a result, having seven or more children, even if the lady was legally married, was uncomfortable.
Doctors-gynecologists took up the development of various methods of contraception and, as an option, the intrauterine device was born. True, in those days, it was not the helix that was injected into the uterine cavity, but the ring, dragged along the center by a multitude of silk threads. In the 30s. Riheter's ring was refined by the scientist Grefenberg, who strengthened both the frame of the ring and the threads themselves with zinc and copper alloys.
Spiral boom began a little later - in the 60s. Practiced their installation and in the Soviet Union. There was even such a kind of spiral in the form of the letter S, which was later abandoned due to the many inconveniences associated with the introduction, as well as the wearing of such a product.
About contraceptive properties of copper became known only in the 70s. It was then that the first models of copper spirals appeared, which are still used today. Немного позже к меди стали добавлять еще и серебро, призванное увеличить антисперматозоидный эффект.
Виды ВМС спиралей
Кто бы мог подумать, но на сегодняшний день известно около 100 разновидностей ВМС. Types of Navy spirals differ not only in the material from which they are made, but also in size, rigidity, shape.
We will not consider all varieties. Let's stop on the most popular.
Navy spiral with hormonal content has the shape of the letter "T". It has flexible hangers and is also equipped with a ring for extraction. A special container is placed in the coil of the helix, which contains hormonal medicine. Every day, this medicine is released into the uterine cavity in a volume of 24 μg and creates an additional protective barrier against spermatozoa. Set for 5 years. Average price: seven thousand rubles.
The next common type of IUD is the helix with silver. Reviews of women who have experienced the effect of silver spirals, vary greatly among themselves. Doctors also advise silver spirals, claiming that they relieve inflammation. The usual copper spiral does not possess such properties, and besides, it quickly loses its contraceptive properties.
There is also a spiral Multiload, which has the shape of a semi-lug and is well attached to the walls of the uterus due to projections. Such a spiral will never spontaneously fall out.
Navy spiral "Vector" - a fairly common product in pharmacies and clinics. Vector Extra is a company that produces spirals of any shape from any material. Most often, gynecologists advise the product of this manufacturer.
Preparing for the installation procedure
Even if a woman does not complain of health, the attending physician should still be safe and conduct a whole range of studies in order not to harm the patient's health.
Of course, the first thing is going to anamnesis from the words of the woman herself: the doctor asks her about her health and health. Then it is necessary to pass standard blood and urine tests, but it is desirable to also test your blood for sugar and clotting.
Do not do without external examination of the genital organs and smear intake. If the patient has infectious and inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs, then the installation of the spiral should be forgotten. At least, until the woman is completely cured.
You will also need an ultrasound scan of the uterus to assess its size, shape, and general condition. Only after all these procedures can one finally decide on what kind of spiral a particular woman needs.
IUD is installed only in the medical office. It is advisable not to rush to the choice of a specialist who will install the spiral, and look for a professional person with a lot of experience. Sometimes the spiral that is incorrectly inserted into the uterus ends in pregnancy, internal bleeding, or simply terrible discomfort. So this issue should be approached as seriously as possible.
Does it hurt to put an IUD spiral? Everything again depends on the doctor who will do it and on the pain threshold of the woman. Especially sensitive natures can feel discomfort, sometimes even fainting can fall, but most women tolerate the introduction of the spiral painlessly.
The procedure itself takes no more than two minutes. The introduction of the IUD on the gynecological chair is carried out using special disposable devices that are sold in a set with a spiral.
The most favorable time for the procedure is the end of menstruation, that is, 5-7 days after they start. During this period, the cervical canal is open enough to perform the installation of the spiral as painless as possible.
Before the introduction of the IUD, the cervix is treated with an antiseptic. The doctor then visually assesses the depth and direction of the uterine canal and proceeds to the introduction of the IUD. After the procedure, the threads of the helix are slightly cut off, leaving only small antennae - they will be needed when the IUD is to be removed.
What navy helix side effects can provoke? Unfortunately, this list is long and often scares women who are planning to install a spiral.
Firstly, it is important to monitor your sensations for 3 months after the installation procedure: the coil may fall out and this should certainly be noticed until it provokes damage to the uterine canal. If in time to get the dropped out spiral, then it will not do harm.
What else should be expected if the naval spiral was installed? Side effects in the form of painful and heavy periods in the first eight months are common. But uterine bleeding may occur not only during menstruation, but also in the intervals between them. You should not wait a long time for a denouement of events; with such symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Indications for removal of the spiral are also itching in the vagina, burning, painful intercourse, pain that suddenly occurs in the lower abdomen and in the lower back. All of these symptoms can be accompanied by chills, fever, and malaise.
The installation of the spiral must be abandoned even at the introduction stage, if difficulties arise and the process is too painful.
The most dangerous thing that can happen when inserting or removing an IUD is a uterine puncture. It is difficult not to notice the puncture, so the patient is immediately given urgent help.
In addition, the helix often causes the formation of myomas, and in rare cases, perforation of the uterus.
Is the Navy Spiral Fat? The spiral of gold or copper does not affect the weight of the woman. However, if the hormonal coil is installed, then everything can be.
Navy Spiral: reviews
Manufacturers of spirals claim that it is almost impossible to get pregnant with her, but reviews on the forums say something else. A big shock for one girl was when, after the installation of the VECTOR spiral, she suddenly became pregnant, and even for 5 weeks. The embryo grew to a certain size and, replaced by a spiral, left the uterus. But miscarriage in the fifth week does not go away completely without a trace. The girl was “cleaned”, then transferred to hormonal drugs and was forbidden to become pregnant for 2 years. And this is not an isolated case.
Common complaints are problems with menstruation: in some patients they become too abundant, and in some they disappear altogether. Feelings of discomfort in the lower abdomen are not uncommon.
There were cases when, due to the installation of the spirals, additional diseases of the female organs developed, fibroids were formed, and appendages inflamed. There are also complaints that during intercourse there is discomfort if the partner goes too deep, but these are isolated cases. Also rare, but it does happen, uterine bleeding.
So it turns out that women constantly discuss the Navy spiral between themselves, they look at the photos on the Internet and do not dare to set themselves this device for a long time, because in fact the patients for whom the wearing of the spiral passed without a trace can be counted on fingers. There are undoubtedly good reviews, but they are too few against the background of a general chorus of complaints and disappointment.
Navy Spiral: which one is better?
In any case, the woman cannot decide herself what kind of spiral is needed. As mentioned above, it is necessary to undergo a series of surveys, to make sure that the installation of the Navy will be generally appropriate.
Suppose that the tests were favorable, the woman had given birth at least once, and the gynecologist agreed to supply her with a spiral. As a rule, doctors offer several options for the spirals, so that the patient can choose the one convenient for her. For example, to install a copper or silver Navy helix? How to choose?
The copper helix will cost less, but its effective life is limited, as the copper quickly gives in to corrosion. The silver spiral will cost more, but it will last longer and, according to manufacturers, will contribute to the reduction of inflammatory processes in the uterus. The gold spiral from the silver is not much different in its healing and contraceptive properties, but it is one of the most expensive IUDs due to the high cost of the precious metal.
If you ask what form the Navy spiral is, the photo will show that in addition to the T-shaped form, spirals are also semi-oval, and with spikes, etc. - other physiological features, this question is solved in tandem with the doctor.
Thus, the IUD is a contraceptive that raises many questions and concerns, but in some cases, when pregnancy is no longer planned, when it is difficult to find an alternative, the helix turns into a magic wand. With such a set of circumstances, you can take a risk and, if the Navy does not take root, at any time to remove it.
Helix operating principle
There are a large number of spirals of different shapes and sizes. All of them are made of plastic, some have a copper or silver thread, others contain a reservoir with progesterone.
It is generally accepted that the helix causes inflammation and promotes micro-infections in the uterus. In order to protect itself, the uterus produces a large number of white blood cells designed to destroy the pathogen, in this case it is a sperm cell or a fertilized egg cell.
Irritated by the presence of a spiral, the inner surface of the uterus creates and maintains in constant readiness an environment unfavorable to an egg cell or sperm. The spiral can also contribute to an increase in the mobility of the tubes, which leads to the release of the germ cell to fertilized and doubles the speed of movement of spermatozoa.
As a result, the level of prostaglandin rises, which does not allow the egg to consolidate on the walls of the uterus. The combination of copper, released from the copper filaments, alter the mucous membrane, making it disastrous for sperm.
The effectiveness of this contraceptive. The degree of reliability of the spiral is in second place after birth control pills. The effect is achieved in 96% of cases. For 100% safety, spermicidal agents should be used additionally.
The reversibility of the process. Spiral may have an adverse effect on the female body and its reproductive ability. Its consequences are:
- Disease and infection of the pelvic organs.
- Perforation of the uterus.
- Ectopic pregnancy.
However, in most cases such problems do not arise and residual effects are impossible.
How to put a spiral?
The introduction of the helix is a common medical operation, which is performed in the office and does not require anesthesia or special preparation. Nevertheless, in order to identify possible contraindications, it is necessary to undergo a preliminary gynecological examination and a smear test.
If possible, in addition to this, it is advisable to undergo a clinical examination, talk to a doctor, make a cytobacteriological analysis of vaginal secretions and tissues, and a blood test to identify possible sexually transmitted diseases.
During the first visit, the doctor examines the depth and position of the uterus in order to select the necessary spiral in a particular case. If the uterus is small or the woman has never given birth, his choice will stop on a small spiral. In the decision, the doctor indicates the number of the helix and the medicines that must be brought with you on the appointed day.
And this day has come. You are nervous and even afraid. In practice, it turns out that the introduction of the helix occurs very quickly, in 3 minutes, and is absolutely painless. The doctor inserts a surgical mirror into the vagina. It then disinfects the cervix (the first sensible touch) and places the forceps on one of its lips (a slight tingling sensation is felt) in order to penetrate the cervix to the uterus.
Through the cervical canal, the doctor inserts a small probe and measures the depth of the uterine cavity (hysterometry). This way, he will know what size the helix needs to be chosen. Immediately before installation, the helix is placed in a small tube of small diameter, penetrating into which it is deformed and becomes stretched like a rubber band.
Now you need to act very quickly to prevent changes in its shape.
The doctor carefully removes the pusher and the device for inserting a spiral. The procedure is over.
This really simple operation can be accompanied by light, dull pain or just unpleasant sensations. Women who gave birth naturally, consider the introduction of a spiral completely painless. Those who have never given birth or who have a very narrow cervical passage are more sensitive. Some women feel painful spasms for a few minutes.
And finally, there remains only a cut of the thread. The head of the penis of a man risks becoming entangled in too long threads, and too short ones can prick! The doctor cuts the threads at a distance of 2-3 centimeters from the entrance to the cervix. Usually the woman is too excited to find these threads, indicating the presence of a spiral, so you can do it later, in a more relaxed atmosphere.
How to make sure that the spiral is in place?
Check the presence of the spiral immediately before the first sexual intercourse after its introduction (if you lack courage, ask your partner to do it), check how it stands, each time after the end of menstruation, and then from time to time. This can be done with a finger:
- Pull your feet as close as possible to the buttocks to reduce the length of the vagina.
- Enter the pre-disinfected middle finger. The finger spreads the lips of the vagina and touches the convex part of the cervix.
- Feel for a hole (a small groove) in which the threads are located.
- On certain days, the uterus can move in such a way that it is very difficult to detect the cervix or to find a hole.
Try again the next day. If you do not grope for the protruding threads for a few days, or they appear shorter or longer than they should be, or you feel a protruding plastic part with your finger, sign up for an appointment with a doctor.
It is advisable to have a special mirror at home and periodically organize a self-examination. With it, it can also be seen and the thread. Usually a month after the introduction of the helix, you must undergo a medical examination. Then it is advisable to see a doctor every six months.
Possible body reaction to the establishment of a spiral
Small bleeding without complications is observed. If they do not stop or go into a strong open bleeding, consult a doctor.
Having prescribed a simple treatment, he will stop him. Spasms or intrauterine pains may occur. They will disappear after the use of antispasmodic drugs prescribed by a doctor, and after 2 months they will pass by themselves.
Constantly there is a danger of spiral exit. It is for this reason that self-observation is recommended. The body has the unique ability to reject a foreign body. If he does not tolerate a spiral, then the rejection will occur within the first three months. Often this occurs during menstruation. Sometimes a woman does not notice that the spiral fell out.
Using hygienic tampons, it is impossible to carelessly remove the spiral. The spiral cannot get tangled or caught on a tampon. Signs of rejection are:
- Unusual vaginal discharge.
- Spasms and severe pains.
- Too long threads when palpating with a finger, or a heightened sensation of the presence of a foreign object in the cervical canal or in the vagina.
- Complaints partner (irritated tip of the penis).
- Soreness during intercourse.
Symptoms indicating an infection (fever, unusual bleeding, colic, pain in the pelvic region) should prompt you to go to the gynecologist immediately.
When to put a spiral?
This is mainly done before ovulation or at the very end of menstruation. It all depends on the doctor and his skill.
Moreover, you can be sure that there is no pregnancy. Can I put a spiral immediately after childbirth or abortion? Before and did. But now many doctors are afraid of infection, or perforation of the uterus, or rejection of the spiral, because the cervix at this time is softer, and the uterine cavity is enlarged.
Thus, it is better to introduce the helix 2-3 months after the birth of the baby and a month later after the artificial termination of pregnancy or delayed menstruation. Advantages of the spiral:
- The spiral provides very effective and permanent protection against pregnancy from the very moment of its installation.
- The spiral does not significantly affect the body's natural hormonal balance.
- The spiral allows you to lead a carefree sex life: do not take birth control pills, inject spermicidal capsules and ointments, measure body temperature.
- The presence of the helix facilitates the process of familiarization with the genitals, because it requires constant palpation with a finger.
- The spiral does not need to be changed often. Plastic spirals change every 3-4 years in order to prevent and eliminate the possibility of the occurrence of pelvic inflammatory processes (if it were not for this danger, the spiral could be put on one for a lifetime).
- If desired, immediately after the extraction of the spiral, you can think about conceiving a child.
Spirals with copper wire are also removed every 3-4 years. Вероятно они утрачивают надежность по истечении этого срока, так как начинающиеся окислительные процессы не позволяют ионам меди быть активными. А иногда медь просто — напросто растворяется и поглощается организмом при ее недостатке. Спирали, содержащие прогестерон, хватает на год.
What are the contraindications to the establishment of a spiral?
- Acute or chronic genital infection.
- Underdeveloped uterus.
- Unreasonable bleeding from the genital tract of unknown origin.
- Postpartum period (recent labor).
- Coagulation problems (poor blood clotting).
- Cardiovascular diseases.
- A woman who has not given birth (the spiral is placed only after the consent of the woman, warned of the possible consequences, and only in the case of a total ban on the use of contraceptive hormonal drugs). The patient’s condition is under constant and intensive observation.
- Some malformations of the uterus.
- Previously performed operations on the uterus (scarring).
- Cases of ectopic pregnancy or plastic surgery on the uterine lips in the past.
After installing the spiral
Pregnancy with a helix, fortunately, is quite rare. Immediately with delayed menstruation, do a pregnancy test.
If the helix is under the embryo sac and the pregnancy proceeds normally, the gynecologist can carefully remove it in order to avoid infectious complications (this certainly applies to women who want to keep the pregnancy).
If the helix is above the embryo sac, it is necessary to leave it in place and ensure that the pregnancy proceeds normally. It is necessary to make an appropriate entry in the patient's personal card, so as not to forget to remove the spiral after delivery from the placenta.
One midwife even witnessed a newborn baby holding a spiral in its little fist-clenched handle. And finally, if a woman does not want to keep the pregnancy, you can resort to artificially interrupting her in the appropriate order.
The most common cases of spontaneous miscarriage in early pregnancy. Cases of ectopic pregnancy are 2.9%. This is a very serious and dangerous complication. If it is not detected in time, a hole first appears in the fallopian tube, then its rupture (the fallopian tube is too narrow to place the growing egg), after which bleeding opens, inflammation worsens, infection occurs and, as a result, the tube is lost. infertility, and sometimes (in the past) to death.
Symptoms are the same as in early pregnancy (fatigue, vomiting, pain in the breasts). Sometimes there are incessant bleeding black, lack of menstruation, pain in the abdominal cavity of varying degrees of intensity (mild, dull, cutting), increasing with the development of pregnancy.
One or all of these symptoms occur suddenly, and therefore it is necessary to be very careful and consult a doctor as soon as possible. An ectopic pregnancy is a “bomb” inside that explodes at any time.
Perforation most often occurs during the insertion of the helix due to embarrassment or lack of experience with the doctor. A poorly mounted helix rests against the wall of the uterus, with a part of the helix half passing through the uterine mucosa or the helix "goes" into the abdominal cavity.
What happens next? The spiral can move from organ to organ and penetrate into them, which, of course, requires urgent surgical intervention. Unfortunately, the perforation has no special symptoms that would allow it to be detected.
Therefore, the first signal to anxiety can be too short strands or a complete absence during self-examination. The second sign of perforation, paradoxically as it may seem, is pregnancy. The fact is that as soon as the spiral disappeared, the woman is no longer protected.
So, if the filaments of the helix are not groped and imperceptible when viewed with the help of a mirror, then either a helix has occurred, which was not noticed, or a perforation has occurred. The doctor has a number of tools for more accurate determination.
He can examine the uterine cavity using a probe or a biopsy instrument. You need to undergo fluorography (all plastic spirals are covered with barium so that they can be detected using X-rays), and even better - ultrasound.
If the helix is still in the uterus, opening the cervix (which in itself is painful), you can pull the thread to remove it. If the helix has settled in the abdominal cavity, it must be removed, because in this case there is a danger of an infectious disease, as well as difficulties in the functioning of the organs that are confronted with the helix, the presence of which leads to their tingling and even pinching (for example, the intestine).
In such a situation, surgical intervention is necessary, the operation is often performed using endoscopy of the abdominal cavity. Inflammation of the uterus and pelvic organs is a complication, the most common and one of the least treatable, which in the future will affect the full functioning of the reproductive organs.
On average, when using a spiral, this danger increases by 3 times, by 7 times - if the woman did not give birth, by 1.7 times - if she already has more than three children. It is for this reason that many doctors refuse to set up a spiral for young women who have no children and who have an irregular sex life with several partners, which increases the risk of infection or sexually transmitted viruses.
The prospect of entering the period of sexual maturity with infection of the fallopian tubes, which ultimately leads to complete infertility, cannot satisfy either the doctor or the woman herself.
There are cases when the mucous membrane of the uterus accumulates around the helix, partially covering it, which does not allow the helix to perform its functions. Removing the encapsulated spiral is very painful, sometimes you have to resort to scraping.
Inconvenience when using a spiral
They are not systematic, and in most cases they are completely absent. Nevertheless, under certain circumstances a woman may be disturbed. During the installation of the spiral Rupture of the cervix with forceps is not possible if all actions and stretching are done carefully. In case of damage to the cervix, it is first treated. Perforation (perforation) of the uterus is a very serious complication, all the more unpleasant, since it cannot be detected immediately, since it is painless. Perforation occurs when not accurate hysterometry or careless introduction of the helix. In case of complication, the woman needs rest, ice on the stomach and a course of antibiotic treatment.