Norma soe in the analysis of blood in women
ESR 20 in a woman what does this mean and what deviations can this indicator indicate? What is ESR, and what values of this value are the norm, and which should alert?
The abbreviation "ESR" stands for "erythrocyte sedimentation rate". This is one of the characteristics of the blood that can provide important information about the condition of the patient. In this case, the number 20 indicates the height of the plasma layer in the test tube, which separated from the erythrocytes per hour, and is equal to 20 mm. This is the norm or pathology, only the doctor can answer, since there are many conditions on which the interpretation of the result depends.
What is ESR and why it is measured
Modern research methods allow to detect pathological processes in the body at the initial stages of formation through the study of the composition of the blood and other biological material. When a patient comes to the clinic with complaints or during a routine examination, a laboratory blood test is carried out, thanks to which diagnosis and differentiation is facilitated, prevention and treatment of diseases is carried out.
A blood test ESR shows how fast the red blood cells settle to the bottom of a special capacity - a medical tube, and this value of speed, in turn, depends on the ability of red blood cells to “stick together” between themselves (aggregation). In the normal state of the body, red blood cells, having the same sign of the electric charge, should repel each other. However, if there is a high concentration of proteins in the blood plasma, which are markers of the inflammatory process (fibrinogen, immunoglobulins, C-reactive protein and others), the ability to aggregate (stick together) red blood cells increases, and, accordingly, their sedimentation rate increases in a test tube during the study blood.
In the course of research, the composition of venous (from a vein) or capillary blood (from a finger) is studied, which, after collection, is placed in a medical tube and an anticoagulant is added to prevent its coagulation. Within an hour, the red blood cells "fall" to the bottom of the tank, and the plasma remains on top.
The test tube has a special scale, which is used to determine the value that corresponds to the boundary between the sediment and the liquid. That is, the height of the plasma layer in millimeters, separated within one hour, and is an indicator indicating the value of the ESR.
Normal values of ESR and their deviations
Determination of ESR is carried out in order to detect inflammatory processes in the body, which are usually indicated by deviations of this indicator from normal values. However, the rate may differ for different people, and in addition, it depends on gender and age. In men, women, young children and adolescents, the ESR rates are different. Women, at the same time, may also have conditions such as pregnancy or menstruation, which also affects the behavior of red blood cells in their blood.
In men, as well as in women, the “normal” ESR values change with age, but the male figure is lower than the female for the same age group of patients. In old age, the values of sedimentation rate of red blood cells in men and women are equalized.
Norms for women
For different age groups, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the blood of women is different.
Indicators of ESR, taken as the norm for women are listed below:
- For girls up to 13 years old - from 7 to 10 mm / h.
- In the adolescent group, the index varies from 15 to 18 mm / h.
- Women of reproductive age can range from 2 to 15 mm / h.
- For women older than 60, indicators from 10 to 20 mm / h and above are considered normal.
After sixty years, an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in both women and men, This is understandable, since the body already has various age-related changes and disorders, for example, diseases of the urinary and hepatobiliary systems and many others.
Thus, it is impossible to determine for yourself what is ESR 20 in women or another meaning, and what it means. The answer to this question can only be given by a competent specialist who, in addition to ESR indicators, will take into account other blood test data, compare them with the results of other tests and survey data.
What does the excess of ESR over the norm in women
Excess rates of sedimentation rate of red blood cells indicates the presence of an inflammatory process in the body. Even in the absence of complaints from the patient, the ESR indicators above or below the norm give the doctor a signal that a person needs an examination to identify the source of inflammation or another pathology.
Usually for women of reproductive age, the ESR is considered normal from 2 mm / h to 15 mm / h.
An ESR of 18 mm / h for women is considered slightly overestimated and may occur in a healthy woman if:
- woman is pregnant
- analysis was done during menstruation,
- some time ago, a woman had a cold, a cold or another illness.
- there is an initial stage of anemia,
- before passing the tests, the woman was on a strict diet or was starving,
- hormonal drugs affect the performance upwards,
- the body is weakened by an allergic reaction,
- there is a recovery period after surgery or childbirth,
- the woman has otolaryngological diseases.
For women over the age of fifty, an ESR of 18-25 mm / hour is considered normal.
ESR of pregnant women
The value of erythrocyte sedimentation rate during pregnancy is always higher than usual. This is due to changes in the body of the future mother and changes in the protein composition of the blood. Depending on the period, the ESR indicator gradually increases from 20 mm / h to 45 mm / h.
The results of the analysis are also influenced by the body weight of the woman. Thin ESR higher than full
However, a pregnant woman should always be under the supervision of doctors, as in some cases an increase in ESR may be due to:
- salt accumulation in the kidneys.
These problems, in turn, can lead to the development of such dangerous complications as preeclampsia, preeclampsia and eclampsia.
What indicators should alert
What does it mean if the ESR significantly exceeds the age norms? If the magnitude of the excess of the indicator over normal values is 20 units or more, this most likely may indicate the presence of an inflammatory process in the body, which can be caused by infectious, inflammatory, autoimmune, oncological diseases, pathologies of internal organs, connective tissues and others. It can be various diseases that only a doctor can diagnose.
Some pathologies in the initial stages are asymptomatic, but with the help of blood tests they can be identified in the initial stages:
- Pathology of the blood system.
- Diseases of the endocrine system.
- Diseases of the pancreas, liver, gallbladder and kidneys.
- Immune system abnormalities.
- Injuries, lesions of the connective tissue.
- Severe intoxication of the body.
- Myocardial infarction.
- Parasitic invasions.
- Acute inflammatory processes of microbial and non-microbial etiology.
- Oncological diseases.
- Bacterial, viral and fungal infections.
- Nervous system disorders.
- Diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
- Diseases of the hepatobiliary system in which the blood levels of bile acids and enzymes are elevated.
- Increased blood viscosity.
- Diseases in which the form of red blood cells changes and others.
The reasons for deviations from the norm can be a great many, and making a diagnosis on your own is simply useless and dangerous.
What conditions may indicate the need to go to the clinic
Dangerous diseases do not always manifest themselves as characteristic signs and may be asymptomatic in the initial stages.
In modern clinics there is the latest equipment, qualified personnel works and there are all possibilities to help a person prevent the development of dangerous diseases. In addition, a general clinical blood test is not expensive and is available to everyone.
Do not neglect the "hints" that the body gives, it is better to pass the available tests and, if necessary, be examined.
What is the rate of ESR in women?
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, the norm in women is a rather relative concept, because it can depend on various circumstances: the state of health in general, hormonal fluctuations, and so on. But, on average, an ESR is normally counted from 2 to 20 millimeters per hour. This is usually more than men. But do not forget that the level of ESR in the blood, the norm in women varies with age. We can distinguish the following indicators of the norm by age:
- Women aged 18 to 30 - from 4 to 15 (mm / h),
- Women during pregnancy - 20-45 (mm / h),
- Women from 30 to 50-60 years: from 8 to 25 (mm / h)
- For women after 50 years of age, the ESR rate ranges from 12 to 52 (mm / h).
During pregnancy, the indicators tend to increase, and they can also change depending on the state of the pregnancy, the state of health, as well as the build and constitution of the expectant mother.
ESR 10-12 - this is the optimal limit for a healthy woman whose body is fully formed and there are no other provoking factors.
ESR 20-30 in a woman, what does this mean? This moderately high figure may indicate an interesting situation or current menstruation. If neither is present, then perhaps this may indicate an initial stage of anemia or a bacterial infection.
If the indicator of ESR is 40 in the blood of young and middle-aged women, then most likely, it is a question of disturbances in the work of red blood cells, serious inflammation or progressive tumors. Your condition must be analyzed and examined.
If a blood test, ESR rate is overestimated by 60 units, the person has serious health problems, and he probably knows about it. Often in such cases it is about the decomposition of any tissue, bodily suppuration or an acute chronic disease.
Increased or low ESR
Any deviations from the average norm, this is not a reason to get confused and invent various diagnoses for yourself. Increased ESR will be present in various inflammatory processes, but even an elementary cold, acute respiratory infections, the indicator also reacts. If your normal ESR figure always fluctuated around 15-16 units, and suddenly an ESR of 18-19 or a little more than 20, you should not be alarmed when you fully recover, your usual index will return to normal.
We list you possible, but absolutely safe reasons for a slight increase in ESR in the blood:
- Long finding a woman on a strict diet or fasting
- Period of menstruation,
- Pregnancy and postpartum period
- Heavy meal before research,
- Allergic reactions
- Violations of the organs of the ear, throat, nose (otitis, sinusitis, etc.),
- Post surgical condition
If the level of erythrocyte sedimentation rate is significantly deviated from the norm in a big way, the reason for this may be more serious diseases occurring in the woman's body:
- Pathology of the gallbladder, large intestine,
- Pancreas diseases,
- Hepatitis, fungus,
- Lupus erythematosus,
- Kidney disease.
If the analysis determined the level of ESR 27, it is considered a moderate increase in the deposition rate. The doctor may order further tests with suspected hypoproteinemia or anemia.
Since the level of soe 26 in women is far from being critical, it can be caused by severe diseases of the ear, throat, nose, fungal infection, or viruses. In this case, after getting rid of the main source of the disease, blood normalization can be carried out under the supervision of a physician.
If the level has surpassed the mark of 30 units, and the suspicion of pregnancy cannot be, most likely, serious diseases occur, which, thanks to the blood indicator seen in time, can be quickly and successfully overcome. In a woman, an ESR of 32 or higher may occur after undergoing surgical intervention, as well as with an ongoing or acute bacterial disease.
ESR 45 in women is an urgent reason to consult a doctor.
Reduced ESR in the blood of women can be observed with:
- deformations of the form of red blood cells,
- DIC syndrome,
Remember that with a regular check-up with a doctor, you can identify abnormalities in time and prevent the development of a serious disease. Be healthy!
New methods of diagnosing and determining the causes of diseases appear in modern medicine regularly. However, the definition ESR indicatorin human blood is still an effective diagnostic method. It is used for the purpose of diagnosis, both in children and in adults. Such a study is also prescribed when a patient is approached by a doctor who is concerned with a particular disease, and during prophylactic examinations.
Any doctor can interpret this test. ESR included in the group general blood tests (KLA). If this indicator is increased, you need to determine the cause of this phenomenon.
What is ESR in the blood?
Those who are prescribed such a study are interested in what to do for the ESR analysis, and what it is. So, the abbreviation ESR is the capital letters of the term "erythrocyte sedimentation rate". Thus, using this test, you can accurately determine the sedimentation rate red blood cells in blood.
Red blood cells- This is known to be red blood cells. By acting on them anticoagulantsover a certain period, they settle at the bottom of the capillary or test tube. The time during which a blood sample taken from a patient is divided into upper and lower layers is defined as ESR. It is rated for height layerplasmawhich is obtained during the study, in millimeters for 1 hour. The non-specific ESR indicator, however, has a high sensitivity.
If the rate of ESR in the blood is increased, this may indicate the development of various disorders in the body. So, sometimes it is an indicator of the development of infectious, oncological, rheumatological and other pathologies before the manifestation of obvious symptoms of diseases. Accordingly, if the level of ESR is normal, the doctor, if necessary, prescribe other studies.
The rate of ESR for women is 3 to 15 mm / h. But it is necessary to take into account that this indicator also depends on age - normally it can be different for women under 30 and after 30 years. If necessary, the rate of red blood cells in women’s blood is also determined. In pregnant women, the ESR rises from the fourth month. It should be borne in mind that the rate of ESR in pregnant women may vary depending on the period of gestation.
The norm of ESR in men is from 2 to 10 mm / h. In general, red blood cells are also determined in the blood of men.
The rate of ESR in the blood of children depends on the age of the patient.
The value of this in the diagnostic process is important for:
- differentiation of the diagnosis (appendicitisand ectopic pregnancy, angina pectorisand myocardial infarction, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritisand etc.),
- determine the response of the body in the process of treating patients tuberculosis, lymphogranulomatosis, rheumatoid arthritisand etc.,
- definition of a disease that occurs latently (but it should be borne in mind that even normal values of ESR do not exclude the development of a disease or neoplasm in the body).
Sometimes this concept is referred to as ROE. The index of ESR in the blood and ESR are identical concepts. Speaking of ROE in the blood, we understand that this erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Once this concept was used in medicine, that is, they determined the rate of ESR in the blood for women, the norm of ESR in the blood of children, etc. At present, this concept is considered obsolete, but any doctor understands what is ROE in a blood test, what is ROE in oncology, etc.
Diseases in which there is increased ESR in the blood
If a patient has an elevated ESR in the blood, what this means is determined by the doctor in the diagnostic process. After all, this indicator for suspected development of a certain disease is very important for the diagnosis. A qualified doctor in the process of diagnosis takes into account not only that the patient has increased this value, but also determines what the presence of other symptoms indicates. But still this indicator is in many cases very important.
ESR: increase in diseases
Elevated ESR in the blood of a child and an adult is observed if there is bacterial damage - in the acute phase of bacterial infection.
It does not matter where the infections are located exactly: the picture of the peripheral blood will still display the inflammatory reaction.
Always elevated in an adult this value if there is a place. viral infectious diseases. From which this indicator rises specifically, the doctor determines in the process of a comprehensive examination.
Thus, we are talking about the development of a certain pathological process, if the ESR is above the norm. What this means depends on the value of the indicator. Very high values - more than 100 mm / h - occur when infectious diseases develop:
During the development of an infectious disease, this value does not increase quickly, an increase is observed after 1-2 days. If the patient recovers, the ESR will be slightly increased for several more weeks or months. The causes of high ESR in normal leukocytes may indicate that a person has recently suffered a viral disease: that is, the leukocyte count has already returned to normal, and the sedimentation rate of the red cells has not yet.
Causes of increased ESR in the blood of women may be associated with pregnancy, so in the process of diagnosis, the doctor necessarily takes into account these causes of increased ESR in the blood of women.
Increased ESR is a typical symptom for the following diseases:
- diseases of the biliary tract and liver,
- inflammatory diseases of purulent and septic nature (reactive arthritis and etc.),
- blood afflictions (sickle-shaped anemia, hemoglobinopathies, anisocytosis),
- ailments by which occurs tissue destruction and necrosis(stroke, heart attack, tuberculosisneoplasms of malignant nature))
- pathologies of the endocrine glands and metabolic disorders (obesity, diabetes, cystic fibrosisand etc.),
- malignant degeneration of the bone marrow, in which red blood cells enter the blood, not ready to perform direct functions (myeloma, leukemia, lymphoma),
- autoimmune diseases (scleroderma, lupus erythematosus, rheumatismand etc.),
- Acute conditions in which the blood becomes more viscous (diarrhea, bleeding, vomiting, postoperative conditions and etc.).
Normal and pathological indicators of ESR
In medicine, the physiological limits of this indicator are determined, which are the norm for certain groups of people. Normal and maximum indicators are displayed in the table:
- newborn children: norm - 0-2 mm / h, the maximum rate - 2.8 mm / h,
- 1 month: norm - 2-5 mm / h,
- 2-6 months: norm - 4-6 mm / h,
- 6 months - 1 year: norm - 3-10 mm / h,
- 1-5 years: norm - 5-11 mm / h,
- 6-14 years old: norm - 4-12 mm / h,
- from 14 years old: norm - in girls 2–15 mm / h, in boys 1–10 mm / h.
- women under 30: norm - 8-15 mm / h,
- from 30 years: permissible acceleration up to 20 mm / h.
- men under 60: norm - 2-10 mm / h,
- from 60 years: norm - up to 15 mm / h.
The methods by which the blood test ESR
Before deciphering what means ESR in a blood test, the doctor uses a certain method for determining this indicator. It should be noted that the results of different methods differ among themselves and are not comparable.
It is necessary to take into account, before conducting a blood test ESR, that the resulting value depends on several factors. General analysis should be carried out by a specialist - employee of the laboratory, using only high-quality reagents. Analysis in children, women and men is carried out under the condition that the patient did not eat at least 4 hours before the procedure.
What does the ESR value show in the analysis? First of all, the presence and intensity of inflammation in the body. Therefore, in the presence of deviations, patients are often prescribed a biochemical analysis. Indeed, for a qualitative diagnosis, it is often necessary to find out how much a certain protein is present in the body.
ESR on Westergren: what is it?
The described method for the determination of ESR - Westergren method — today meets the requirements of the International Committee for Standardization of Blood Research. This technique is widely used in modern diagnostics. Such an analysis requires venous blood, which is mixed with sodium citrate. To measure ESR, the distance of the tripod is measured, the measurement is taken from the upper border of the plasma to the upper border of the red blood cells that have settled. The measurement is carried out 1 hour after the components have been mixed.
It should be noted that if the ESR is increased according to Westergren, it means that this result is more indicative for diagnosis, especially if the reaction is accelerated.
ESR on Vintrob
The essence Winthrob method - study of undiluted blood, which was mixed with an anticoagulant. Interpret the desired indicator can be on a scale of the tube in which there is blood. However, this method has a significant drawback: if the indicator is higher than 60 mm / h, then the results may be unreliable due to the fact that the tube is blocked by settled erythrocytes.
ESR in Panchenkov
This method involves the study of capillary blood, which is diluted with sodium citrate - 4: 1. Next, the blood is placed in a special capillary with 100 divisions for 1 hour. It should be noted that when using the Westergren and Panchenkov methods, the same results are obtained, but if the speed is increased, then the Westergren method demonstrates higher values. Comparison of indicators - in the table below.
Currently, special automatic counters are also actively used to determine this indicator. To do this, the technician is no longer required to manually bleed blood and keep track of numbers.
Blood ESR Indicator: What do certain values mean?
As mentioned above, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 mm per hour are considered normal indicators of ESR for a healthy man; for women, the normal rate is from 2 to 15 mm / h. Therefore, for women, a value of 12, 13, 14, 15 is considered normal. However, indicators in women in adulthood are normal, and can be 16, 17, 18, 19, 20.
If the value exceeds the norm by several units, then the state of the blood can be considered relatively normal. That is, the indicator, 21, 22 for a woman can be considered acceptable, as well as values of 23, 24 mm / h. When a woman carries a child, this value is even greater. Therefore, expectant mothers have no reason to believe at indicator 25 that this means something unpleasant. During pregnancy, the analysis may show 28, 29. ESR 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38 is also not evidence of the development of pathological processes in pregnant women.
This indicator increases with age. Therefore, if elderly patients have an ESR value of 40, which symptom of a disease it is and what it means, the doctor determines by accompanying signs. The normal values for the elderly are 43, 50, 52, 55 mm / h, etc. However, in young people, values of 40-60 mm / h are probably evidence of serious violations. Therefore, after obtaining the analysis data, it is necessary to consult in detail about why ESR 60, what it might be, and to undergo further research.
What affects the rate of ESR?
In both women and men, a number of different factors, both physiological and pathological, affect the level of ESR. The key factors that most influence this analysis are determined:
- When determined by different methods - according to Westergren et al. - the rate of ESR in women in the blood is higher than in men. So, ESR 25 in a woman may be the norm. This is due to the physiological characteristics of blood in women.
- What is the rate of ESR in the blood of a woman, depends on whether she is pregnant. For future mothers, the rate is from 20 to 45 mm / h.
- Higher ESR is observed in women who take contraceptives. Under this condition, the ESR of a woman can normally be 30. What this means, is there a pathology, or is it a normal physiological indicator, should be determined by the doctor.
- In the morning, the speed with which the red bodies settle is higher than during the day and in the evening, and here, differences in age do not matter.
- Signs of accelerated sedimentation are observed when exposed to acute phase proteins.
- If inflammation and an infectious process develops, the values change a day after that. how do they start leukocytosisand hyperthermia. That is, on the first day of the disease, the indicator can be 10, 14, 15 mm / h, in a day it can rise to 17, 18, 20, 27, etc.
- ESR is increased if the body has a chronic inflammatory focus.
- A low value is noted when increased blood viscosity.
- The decrease in sedimentation rate occurs under the influence of anisocytes and spherocytes, the rate becomes greater under the influence of macrocytes.
Increased ESR in children
In the case when the rate of ESR in children is exceeded, most likely an infectious inflammatory process develops in the body. But it should be taken into account when determining the ESR in accordance with Panchenkov, that other KLA indicators (orhemoglobin and etc.). Also, in children with infectious diseases, the general condition is significantly worsened. In infectious diseases, the ESR is high for a child already on the second or third day. The indicator can be 15, 25, 30 mm / h.
If red blood cells are elevated in a child’s blood, the causes of this condition may be as follows:
- violation of metabolic processes (diabetes, hypothyroidism, hyperteriosis),
- systemic or autoimmune diseases (bronchial asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus),
- blood diseases, hemoblastosis, anemia,
- diseases that cause tissue breakdown (tuberculosis, myocardial infarction, oncological diseases).
It is necessary to consider: if even after recovery, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate is increased, this means that the process is normal. Just normalization is slow, but after about one month after the disease, normal performance should recover. But if there are doubts about recovery, then you need to do a re-examination.
Parents should understand that if a child has red blood cells above the norm, this means that the pathological process in the body takes place.
But sometimes, if a baby has slightly increased red blood cells in the blood, this means that some relatively "harmless" factors have an effect:
- in infants, a slight increase in ESR may be associated with a violation of the mother’s diet with breastfed,
- teething period
- after taking the medicine (Paracetamol),
- at lack of vitamins,
- at helminthiasis.
Thus, if the red blood cells are elevated in the blood, this means that the child develops a certain disease. There is also a statistics of the frequency of increasing this value in various diseases:
- in 40% of cases, a high value indicates infectious diseases (respiratory diseases, tuberculosis, urinary tract diseases, viral hepatitis, fungal diseases),
- in 23% - oncological processes different organs
- in 17% - rheumatism, systemic lupus,
- at 8% - cholelithiasis, inflammation of the digestive tract, pelvic organs, anemia,ENT diseases, injuries, diabetes, pregnancy,
- 3% — kidney disease.
When can an increase in ESR be considered safe?
As is well known, an increase in red blood cells in the blood, as a rule, indicates that a certain inflammatory reaction develops in the body. But sometimes the causes of increased red blood cells in women and men are not so categorical.
It is primarily about allergieswhen the analysis in men and women helps to judge whether anti-allergic treatment is carried out correctly (fluctuations of the initially elevated ESR should be taken into account). That is, if the clinical effect of the drug takes place, then gradually the rate of ESR in men in the blood, as in women, will recover.
This figure can also be increased by a hearty breakfast before the analysis; a strict diet and fasting can also change it.
ROE may change during menstruation, during pregnancy and after childbirth.
False positive ESR analyzes
In medicine, there is also the concept of false positive analysis. Such an ESR analysis is considered if there are factors on which this value depends:
- anemia(morphological changes in red blood cells do not occur),
- increased plasma protein concentration, with the exception of fibrinogen,
- renal failure,
- obesity high degree
- advanced age of a person
- introduction dextran,
- a technically incorrect study
- reception vitamin a,
- recent vaccination against hepatitis b.
What to do if the reasons for the increase are not defined?
If the analysis is carried out normally, but it is not possible to establish the causes of the increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, it is important to conduct a detailed diagnosis. Need to exclude oncological diseasestherefore determined lymphocytes, GRA, the rate of leukocytes in women and men. In the process of analysis, other indicators are taken into account - whether the average red blood cell volume is increased (what the mean is explained by the doctor) or the average red blood cell volume is lowered (what this means is also determined by a specialist). Conducted and urine tests and many other studies.
But there are cases when high rates of ESR are a feature of the body, and they cannot be reduced. In this case, experts advise regular screening, and if there is a certain symptom or syndrome, contact your doctor.
How to reduce the ESR in the blood?
The doctor will tell you in detail about the ways how to lower this indicator with the help of medicines. He will prescribe a treatment regimen when a diagnosis is made. Self-medication is not recommended. You can try to reduce it with folk remedies, which are mainly aimed at restoring normal function. immune system, as well as blood purification. Effective folk remedies can be considered decoctions of herbs, teas with raspberries and lemon, beet juice, etc. How many times a day to take these funds, how much to drink, should be learned from a specialist.
Soe 30 in a woman - what does this mean?
A blood test is the most common and simple method of research, thanks to which it is possible to assess the general condition of a woman’s body, as well as the presence of malfunctions of a different nature and inflammatory processes. One of the most important indicators that experts pay close attention to is ESR.
In women, the rate of ESR in the body varies depending on age and too high rates indicate the development of inflammation.
In that case, if the ESR indicator for a woman is 30 mm / h, then this may signal an active menstruation or the development of an initial stage of such an anemia as anemia.
Characteristics of ESR and its functions
ESR is one of the main indicators of a blood test, which indicates the possible presence of an inflammatory process in the body.
ESR is considered an important indicator of the general blood test, which displays the relationship between the cellular components of blood and plasma.
In a healthy person, all blood cells, including red blood cells, have a small electrical charge on their surface, which helps to prevent them from sticking together.
This property provides high stability of blood and its rheological properties.
The impact on the body of various adverse factors leads to the fact that the plasma composition is subjected to sharp fluctuations. The result is a sharp decrease in charge on the surface of red blood cells and this causes the blood cells to stick together and settle.
Increased ESR in the human body in most cases is a signal of the onset of the inflammatory process.
The fact is that it is inflammation that causes the formation in plasma of a large amount of protein with a specific charge.
Such blood cells gradually stick together, and there is a sharp increase in the rate of sediment formation.
It should be remembered that during pregnancy the ESR is 20-25 mm / h and the reason for such a high rate is considered to be a change in the protein composition of the plasma.
The inflammatory process is usually not observed, but simply a change in the metabolism in the body of the future mommy. It is for this reason that such a high rate of ESR in pregnant women is considered normal.
Reduction of ESR in the female body occurs with various defects of red blood cells. This can be expressed in a change in their shape or in too large a cluster of red blood cells in the body.
ESR on Westergren - for it you need to donate venous blood in the morning on an empty stomach
The definition of ESR is a non-specific test of high sensitivity, which makes it possible to diagnose the presence or absence of inflammation in the female body. Such an analysis allows to reveal only the fact of the presence of inflammation, but is not able to establish the cause of the development of such a pathology.
A woman takes blood from a vein or a finger, and this procedure is usually done in the morning and always on an empty stomach.
To determine the ESR in the blood, experts use the Panchenkov or Westergren method.
Two such methods of research have much in common, and it is possible to notice differences only with an increase in the sedimentation rate.
The essence of this study is that a special substance is added to the tube with the test material, which prevents the natural process of blood coagulation.
The tube with the contents left for one hour in an upright position.
After the time has elapsed after the red blood cells have settled, a study of the sedimentation rate, which is measured in millimeters per hour, is carried out.
Usually such a blood test does not require any special training.
It is important to remember that such a study is necessarily performed in the morning on an empty stomach. In the event that the patient is diagnosed with an inflammatory process, it may be necessary to conduct a re-examination of blood after a meal in order to monitor the dynamics.
The rate of ESR in women
The normal value of ESR in OAK in women varies depending on age and individual characteristics.
In fact, the ESR rate is considered a relative concept, because it depends on various factors:
- general health
- hormone levels in the female body
- patient's age
Medical practice shows that usually the ESR rate for women is 2 to 20 mm / h. The indicator of ESR varies depending on the age of the woman and has the following values:
- for women from 18 to 30 years is considered the rate of 4-15 mm / h
- in future moms, the rate of ESR can reach 20-45 mm / h
- for women from 30 to 60 years, the rate is 8-25 mm / h
- in elderly patients this figure can be from 12 to 52 mm / h
When expecting a child, the ESR indicator may change and is determined by this state of health of the woman and her physique. The best option for a healthy woman is considered to be 10-12 mm / h.
In the event that the ESR reaches 20-30 m / h, then this may indicate that the pregnancy has taken place or about the menstruation at the moment.
If these options are impossible, one can suspect the initial stage of such a pathology as anemia or a bacterial infection.
More information about the ESR can be found in the video:
When an ESR of 40 mm / h is achieved, one can speak of serious disturbances in the work of red blood cells, severe inflammatory processes or tumors in the stage of their progression. With this indicator of ESR, it is necessary to consult a specialist and, if necessary, undergo additional research.
In the event that a general blood test showed an ESR of 60 mm / h, then this signals serious health problems.
In most cases, this indicator is diagnosed in situations where there is an active process of decomposition or suppuration of the tissues.
A significant excess of the norm can be observed even when chronic pathology passes into the acute stage of the course.
A high level of ESR in the blood of women indicates an inflammatory process.
In fact, ESR in the female body is an unstable indicator, however, it can be used to determine the presence of infection in the body. In the event that a woman is diagnosed with an increase or decrease in ESR, this is not yet a cause for concern.
In most cases, an increase in sedimentation rate occurs with colds, flu, or a viral infection. Usually, after the woman recovers, all indicators return to normal.
In some situations, the ESR indicators are greatly increased if a strict diet is observed or, conversely, with too dense a diet.
ESR may increase during menstruation, in the first months after the birth of the child, or when the patient is prone to allergic reactions.
It is recommended to repeat the general blood test for the determination of ESR after some time, and with its other normal indicators nothing to worry about is not worth it.
The most common causes that lead to increased ESR in the female body can be identified:
- injuries and fractures of varying difficulty that a woman has suffered in the past
- recovery period after surgery
- disruption of organs such as the liver or kidneys
- severe intoxication of the female body
- progression of tumors of different nature
- inflammatory process in the lungs
- the development of such a pathology as arthritis
In that case, if the rate reaches 30 mm / h, and pregnancy is excluded, then you can suspect a serious disease. In patients, ESR can reach 32 or higher after surgery or bacterial infection.
In some cases, there is an increase in the ESR when taking certain groups of drugs in which adrenal hormones are present. Often, the sedimentation rate increases with an increased content of protein in the urine and deviations from the normal red blood cell count.
Decrease in women
In some cases, there is a decrease in ESR in the female body and this happens for the following reasons:
- strong stress and nervous disorders
- epileptic seizures
- development of leukemia
- strict diet
- circulatory failure
- increased blood viscosity and acidity
- pathologies that cause an increase in acid and bile pigments in the blood
- calcium chloride and aspirin
- pathology, accompanied by a change in the shape of red blood cells
Reception of various contraceptive drugs, vitamin A and theophylline causes an increase in the rate, and aspirin, quinine and cortisol, on the contrary, reduce it. For this reason, when conducting a general blood test for ESR, a specialist should be warned about the drugs taken.
In medical practice, there is such a thing as a false increase in ESR. Most often, the main reason for obtaining false results is technical error.
It is for this reason that it is recommended to perform a blood test in one laboratory and best of all at regular intervals.
This will allow you to compare the results and avoid any errors.
Today, a complete blood count is considered one of the most informative and simple methods of research.
Evaluation of the ESR indicator allows you to diagnose various inflammatory processes in the female body in time and start treatment in a timely manner.
To avoid the development of various health problems can be if regularly examined by a specialist.
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Norma soe in the analysis of blood in women
For a long time science has been exploring human blood. Today, in any modern clinic, based on the results of a blood test, it is possible to identify the general condition of the body, existing problems or inflammatory processes.
One of the most important indicators that doctors pay attention to is the ESR (or erythrocyte sedimentation rate).
You may have noticed in the laboratory that blood is exfoliated in a test tube: concentrated red is located on the bottom of the test tube and is more transparent from above, so the sediment is erythrocytes, and their sedimentation rate is measured in mm / h.
According to this parameter, it is possible to make conditional conclusions on the state of health and on the existing physiological or pathological processes. The rate of ESR in the blood of women, children and men is different.
But sex is not the only factor that affects blood counts. The rate of ESR in women varies by age. So, what is ESR in the blood, how is the analysis performed and what is the norm of ESR in the blood of women is the topic of our article.
What is an ESR analysis
A patient draws blood from a finger (general clinical analysis) or from a vein, usually in the morning on an empty stomach, because in the daytime, the indicators may fluctuate.
Further, to determine the ESR in the blood using one of the methods: Vastergrena or Panchenkova. The principle of these methods is similar, the differences are noticeable only at an increased sedimentation rate.
The bottom line is that a special substance (anticoagulant) is placed in an analysis tube, which prevents blood from clotting. Then leave the tube in an upright position for an hour.
Further, when the red blood cells settle, consider what amount in mm of plasma fluid has separated. The border on the tube between plasma and red blood cells will be the level of ESR.
Increased ESR in the blood: what it means, causes of increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate
The abbreviation "ESR" stands for "erythrocyte sedimentation rate". This is a non-specific laboratory indicator, which is determined by examining a patient’s blood.
ESR refers to the methods of initial diagnosis. The correct interpretation allows to determine the algorithm of further actions of the doctor.
The history and essence of the method Research according to the Panchenkov method Research using the Westergren method Normal ESR indicators in adults and children What does the increase in soe mean?
The history and essence of the method
In 1918, it was found that in women during pregnancy, the ESR varies.
Later it turned out that the change in the index is observed in inflammatory diseases.
One of the methods for determining the indicator, which is still widely used in clinical practice to this day, was developed by Westergren in 1928.
The density of red blood cells is higher than the density of the plasma, and if the blood does not coagulate, the red blood cells under their own weight gradually sink to the bottom of the laboratory tube.
Pay attention: in order to prevent blood coagulation, before carrying out the study, a substance — anticoagulant — sodium citrate (5% - or 3.8% solution) is added to the container.
The leading factor affecting the sedimentation rate is the aggregation of erythrocytes (i.e., their sticking together).
For the formed indivisible particles known as "coin columns", the area-to-volume ratio is smaller, so they overcome the resistance of the fluid (plasma) more easily and settle faster. The larger the size and number of units, the higher the ESR.
The aggregation is influenced by the protein composition of the plasma and the surface potential of the erythrocytes. With the development of the pathology of infectious-inflammatory genesis, the electrochemical composition of the blood changes. The main reason for the increase in aggregation is the presence in the blood t.
n “Acute phase proteins” - immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, ceruloplasmin and C-reactive protein. Agglutination normally prevents the negative charge of red blood cells, but it tends to change when attaching antibodies and acute-phase fibrinogen.
Note: a modified electrical charge and an increased tendency to aggregate are characteristic of atypical forms of red blood cells.
Insignificant reductions in the albumin content have practically no effect on the sedimentation rate, but a significant decrease in the concentration causes a decrease in the viscosity of the serum and an increase in the index.
To assess the ESR using this method, a special laboratory vessel is used - the so-called. Panchenkov capillary. First, sodium citrate is added to it to the “P” mark, and the anticoagulant is transferred onto the glass.
Then the test blood is collected twice in succession to the “K” mark, and it is connected to citrate. Citrate blood is recruited again into the capillary, which is fixed in an upright position. ESR determined after 60 minutes
or after 24 hours, the indicator is expressed in millimeters. This method, which is most often guided by the doctors of our country, gives high accuracy in single studies.
Its main drawback is that the analysis takes a relatively long time.
The European method is somewhat more sensitive to an increase in ESR. For analysis, Westergren tubes are used with a diameter of 2.5 mm and a graduation of 200 mm.
The material for research is venous blood mixed with sodium citrate (3.8%) in a 4: 1 ratio. Reagent such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) may be added to the blood.
The indicator is expressed in mm / hour.
Important: Panchenkov and Westergren studies can give different numbers, and, the higher the ESR, the greater the possible difference.
Therefore, the decoding of the analysis must necessarily indicate by which method the analysis was made.
If you received the results in the laboratory, which determines the ESR according to international standards - be sure to specify whether the results were brought to the standards of the Panchenkov indicators.
Interpretation of results: normal indicators of ESR in adults and children
Normal indicators of ESR vary depending on gender, age, and some individual characteristics of the subject.
Borders of the norm for adults:
- for men - 2-12 mm / hour
- for women - 3-20 mm / hour.
Important: with age, the rate rises, significantly going beyond the normal range.
Older people can determine the speed of 40-50 mm / hour, and this is not always a sign of infection, inflammation or other pathology.
For women over the age of 60, digits within the range of 2-30 mm / hour are considered the norm, and for men of the same age -2-20 mm / hour.
Borders of the norm for children of different ages (in mm / hour):
- newborns - up to 2,
- from 2 to 12 months - 2-7,
- from 2 to 5 years - 5-11,
- from 5 to 12 years - 4-17,
- boys over 12 years old 2-15,
- girls over 12 years old - 2-12.
The most common deviations in the direction of increasing numbers. Inaccuracy of the analysis may be due to violation of the rules of conduct. Blood on the ESR must pass on an empty stomach in the morning.
If the subject was starving on the eve or, on the contrary, had too much supper, the results are distorted. In such situations, it is recommended to retake the analysis after 1-2 days.
The resultant ESR is affected by the storage conditions of biological material prior to the study.
What does the increase in soe?
ESR analysis is famous for its simplicity and low cost, but the interpretation of the results often presents certain difficulties. Figures within the boundaries of the norm do not always indicate the absence of an active pathological process.
It has been established that in a number of patients with diagnosed malignant diseases this indicator is less than 20 mm / hour.
As for oncological patients, a significant increase in the sedimentation rate of red cells is more characteristic for individuals with solitary tumors than for patients with malignant blood diseases.
In some cases, no disease is not detected in patients with ESR 100 mm / hour and above.
The main reasons for the increase in ESR:
- acute and chronic bacterial infections (infectious diseases of the respiratory and urinary systems, as well as tuberculosis),
- viral infections (including hepatitis),
- fungal infections (systemic candidiasis),
- malignant diseases (tumor neoplasms, leukemias, lymphomas and myeloma),
- rheumatological diseases
- kidney disease.
Increased ESR is also characteristic of some other diseases and conditions, including:
Important: An increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate above 100 mm / h is most often detected with an active infectious process (including sepsis), malignant tumors, oncohematological diseases, systemic lesions of the connective tissue, and kidney diseases.
Increased ESR does not necessarily indicate the presence of pathology.
Within 20-30 mm / hour, it increases in pregnant women, during menstruation, as well as on the background of taking certain pharmacological drugs - in particular salicylates (Acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin), complexes containing vitamin A and oral contraceptives. The increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate may be due to the recent introduction of hepatitis B vaccine.
Note: the increase in numbers is often observed in obesity in the absence of acute processes, as well as against the background of high blood cholesterol.
In the first hours and days of the disease, the indicator may remain normal, since it takes a certain time (from 24 to 48 hours) for the serum proteins to undergo changes. At the beginning of the infection process, leukocytosis appears much earlier, i.e.
increase in the number of leukocytes. It also takes time to normalize the index. After complete recovery, increased ESR may persist for several weeks or even months.
In this case, the indicator simply reflects the period of convalescence (recovery).
An increase in ESR is the basis for additional research. In particular, for the diagnosis of inflammation, a biochemical blood test is needed to assess the performance of C-reactive proteins, which are markers of inflammation.
Betsik Julia, medical reviewer
(32 vote., 4,22 from 5)
Soe norm in women and men, during pregnancy, soe in oncology, cancer
fasting, reduced muscle mass,
pregnancy (especially 1st and 2nd semester),
This is a non-specific laboratory indicator of blood, reflecting the ratio of plasma protein fractions, a change in the ESR may serve as an indirect sign of a current inflammatory or other pathological process. Also, this indicator is known under the name "Erythrocyte sedimentation rate", ROE. The test is based on the ability of red blood cells in the absence of the possibility of blood clotting to settle under the action of gravity. Normally, the magnitude of ESR in women is 2-10 mm / hour, and in men - 1-6 mm / hour. For over a hundred years, this laboratory test has been used to quantify the intensity of a variety of inflammatory processes. Thus, most often an increase in ESR is associated with acute and chronic infection, immunopathological diseases, and infarction of internal organs.
Although inflammation is the most common cause of acceleration of erythrocyte sedimentation, an increase in ESR can also be caused by other, including not always pathological, conditions.
ESR may also increase with malignant neoplasms, with a significant decrease in the number of red blood cells, during pregnancy, while taking certain medications, such as salicylates.
A moderate increase in ESR (20-30 mm / h) can be observed with anemia, with hypoproteinemia, in women during menstruation and pregnancy.
A sharp increase in ESR (more than 60 mm / hour) usually accompanies such states as the septic process, autoimmune diseases, malignant tumors, accompanied by tissue breakdown, leukemia.
Уменьшение скорости оседания эритроцитов возможно при гиперпротеинемии, при изменении формы эритроцитов, эритроцитозах, лейкоцитозе, ДВС-синдроме, гепатитах.
Despite its non-specificity, the determination of ESR is still one of the most popular laboratory tests to establish the fact and intensity of the inflammatory process.
The process of sedimentation (sedimentation) of erythrocytes can be divided into 3 phases, which occur at different rates. At first, the erythrocytes slowly settle by individual cells.
Then they form aggregates - "coin columns", and subsidence occurs faster.
In the third phase, a lot of erythrocyte aggregates are formed, their sedimentation at first slows down, and then gradually stops.
The indicator of ESR varies depending on many physiological and pathological factors. The values of ESR in women are slightly higher than in men. Changes in the protein composition of the blood during pregnancy lead to increased ESR during this period.
A decrease in the content of red blood cells (anemia) in the blood leads to an accelerated ESR and, on the contrary, an increase in the content of red blood cells in the blood slows down the rate of sedimentation. During the day, the values may fluctuate, the maximum level is noted in the daytime.
The main factor influencing the formation of "coin columns" during erythrocyte sedimentation is the protein composition of blood plasma.
Ostrophase proteins, adsorbed on the surface of erythrocytes, reduce their charge and repulsion from each other, contribute to the formation of "coin columns" and accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation.
An increase in the proteins of the acute phase, for example, C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, with acute inflammation leads to an increase in ESR.
In acute inflammatory and infectious processes, a change in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate is noted 24 hours after the temperature rises and the number of leukocytes increases.
In chronic inflammation, an increase in ESR is caused by an increase in the concentration of fibrinogen and immunoglobulins.
The definition of ESR in dynamics, in combination with other tests, is used in monitoring the effectiveness of the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases.
The phenomenon of erythrocyte sedimentation was known to the ancient Greeks, but was not used in clinical practice until the twentieth century. In 1918
Fahraeus found that the erythrocyte sedimentation rate changes in pregnant women, he later found that the ESR also changes in many diseases . Westergren in 1926 and Winthrop 1935
developed methods that are now used in clinical practice to determine CO
The principle of the method is the determination of ESR
The specific mass of erythrocytes exceeds the specific mass of plasma, so they slowly settle to the bottom of the tube. The speed with which erythrocyte sedimentation occurs is mainly determined by the degree of their aggregation, that is, their ability to stick together. Due to the fact that during the formation of aggregates, the ratio of the surface area of particles to their volume decreases, the resistance of erythrocyte aggregates to friction is less than the total resistance of individual erythrocytes, therefore their sedimentation rate increases. Erythrocyte aggregation mainly depends on their electrical properties and protein composition of blood plasma. Normally, red blood cells carry a negative charge and repel each other. The degree of aggregation (and hence the ESR) increases with increasing plasma concentration in so-called. proteins of the acute phase - markers of the inflammatory process. In the first place - fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, immunoglobulins and others. In contrast, ESR decreases with increasing albumin concentration. Method of determination. The determination of ESR is carried out by the Panchenkov method (in the Panchenkov capillary) or by the Westergren method (in a test tube).
Determination of ESR by Panchenkov method
When graduated into 100 divisions, Panchenkov’s capillary is scored with a 5% sodium citrate solution up to the “P” mark and transferred to a watch glass. Then, in the same capillary, blood is drawn twice to the “K” mark and both times it is blown onto the watch glass. The blood, thoroughly mixed with sodium citrate, is recruited into the capillary to the mark “K”. Capillary put in a tripod strictly vertically. ESR taken into account after 1 hour, if necessary after 24 hours and expressed in millimeters. In the Panchenkov method, 5% sodium citrate is used as an anticoagulant. 2.5 μl of citrate is collected in the capillary and 7.5 μl of blood is collected into the same capillary or 7.5 μl of blood is added to the previously dispensed test tubes with citrate, the blood is mixed with the citrate in a test tube, again collected in a special tripod for 1 hour.
According to the method of Westergren (in vitro)
The Westergren method is an international method for determining ESR. It differs from the Panchenkov method by the characteristics of the tubes used and the calibration of the result scale. The results obtained by this method in the range of normal values coincide with the results obtained by the Panchenkov method. But the Westergren method is more sensitive to increased ESR, and the results in the zone of elevated ESR values will be higher than those obtained by the Panchenkov method.
To perform the determination of ESR by the method of Westergren, venous blood taken with sodium citrate 3.8% in the ratio 4: 1 is necessary.
Venous blood taken with EDTA (1.5 mg / ml) and then diluted with sodium citrate or saline in a 4: 1 ratio is also used.
The method is performed in special test tubes of Westergren with a lumen of 2.4-2.5 mm and a scale graduated at 200 mm. ESR read in mm for 1 hour.
Causes of deviations of ESR from the data table in women by age
The indicator of ESR for women, as well as for men, plays an important role in the diagnosis, since deviations from the norm (increase or decrease) indicate pathology at an early stage.
In most cases, the study is conducted along with other blood tests (KLA, biochemistry, etc.
), as a prophylaxis, although in some cases the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the female body is also calculated if there are corresponding symptoms.
The value of ESR in the female body
The composition of human blood includes several main components (red and white bodies): platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. These cells differ in functionality and size, so when determining the ESR in the blood test using the largest: red blood cells.
Erythrocytes are blood cells that have a reddish tint and are responsible for transporting nutrients in the body through the blood. In addition to the larger size, these bodies have an increased density level, due to which it is easy to calculate the ESR indicator.
The rate of erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the blood is violated when activating or sluggish behavior of cells of the immune system. This phenomenon occurs for two reasons: the presence of an inflammatory process in the body or chronic exhaustion.
When conducting a study of indicators of ESR use blood from a vein, since capillary blood to determine the level of ESR is not suitable.
After taking the liquid for analysis, it is placed in a test tube and a reagent is added which provokes the breakdown of blood cells into two parts: plasma and red blood cells.
Plasma tends upward tubes, red bodies settle at the bottom. The time over which the process occurs, and is considered an indicator of ESR.
The rate of ESR in the blood of women by age (table)
The rate of ESR in the blood of women depends on age and is measured in mm / hour.
In some cases, other effects also affect the ESR level in women: hormonal imbalances, current health status, and immunity patterns.
You can find out the normal ESR for girls of different ages in the table below:
The norms of ESR of the female body change with age in the direction of increasing.
The rate of ESR in girls by age
Important! At the age of 14–15 years, the female body experiences hormonal changes, due to which the erythrocyte sedimentation in the body occurs faster than usual, and the normal level of ESR is disturbed.
Changes in the rate of ESR due to the individual characteristics of the body
At 12–13 years, the ESR normally shows a value from 4–5 to 12 mm / hour.
However, this indicator can easily be changed due to natural factors: the onset of puberty or teething.
With such phenomena, there is a minimum ESR level of 6–8 mm / hour, and the maximum level will reach 14–16 mm / hour.
From the age of 13 until the full formation of sexual maturity (which often occurs with the achievement of 18 years of age) the minimum indicator of the permissible value of erythrocyte sedimentation rate decreases from 5 mm to 3 mm, and the maximum permissible erythrocyte sedimentation rate increases from 12 to 18 mm / hour.
Changes in the rate of ESR in adolescent girls due to the formation of puberty
In the age range from 18 to 30 years, the norms of acceptable indicators of ESR are aligned, and the thirty-year age for women is considered the most suitable for pregnancy and childbirth. With regard to indicators of ESR in girls at 30 years old, the permissible limits will be 2-15 mm / hour. During pregnancy, the ESR rate for women will increase to 45 mm / hour, and this condition is considered normal up to one year.
From 30 to 40 years, the immunity in women decreases, as a result of which the normal content of the ESR indicator from 2 to 20 mm / hour may deviate from the norm under the influence of banal factors: an impaired diet or an unhealthy lifestyle. Therefore, women 40 years old are advised to carefully monitor their diet and exercise more physical activity.
After 40 years, a woman is awaiting the onset of menopause, in which the body has a sharp increase in ESR values and a decrease in the minimum erythrocyte sedimentation rate. During menopause, the ESR rate ranges from 0 to 26 mm / h. and this condition may well last up to sixty years.
In women after 60 years, the menopausal period passes, which is characterized by altered values of most blood cells (including red blood cells). It turns out that the rate of ESR in women after 60 years corresponds to 2–55 mm / hour.
Important! Levels of ESR and other cells in the blood of women after 50 years of age can be distorted by menopause and other pathologies occurring in the body.
Therefore, in case of such deviations of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate from the norm, a woman should undergo a series of additional tests in order to make sure that violations of the ESR level are caused by menopause.
Causes of increased ESR levels in the female body
In some cases, the rate of ESR in women varies by age under the influence of natural factors, and as a result of pathological conditions occurring in the body and at an early stage of development, and during exacerbation. To determine the cause of the violation of normal ESR, the doctor should know: which way they deviated (increases or decreases).
Often, accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation in women is observed under such pathological conditions:
- The defeat of the body of infectious diseases. When an infection enters the body, the immune system is activated. And this condition is characterized by an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, which is immediately noticeable in the study of blood.
- The presence in the body of a woman's pathologies affecting the liver or organs of the biliary system. They are responsible for filtering the body, and any violation of them can cause elevated ESR figures (triggered by activation of the immune system). Often this condition is typical for women after 50 years, because at that age the organs do not work as well as they did before.
- The presence of diseases affecting the blood (anemia). Often, a blood test ESR shows high results under the influence of negative processes that affect the change in blood composition. However, with this pathology there is a chance of lowering the index, which should be taken into account when making a diagnosis.
- Banal colds. With pathologies such as: bronchitis, influenza, pneumonia, etc., deciphering the results of blood tests for ESR in women may show insignificant deviations towards an elevated rate. For example: if a patient in a healthy body has an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 2 or 3, then an ESR of 5 or 7 for colds is an absolutely normal increase, which means that the immune system is fighting the virus.
- The presence of autoimmune diseases. In some cases, the rate of ESR in women after 50 increases as a result of autoimmune pathologies that affect the protective blood cells. In such diseases, the index of erythrocyte sedimentation rate changes significantly (if in a healthy body the ESR indicator for a patient is 2–3 mm / hour, then when exposed to autoimmune pathologies, the ESR indicator is 10–15 mm / hour).
- Direct damage to the bone marrow. With the defeat of the bone marrow, the level of these cells changes both downward and upward. Such a shift reaches from 5 mm to 10 mm per hour at the initial stage of the development of pathology, and more than 20 mm / h during exacerbation.
Disorders in the bone marrow as a cause of elevated ESR in women
Important! Donating ESR blood test should be on an empty stomach. Otherwise, the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation rate will increase even in the absence of pathologies in the body, which will cause false suspicions to the doctor.
Reasons for lowering the ESR in women
In some cases, the interpretation of the results of the analysis of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate shows both elevated values and lower values, which is considered a less dangerous deviation. What means a reduced level of ESR, you can find out from the list:
- Chronic epilepsy. Pathology affects the rate of red blood cells in the blood, lowering the level of ESR in the woman's body as a matter of millimeters (a deviation of no more than 3 - 5 mm), and a more serious indicator (from 5 to 20 mm). However, the level of lowering of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate depends mostly on whether the patient has an illness: acute or non-acute. Less commonly, this value depends on immunity.
- Violation of the shape and structure of red blood cells. Such changes in a woman's body are considered normal during pregnancy, and you should not panic beforehand with such a deviation. And if the indicator of erythrocyte sedimentation rate in violation of their structure decreases insignificantly compared with this mark, then it is perceived as the norm. But if the level of ESR in the same circumstances decreases outside of pregnancy, the patient is recommended to undergo several additional studies so that the doctor can identify the cause of this behavior of the red blood cells.
- Long-term use of drugs. Medications can disrupt the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the blood: aspirin or cortisol, if the intake lasts a long time, or the dose is large. In this case, the patient is advised to urgently discontinue the course of treatment and re-examine in time (on an empty stomach, otherwise the results will be distorted, and such analysis cannot be trusted).
- Exhausting diet or poor diet. Many women, comparing their rate of ESR by age with the table of generally accepted norms, notice slight deviations in the results, although their health condition fully corresponds to a good indicator. What is the cause of low ESR? And the answer is simple: with the attainment of 40–50 years, the female body, no matter how strong it may be, requires more nutrients that are found in meat, cereals, vegetables, etc., and enter all vital human organs along with blood . And in the absence of the above products in the diet, useful substances have nowhere to take, resulting in the bodies feel unwell.
Long-term medication as a cause of low ESR
Important! Every woman should know what the ESR rate is contained in her blood in a healthy state of the body and at a certain age.
After all, this indicator is considered one of the most important in the diagnosis of the organism, and any deviation of it indicates serious pathologies at an early stage, which can be eliminated without serious consequences.
A girl can learn the indicator of her ESR through a blood test, which is carried out at least once a year as a preventive measure.
In particular, to neglect prevention is not recommended for women who are in a state of pregnancy or older than 60, since for them any pathology can lead to serious consequences.
ESR - why erythrocytes settle?
Normally, red blood cells - red blood cells - carry a negative charge. According to the laws of physics, they, being equally charged, repel each other and "float" in the plasma without sticking. When under the influence of gravity red blood cells "fall" down one by one, the speed of their sedimentation is low.
When changing the biochemical composition of blood plasma, more often, in violation of the normal balance between its protein fractions, the negative charge of erythrocytes is neutralized. Positively charged proteins, like "bridges", bind (aggregate) red blood cells to each other in "coin columns".
Erythrocyte-protein conglomerates are much heavier than individual cells. Therefore, they settle down with greater speed and the ESR increases.
Proteins that increase erythrocyte aggregation and accelerate ESR:
- Fibrinogen - a marker of inflammatory and destructive processes. It is produced in the liver. Его концентрация в крови значительно увеличивается при острых воспалительных процессах, а также в ответ на разрушение и отмирание (некроз) тканей.
- Глобулины (в том числе иммуноглобулины) – высокомолекулярные белки плазмы крови. Вырабатываются в печени, а также системой иммунитета. Концентрация иммуноглобулинов (антител) в крови возрастает в ответ на инфекцию.
- Смешанные криоглобулины – в частности поликлональные Ig G-антитела и моноклональные антитела Ig M и Ig G к Fc-фрагменту Ig G. The combination of the latter is called the rheumatoid factor.
Any physiological conditions, eating disorders or diseases associated with an increase in these or other proteins in the plasma are manifested by an increase in ESR.
Dysproteinemia - a violation of the quantitative ratio of proteins in the blood.
ESR - a sign of dysproteinaemia.
The more pronounced dysproteinemia, the higher the ESR.
The rate of ESR in women and men is not the same. This is probably due to fewer red blood cells, more fibrinogen and globulin in women.
ESR 20-30: what does it mean?
Increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate in women can be caused by several factors. Main ones as a percentage highlighted in the table. It makes it possible to immediately narrow down the range of possible diseases and immediately proceed to medical therapy.
Among the main diagnoses that are most often given to women at different ages with increased ESR are the following:
- pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis,
- development of foci of infection in the respiratory and urinary tract,
- viral-type hepatitis,
- fungal lesions,
- Of oncological diseases, leukemia, cancer of the cervix, mammary glands, kidneys and ovaries most often occur,
- rheumatoid lesions, including lupus erythematosus,
- glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis,
- sinusitis, tonsillitis and allergic reactions,
- anemia and inflammatory processes in the pelvic organs,
- gastritis and other mucosal lesions accompanied by inflammation.
In 4% of cases, the causes of increased ESR are not identified. There are actually recorded cases in which women had a rate of 100 mm / h, but the patient was completely healthy. This may be due to several factors. First of all, excessive erythrocyte sedimentation rate may persist. up to several months due to a previous illness, it all depends on its complexity and success of treatment.
Also a false increase in the ESR level may be affected taking oral contraceptives and food cravings that promote cholesterol spike. Often an increase in the rate to 20-30 mm / h provokes a large amount of vitamins that contain vitamin A.
The patient should also undergo a blood test for white blood cell count if the disease is suspected.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate after 30 years
After 30 years, the normal level of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, which may be within 2-20 mm / h, should not be affected by external and internal factors. But because of possible disturbances in the work of the urogenital system, which can be triggered by childbirth and sexual infections, the patient develops erosive inflammation of the mucous membrane. This will increase the ESR rate and will require immediate treatment of the diseases to prevent them from moving. chronic and malignant.
Kidney problems, which can also appear after 30 years, can cause pathology. Be sure to control the amount of hemoglobin in the blood, as with age its rate drops, which can cause anemia.
After 60 years in women, there is a natural increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, which is the result of a gradual deterioration of the kidneys, liver, and the death of red blood cells.
Upon receipt of an alarming result, the repeated analysis is given after 4-6 days to review growth rate in dynamics. Upon receipt of the next result above the norm, the woman is scheduled for examination and treatment after the diagnosis has been clarified.
ESR during pregnancy
During childbearing, there is a natural increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, which is not accompanied by the presence of pathologies, infections or inflammations. From the 13th week of pregnancy a woman may already have an ESR increase of up to 25 mm / h, and by the end of the term, the indicator will approach 40 mm / h.
Despite the possibility of a natural increase in ESR during pregnancy, parallel analyzes should be carried out to identify white blood cell and protein levels. This is required to eliminate the appearance of problems with the kidneys and dangerous reduction in the amount of hemoglobin. Quite often, an increase in ESR during pregnancy occurs due to anemia, salt accumulation in the kidneys and pyelonephritis.
Kidney disease, accompanied by erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 20-30 mm / h, can cause the development preeclampsia, preeclampsia and eclampsia. In addition, it causes the accumulation of toxins and harmful substances in the mother's body, which penetrate the placenta to the baby and can cause problems in its development.
During this period, it is impossible to exclude such problems as the development of oncological diseases, inflammatory processes in the reproductive system, thrush and exacerbation of hidden infections. All these pathologies require treatment and cannot be ignored, since the mother's painfulness affects the child miserably.
Regardless of whether the patient has reasons for excitement and testing for erythrocyte sedimentation rate, it is worth be examined regularly at the doctor's. Most diseases disappear without a trace with early diagnosis and timely treatment, including cancer and malignant neoplasms.
The importance of the ESR level for the female body
In general, the analysis of blood is a very important parameter - the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, in women the rate is different and depends on age categories.
What does it mean - ESR? This indicator indicates the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, the rate of disintegration of the blood into fractions. When performing research, gravitational forces affect the blood in a test tube, and it gradually stratifies: there is a lower ball of greater thickness and dark color and the upper one - a light shade with some transparency. Erythrocytes settle together and stick together. The speed of this process and shows a blood test for ESR.
When conducting this study, it is necessary to take into account that:
- women have an ESR level slightly higher than that of men, this is due to the peculiarities of the functioning of the body,
- the highest rate can be observed in the morning,
- if there is an acute inflammatory process, the ESR increases on average one day after the onset of the development of the ailment, and before that there is an increase in the number of leukocytes,
- ESR reaches its maximum value during recovery,
- with an overestimated rate over a long period, conclusions can be drawn about inflammation or a malignant tumor.
It is noteworthy that this analysis does not always show the real state of health of the patient. Sometimes and in the presence of an inflammatory process, the ESR may be within the normal range.
What level of ESR is considered normal?
Many factors affect a woman's ESR level. The overall rate of erythrocyte sedimentation rate in women is 2–15 mm / h, and the average is 10 mm / h. The value depends on many factors. One of them is the presence of diseases that affect the level of ESR. Age also affects this indicator in women. Each age group has its own norm.
To understand how the limits of ESR in women change, there is a table by age:
Female age categories
Lower limit of normal, mm / h
Upper limit of normal, mm / h
From 13 to 18 years
18 to 30 years old
From 30 to 40 years
40 to 50 years old
50 to 60 years old
From the beginning of puberty to the age of 18, the ESR rate for women is 3–18 mm / h. It can vary slightly depending on the menstrual period, vaccinations for the prevention of disease, the presence or absence of injuries, inflammatory processes.
The age group of 18-30 years is in the physiological dawn, in which the birth of children occurs most often. Women at this time have a level of ESR from 2 to 15 mm / h. The result of the analysis, as in the previous case, depends on the menstrual cycle, as well as on the use of hormonal contraceptive drugs, compliance with various diets.
When pregnancy occurs, the value of this indicator increases dramatically and is considered a normal value of up to 45 mm / h. This happens due to hormonal changes and other factors.
Also on the erythrocyte sedimentation rate during pregnancy and in the postpartum period can affect the amount of hemoglobin. Its reduction due to blood loss during childbirth can cause an increase in the number of leukocytes and the ESR indicator.
The rate for women aged 30–40 rises. Deviation may be due to poor nutrition, cardiovascular diseases, pneumonia and other pathological conditions..
After reaching the age of 40–50, menopause begins in women. The norm in this period expands: the lower limit decreases, the upper one rises. And the result can be from 0 to 26 mm / h. It is influenced by the hormonal changes in the body of a woman under the influence of menopause. At this age, the development of pathologies of the endocrine system, osteoporosis, varicose veins, and dental diseases is not uncommon.
Limits of ESR in women after 50 years do not have significant differences from those for the previous age period.
After the onset of 60 years of age, the optimal boundaries change. Valid value of the indicator may be in the range from 2 to 55 mm / h. In most cases, the older a person is, the more diseases he has.
This factor is reflected in the conditional rate. Such conditions as diabetes mellitus, fractures, high blood pressure, medications affect the result of the analysis in the elderly.
If ESR is 30 in a woman, what does this mean? When such an analysis result is with a pregnant woman or an older lady, there is no cause for great concern. But if the owner of this indicator is young, then the result is increased for her. The same applies to ESR 40 and ESR 35.
ESR 20 is a normal level for middle-aged women, and if his girlfriend has one, then she needs to be alert and attentive to her health. The same can be said about ESR 25 and ESR 22. For age groups up to 40 years, these figures are too high. Further examination and clarification of the reasons for this result are needed.
Methods for determining ESR
There are several ways to get results from a blood test for ESR:
- Panchenkov method. This diagnostic method is implemented using a glass pipette, also referred to as the Panchenkov capillary. This study involved blood taken from a finger.
- Westergren method. To obtain the result, a hematology analyzer is used. Blood in this case is taken from a vein. In a special test tube, it connects with an anticoagulant and is placed in the device in an upright position. The analyzer makes calculations.
Scientists compared these 2 methods and came to the conclusion that the result of the second is more reliable and allows you to get the results of the analysis of venous blood for a shorter period of time.
The use of the Panchenkov method prevailed in the post-Soviet space, and the Westergren method is considered international. But in most cases, both methods show identical results.
If there are doubts about the reliability of the study, then you can check it again in a paid clinic. Another way to determine the level of C-reactive protein (PSA), while eliminating the human factor distortion of the result. The disadvantage of this method is its high cost, although the data obtained with its help can be trusted. In European countries, the ESR analysis has already been replaced by the definition of PSA.
When is an analysis assigned?
Usually, doctors prescribe a study when a person’s health deteriorates, when he comes to see a doctor and complains of feeling unwell. Complete blood count, the result of which is an indicator of ESR, is often prescribed for various inflammatory processes, as well as to test the effectiveness of therapy.
Doctors refer a patient to this study for a correct diagnosis in case of any illness or suspicion of it. The result of a blood test for ESR is needed even for passing a routine health check of each person.
Most often, the direction is prescribed by a therapist, but a hematologist or oncologist may send for a study if such a need arises. This analysis is carried out free of charge in the laboratory of the medical institution in which the patient is observed. But at the request of a person has the right to undergo research for money in the laboratory that he chooses.
There is a list of diseases in which a blood test for ESR is mandatory:
- Possible development of rheumatic disease. It may be lupus, gout or rheumatoid arthritis. All of them provoke deformation of the joints, stiffness, and painful sensations during the work of the musculoskeletal system. Affects diseases and joints, connective tissue. The result of any of these diseases is an increase in ESR.
- Myocardial infarction. In the case of this pathology, the blood flow in the heart arteries is disturbed. Although it is believed that this is a sudden illness, but the prerequisites are formed even before its occurrence. Attentive to their health, people are quite able to notice the appearance of the corresponding symptoms a month before the onset of the disease itself, so it is possible to prevent this ailment. It must be remembered that in case of even mild pain, you should consult a doctor.
- The onset of pregnancy. In this case, they check the health of the woman and her future baby. During pregnancy there is a need for repeated blood donation. Doctors are thoroughly tested by blood for all indicators. As already mentioned, due to hormonal adjustment, a noticeable increase in the upper limit of the norm is allowed.
- When a neoplasm occurs, to control its development. This study will allow not only to verify the effectiveness of therapy, but also to diagnose the presence of a tumor at the initial stage. An increased rate of erythrocyte sedimentation rate may indicate the presence of inflammation. It has a variety of causes, ranging from the common cold and ending with oncological diseases. But it is necessary to conduct a deeper examination.
- Suspected bacterial infection. In this case, a blood test will show an ESR level above normal, but it can also indicate a disease of viral origin. Therefore, it is impossible to focus only on the ESR, additional tests should be conducted.
When you refer a doctor for this study, you must fulfill all the requirements for proper preparation, since the ESR blood test is one of the most important in diagnosing diseases.
How to take an analysis
To examine a patient’s blood, it is usually taken from a vein. The analysis shows not only the ESR, but also a number of other indicators. All of them are collectively evaluated by the medical staff, and a comprehensive result is taken into account.
To be true, you need to prepare:
- It is better to donate blood on an empty stomach. If, in addition to the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, you need to find out the level of sugar, then 12 hours before donating blood, you should not eat or brush your teeth, only you can drink a little ordinary water.
- Do not drink alcohol the day before the blood collection. The same goes for smoking. If you really want to smoke, you should stop doing it at least in the morning. These factors eliminate, because they easily influence the results of research.
- Of course, you need to stop taking medications. First of all it concerns hormonal contraceptives, multivitamins. If you can not take a break in the use of any means, then you need to let the doctor know about it, and he will make an adjustment in the result obtained, taking into account the intake of this medication.
- In the morning, it is advisable to come in advance to collect blood, to calm down a bit and catch your breath. On this day, it is better to be balanced and not to give the body heavy physical exertion.
- Since the analysis of ESR depends on the menstrual phases, before giving blood, you should consult with your doctor about the time at which it is best to undergo the study.
- The day before blood sampling it is necessary to limit fatty and spicy foods in the diet.
Manipulation with the analysis takes place quickly and without particular pain. If you still feel ill or dizzy, you should tell the nurse.
If the woman's ESR level is elevated, what does this mean?
Above it is described what the norm for women of erythrocyte sedimentation rate should be according to age and condition (for example, during pregnancy). So when is ESR considered elevated? If the age indicator deviates from the norm in the direction of an increase of more than 5 units.
At the same time, it is possible to reveal the presence of such diseases as pneumonia, tuberculosis, poisoning, myocardial infarction and others. But this analysis is not enough to diagnose it. It happens that even a rich breakfast can cause an increase in this indicator. Therefore, do not panic when detecting ESR above normal.
With a normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate and elevated lymphocytes, the development of a viral ailment is possible. Taking into account the inertia of this level, when in doubt as a result, you just need to re-take the examination.
The health of a woman with a reduced level of ESR
Рассказав, что обозначает норма СОЭ в крови у женщин и повышенное значение, поясним, какие причины могут привести к низкому уровню этого показателя. Такой результат способен возникнуть из-за:
- недостаточности кровотока,
- болезни печени (гепатита),
- приема определенных лекарств, в частности, калия хлорида, салицилатов, медикаментов на основе ртути,
- erythrocytosis, erythremia,
- neurotic illness
- diseases provoking a change in the shape of red cells, in particular anisocytosis, sickle cell anemia,
- hyperalbuminemia, hypofibrinogenemia, hypoglobulinemia.
As you can see, a low value of erythrocyte sedimentation rate should be no less alarming than a higher one. In case of deviations from the normal indicator in any direction, it is necessary to look for the cause of such a state of health and to treat the disease.
What is the easiest way to bring the ESR figure to normal?
By itself, increased or decreased erythrocyte sedimentation rate is not a disease, but it shows the state of the human body. Therefore, the question of how to reduce the ESR in the blood of women, you can answer that this value will come back to normal only after the elimination of the causes.
Understanding this, sometimes the patient should simply be patient and carefully treated..
The reasons why the ESR indicator will return to normal after a long time:
- there is a slow accretion of broken bone, a wound heals for a long time,
- long therapeutic course of treatment for a particular disease,
- carrying a child.
Since during pregnancy an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate may be associated with anemia, it is necessary to try to prevent it. If it has already occurred, it is necessary to undergo a course of treatment with safe drugs prescribed by a doctor.
In most cases, the ESR can be reduced to an acceptable rate only by eliminating inflammation or curing the disease. Another high result may be due to a laboratory error.
If during the analysis of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate the indicator was found above or below the norm, it is necessary to re-take an examination and make sure that there is no random distortion of the result. It is also worth reviewing your diet and saying goodbye to bad habits.