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WBC in the general blood test: transcript, the norm in women and men

The blood count is one of the most informative and common diagnostic methods for many diseases. Quite often, patients are offered to undergo analysis on WBC in the blood. What it is? This analysis is a study of white blood cell count. This biochemical study relates to the general type of analysis. The main purpose of the meeting is to determine how many white blood cells are contained in serum. The result of this study is a picture of the general condition of a person and the level of his immunity. It should also be said that the level of leukocytes is one of the most significant indicators of the patient's body.

WBC: features and leukocyte formula

In general, the WBC blood count is determined predominantly along with the leukocyte formula. There are five types of leukocytes studied during this procedure: eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes and basophils. Under the leukocyte formula refers to the ratio in percent of these species. Consider leukocytes in more detail.

Neutrophils

They are the most numerous and play the main role in maintaining human immunity. Normally, neutrophils are contained in the blood of an adult in an amount of from 60 to 75 percent, and in children between the ages of six and twelve years, their number can vary between 30 and 65 percent. This is able to reveal the WBC indicator in a blood test. Decoding and the norm in women will also be considered by us.

If the level of neutrophils rises (a condition called neutrophilia), then this indicates the presence of any infectious disease. There are a lot of them: bronchitis, pneumonia, tonsillitis, sinusitis, intestinal infection, thyroiditis, arthritis, pancreatitis, peritonitis, gangrene, abscess, osteomyelitis, phlegmon, cancer, diabetes, heart attacks, uremia.

With a decrease in the level of neutrophils, that is, with neutropenia, other infections can be suspected, for example, viral hepatitis, influenza, rubella, chickenpox, typhoid fever, aplastic anemia, acute leukemia, thyrotoxicosis. Consider why else you might need to decipher the blood on the WBC.

Lymphocytes are a special type of white blood cells responsible for creating a specific type of body immunity. It is worth noting that in the blood of children up to four to six years old, this species is predominant. Only when a person grows up from this age, neutrophils gradually begin to predominate over lymphocytes. In the blood of an adult in normal content of lymphocytes should range from 20 to 35 percent. If the lymphocytes in the blood are elevated, this can be evidence of the development of viral infections in the patient, such as adenovirus, influenza, parainfluenza, thyrotoxicosis, tuberculosis, childhood infections (whooping cough, scarlet fever, measles, rubella), bronchial asthma. Lymphocytes increase significantly when a person has lymphocytic leukemia, that is, a bone marrow lesion in the form of a tumor.

Eosinophils

Eosinophils protect the body from allergic reactions and parasites. Their blood rate in the WBC analysis should range from one to five percent among all types of white blood cells. Parasitic infections (ascariasis, echinococcosis, enterobiosis, giardiasis, opisthorchiasis), allergic reactions, malignant neoplasms, rheumatoid arthritis, diseases of the hematopoietic system, periarteritis nodosa, scleroderma can cause the increased content of this species. Eosinophils decrease in purulent processes, sepsis, at the very beginning of the onset of inflammation, in case of poisoning with heavy metals.

Monocytes are immature blood cells that turn when macrophages enter the tissue. The latter, in turn, absorb foreign microorganisms, various pathogens, dead cells. Judging by the decoding of the WBC blood test, normally monocytes should be contained in an amount of from four to ten percent. If their content is increased (the condition is called monocytosis), then this indicates lymphoma, lymphogranulomatosis, certain types of leukemia, tuberculosis, subacute endocarditis, sepsis, malaria, mononucleosis, brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, syphilis. In the case of a reduced number of monocytes, it is possible to judge whether the patient has radiation sickness, a lesion or dysfunction of the bone marrow. As you can see, the WBC indicator in the blood test is very informative. The rate of another type of white blood cell is also considered for diagnosis.

Basophils, or mast cells, are a type of white blood cell that is responsible for the release of histamine, that is, a hormone that triggers the body's allergic reaction. Their normal content is from zero to one percent. Blood basophils increase in the presence of allergic diseases, chronic myeloid leukemia, megakaryoblastic leukemia, systemic mastocytosis, Hodgkin's disease, a number of infections, for example, tuberculosis, chickenpox, influenza. Lower basophil content indicates acute infection, anaphylactic shock, hyperthyroidism, and bronchial asthma.

So consider the normal WBC scores. What is it in the blood, we explained.

WBC rate depending on age and diagnosis

Depending on one age or another, the WBC standard will have certain indicators. In this analysis, the number of leukocytes in general and the indicator of each leukocyte type in particular will be calculated. The rate is determined by the state of the organism and the age of the patient. Thus, the reference values ​​of an adult person range from 4-9 * 109 per liter. The level of leukocytes in young children may have an increased rate. The infant rate can reach 12.5 * 109 per liter. Over time, this indicator declines, and the adult rate is reached by fifteen years. In addition, the leukocyte formula is taken into account, by which is meant the ratio of all blood cells in the body. Since the patient donates to the WBC as part of a clinical blood test, the procedure is standard and does not require complicated preparation. In the morning (necessarily on an empty stomach) in the laboratory blood is donated to the WBC. The rate for women by age is presented in the table below.

Deviations

Elevated leukocyte levels indicate a phenomenon such as leukocytosis. It should be noted that it can be physiological and appear in a healthy person, as well as pathological, that is, to develop against the background of any disease. In the case of an increase in the physiological nature, it is possible to judge the factors that influence the change in the content of leukocytes. It may be due to:

  • physical exertion
  • overheating or overcooling,
  • pregnancy
  • a surge of psycho-emotional nature.

We present a table of contents of various forms of leukocytes, depending on the age of patients.

In accordance with the decoding of the blood test on WBC in adults, leukocytosis indicates the presence of one of the following diseases:

  • all sorts of infections
  • meningitis, that is, the inflammatory process that occurs in the membranes of the spinal cord and brain,
  • make faces,
  • bronchitis,
  • pneumonia,
  • otitis,
  • inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue - phlegmon, abscess, felon,
  • acute pancreatitis,
  • suppurations and inflammations of the abdominal cavity - peritonitis, appendicitis,
  • leukemia, that is, tumor diseases,
  • chronic kidney failure,
  • diabetic coma,
  • heart attacks
  • uremia,
  • traumatic tissue damage,
  • eclampsia
  • acute bleeding,
  • thyroid diseases.

Recommendations

It is because of the presence of ordinary external factors that change the indicators, a blood test should be taken only in the morning and always before meals. When deciphering this study can be identified various kinds of inflammatory processes, namely bronchitis, defects of the subcutaneous tissue, meningitis, otitis, diseases of the abdominal cavity, certain tumors, injuries, acute bleeding, etc.

A serious decrease in the content of leukocytes is called leukopenia, and this is a rather serious problem that has a direct threat to human life.

It must be said that when deciphering this blood test, causes that directly affect the leukocyte level can be detected:

  • pathologies that have a depressant effect on the production of leukocytes in the bone marrow,
  • cancer associated with metastases,
  • increase in the size of the spleen,
  • radiation sickness,
  • tuberculosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, syphilis, viral hepatitis, brucellosis.

How to prepare for the WBC? What is it in the blood, interests many.

Blood test on the WBC: indications and norms

The main function of WBC cells is to protect the body from foreign microorganisms and cellular elements. They cause specific and nonspecific immune defenses. A feature of these cells is the ability to pass through the vascular wall. Once in the extracellular space, they absorb and deactivate foreign cells. This process is called phagocytosis.

White blood cells are a marker of inflammation, infectious diseases, allergic and malignant processes.

Indications for the study of blood leukocytes:

  • infectious and inflammatory diseases,
  • unspecified allergies
  • poisoning,
  • malignant tumors,
  • necrotic lesions,
  • fever of unknown origin,
  • headaches,
  • pains in bones and joints
  • suspected malignant lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative processes,
  • immune dysfunction
  • starvation,
  • medullary depressive syndrome after treatment with cytotoxic drugs, antidepressants, antithyroid drugs.

Determining the number of leukocytes in the blood plays a significant diagnostic role. The study allows time to establish the diagnosis and prescribe treatment. It should be taken into account when deciphering the analysis on the WBC, that the norm for women and men is the same. The blood contains 4.0–9.0 x 10 9 / l. In children, the number of WBC is higher. This indicates the immaturity of their immunity.

Table of age norms of leukocytes for children

Increasing WBC in blood tests: what does it mean

Leukocytosis is an increase in the level of leukocytes in the blood. In some cases, this condition does not indicate pathology. For example, immediately after a meal, the WBC level rises to 10–12 x 10 9 / l. Also, physiological leukocytosis is observed after exercise, during pregnancy, childbirth and in the premenstrual period. In this regard, it is recommended to take tests in the morning, on an empty stomach, after a good night's rest, and women should also consider the day of the cycle.

The most common causes of pathological leukocytosis:

  • infectious and inflammatory diseases of any localization,
  • heart attack of various organs (myocardium, lungs, spleen, kidneys),
  • ischemic stroke,
  • malignant neoplasms, including diseases of the blood system and blood formation (leukemia),
  • large area burns
  • acute post-hemorrhagic anemia Art. III,
  • infectious mononucleosis and lymphocytosis,
  • uremia,
  • diabetic coma,
  • polytrauma,
  • eclampsia,
  • thyroid disease,
  • condition after splenectomy (spleen removal).

The severity of leukocytosis depends on the severity of the infectious process and the reactivity of the organism. Its absence is an unfavorable sign, especially when combined with the shift of the leukocyte formula to the left.

With severe disease in the peripheral blood, young forms of leukocytes prevail: promyelocytes, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band neutrophils. The shift of the leukocyte formula to the left means "rejuvenation" of peripheral leukocytes.

The main function of WBC cells is to protect the body from foreign microorganisms and cellular elements. They cause specific and nonspecific immune defenses.

Leukocytosis is accompanied by symptoms of systemic intoxication, which include malaise, loss of appetite, headache, joint, muscle pain. Also, the body temperature rises, it can reach hectic (up to 40 ° C) figures.

Reasons for lowering WBC in blood tests

Leukopenia is a decrease in the level of leukocytes in the blood. This condition most often indicates a weak reactivity of the immune response.

Causes of leukopenia:

  • certain types of infectious diseases - typhoid fever, malaria, brucellosis, measles, rubella, influenza, viral hepatitis,
  • hypoplastic and aplastic processes (aplastic anemia),
  • hypersplenomegaly,
  • megaloblastic anemia,
  • Fanconi anemia,
  • intoxication with benzene,
  • X-ray exposure
  • treatment with sulfonamides and cytostatics,
  • bone marrow metastasis,
  • endocrinopathy - acromegaly, thyroid disease.

For differential diagnosis, bone marrow puncture is performed. Only myelogram eliminates the malignant degeneration of hematopoietic tissue.

Leukocyte formula: what it is and its norms

The leukocyte formula is the differentiation of leukocytes into 5 subclasses. Each subclass is responsible for one or another function in the body. Conducting this study is important in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory-infectious diseases, hematopathy, as well as for monitoring the treatment (chemotherapy).

Table of standards leukocyte formula in adults

What is it - WBC in the blood test?

General (clinical) blood test - a type of laboratory research aimed at quantitative determination of blood corpuscles (leukocytes, erythrocytes, platelets), as well as their specific indicators (ESR, hemoglobin), number and percentage of different types of leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes , basophils and eosinophils).

Indicators of the total blood test is usually denoted by the following abbreviations from English words:

  • RBC (red blood cells) - the number of red blood cells or red blood cells,
  • HGB (hemoglobin, Hb) - the concentration of hemoglobin in a certain volume of whole blood,
  • MCV - the average volume of one erythrocyte (previously, this indicator was designated as normal, micro or macrocytosis),
  • HCT (Ht, hematocrit) - the ratio of the volume of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets, that is, the formed elements to the volume of blood plasma,
  • PLT (platelets) - the number of platelets (platelets),
  • WBC (white blood cells) - the number of white blood cells (leukocytes).

Thus, a blood test on the WBC means counting the number of white blood cells.

Blood test on the WBC: transcript, the norm in women, men and children

The main function of WBC cells, that is, leukocytes, is to protect the body against pathogenic microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi), as well as foreign agents - cells and proteins. Therefore, WBC in the blood test is an indicator of inflammatory, infectious, allergic, and sometimes tumor processes. The main indications for its purpose:

  • diseases of infectious and inflammatory nature,
  • persistent fever,
  • frequent headache
  • persistent pain in bones and joints,
  • suspicion of malignant diseases of the hematopoietic system,
  • dysfunction of the immune system
  • monitoring the effectiveness of therapy.

In most cases, simultaneously with the general prescribe and biochemical analysis of blood.

Determining the amount of WBC in the blood has important diagnostic value and allows you to make a correct diagnosis on time. Normally, in adults, both men and women, 1 liter of blood contains 4–8.8x10 9 white blood cells. In children, the number of leukocytes in the blood is higher, due to the immaturity of their immune system. The rate of leukocytes for children of different ages is presented in the table:

The number of cells, h109 / l

Children of the first month of life

1 to 12 months

From 1 year to 6 years

From 13 to 15 years

Increasing WBC in blood tests - what does this mean?

A condition in which a patient’s blood leukocyte count rises is called leukocytosis. Its identification does not always indicate the presence of a disease. In some cases, leukocytosis may be physiological in nature and occur against the background of pregnancy, physical exertion, psychoemotional stress, rich food, overheating or hypothermia. That is why a blood test on the WBC is recommended to take in the morning, after a good night's rest and on an empty stomach.

A significant increase in WBC in the blood may indicate a number of diseases, most often caused by bacterial microflora:

In most cases, an increase in the level of WBC is combined with the appearance of symptoms of general intoxication, which include:

  • general weakness
  • decreased appetite
  • headache,
  • pains in muscles and joints,
  • fever.

Another cause of leukocytosis is malignant neoplasms. At the initial stages of development of a cancer tumor, the patient’s immune system tries to destroy it, which leads to an increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood. However, in the future, the body's reserves are depleted, cancer intoxication increases, metastasis to the bone marrow occurs. At this stage, the number of white blood cells in the blood decreases, leukopenia sets in, the opposite of leukocytosis.

Causes of low WBC in blood tests

A decrease in the number of leukocytes in the blood below normal physiological values ​​is called leukopenia.This condition usually indicates a decrease in the immune response. Reasons for its occurrence:

  • immunosuppressive therapy,
  • leukemia
  • hypoplastic anemia,
  • viral infections (viral hepatitis, rubella, measles, flu),
  • systemic lupus erythematosus and other long-term systemic diseases,
  • radiation sickness,
  • chronic intoxication.

WBC in the blood can be lowered against the background of long-lasting depressive states, starvation.

Types of WBC in blood tests: norm and meaning

When performing a general blood test, not only the total number of leukocytes is usually counted, but the percentage of their main subpopulations are also determined as a percentage.

The percentage of different types of leukocytes is called a leukocyte formula. Her research plays an important role in the diagnosis of inflammatory, infectious and hematological diseases, in assessing the severity of the patient’s condition and the effectiveness of therapy.

The most numerous group of WCD are neutrophils - they account for 50 to 75% of the total number of white blood cells.

According to morphological and functional characteristics, the following types of WBC are distinguished:

  • neutrophils,
  • lymphocytes
  • monocytes,
  • eosinophils,
  • basophils,
  • plasma cells.

With a severe course of the pathological process, immature forms of leukocytes (blast forms, promyelocytes, myelocytes, adolescents) begin to appear in the peripheral blood.

The most numerous group of WCD are neutrophils - they account for 50 to 75% of the total number of white blood cells. According to the structural features of the nucleus, they are divided into segment-core and band-core. The main function of neutrophils is to protect the body from infectious agents, carried out by chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Neutrophilia, that is, an increase in the level of neutrophils in the blood is observed in the following conditions:

  • bacterial infections
  • inflammatory processes (pneumonia, otitis, pancreatitis, pyelonephritis, endometritis),
  • early postoperative period,
  • oncological diseases in the early stages
  • ischemic tissue necrosis.

To reduce the number of neutrophils (neutropenia) lead:

  • viral infections
  • thyrotoxicosis,
  • therapy with cytostatics, some antibiotics.

Lymphocytes provide immune surveillance, form and regulate cellular and humoral immunity, provide the body's immune memory. They account for about 20–40% of the total number of WCDs. An increase in the number of lymphocytes (lymphocytosis) is observed in infectious diseases (cytomegalovirus infection, viral hepatitis, infectious mononucleosis), diseases of the blood system, and therapy with certain groups of drugs. The reasons for the decrease in the number of lymphocytes (lymphocytopenia) can be:

  • immunodeficiency,
  • Hodgkin's disease,
  • miliary tuberculosis,
  • radiotherapy.
In some cases, leukocytosis may be physiological in nature and occur against the background of pregnancy, physical exertion, psychoemotional stress, rich food, overheating or hypothermia.

Eosinophils are involved in the development of allergic reactions. Normally, their content in the blood is 1-5% of the total number of leukocytes. The increase in the number of eosinophils (eosinophilia) occurs against the background of allergic sensitization, which is formed, for example, against the background of helminthic invasion.

The largest cells among the leukocytes are monocytes. They have the ability to amoebic movement, phagocytic activity. Normally, monocytes account for 3–9% of the total number of leukocytes. Most often, monocytosis is caused by:

In hypoplasia of the hemopoietic germ, the number of monocytes decreases, leading to the development of monocytopenia.

Basophils are active in inflammatory and allergic cellular reactions. Their content in the blood is normally not more than 0.5% of the total number of white blood cells. An increase in the number of basophils is observed in patients with hypothyroidism, Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic myeloid leukemia, as well as during estrogen therapy.

Content

In a healthy organism, five types of leukocytes inhabit the peripheral blood. Three species are referred to as granulocytes, that is, cells in whose protoplasm granules or grains are visually detected. According to the color of the colored granules and their size, the granular cells are divided into basophils, neutrophils and eosinophils. Two types of cells of visible grains do not have, for which they received the name of agranulocytes. These include lymphocytes and monocytes.

Purpose of the analysis

The purpose of the WBC analysis is to determine the number of leukocytes in the blood. The study shows an increase in WBC in the case of penetration of infections in the body, with inflammatory processes of various etiologies, cancer, traumatic tissue destruction, systemic blood pathologies, the effect of steroids and adrenaline hormones.

A blood test shows a drop in WBC in case of bone marrow tissue damage and some leukemia.

Norm of indicators

The unit of measurement of the content of leukocytes is considered to be the number of cells per unit volume of blood. The standards for the content of leukocytes in the blood for different age groups differ, as can be seen from the table.

WBC Table of Contents:

Interpretation of indicators

The decoding of the wbc analysis of the blood of an adult person is based not only on counting the number of cells per unit volume of blood, but also on the analysis of the leukoformuly.

Neutrophils are the largest group of white blood cells. Their blood contains 57 ± 13% of the total number of WBC. This group of cells protects a person from the entry of causative agents of infectious diseases into the body and is responsible for the formation of immunity.

The second largest group of leukocytes are lymphocytes. The norm is considered to be the content of lymphocytes in the amount of 28 ± 9%. They are responsible for the formation of specific immunity. Protect against uncontrolled reproduction of cancer cells and pathogens. Throws antibodies into the peripheral blood. With the attack of the causative agent of ARVI, their number grows, and with HIV infection falls.

Monocytes make up 7 ± 4% of WBC cells. They protect people from the attack of foreign body cells and protein molecules. The main function of these cells is phagocytosis. Possess large, in comparison with the cells of other groups, sizes. A sharp increase in the number of monocytes indicates the presence of one of the pathological factors: tuberculosis, parasitic invasions, leukemia, pathogens of viral diseases.

If you suspect syphilis, you must pass a blood test for RW, which will help determine whether the disease is in a patient or not.

Phagocytosis - the capture and absorption of foreign cells

The proportion of eosinophils in the number of leukocytes is small: 3 ± 2%. These granulocytes, "loved" dye eosin, which has an acidic reaction, inactivate allergens and destroy the parasitic aggressors. The excess amount of eosinophils is called eosinophilia, and an excessively low amount of eosinophilia.

Basophils, which got their name from the fact that they are stained with alkaline dyes, are the rarest cells of all leukocytes. Excess share of basophils in excess of 1% qualify as basophilia. If the body suffers from allergies, sinusitis, chickenpox, a blood test captures basophilia. Bazopenia is considered a situation in which basophils are not detected in blood at all. It is observed during pregnancy, ovulation and stressful states.

WBC Blood Test. DECRYPT

Blood is not water, but liquid connective tissue. Blood fills the body from the inside, washes, nourishes and protects every cell in the body. It consists of plasma - a liquid in which biologically active substances of protein nature are dissolved. Blood cells “float” in the plasma - shaped elements.

They are born and grow in the bone marrow, then enter the bloodstream. This happens all human life - the blood cells are constantly updated.

WBC - leukocytes

Translucent unpainted defense cells, army of immunity. Leukocytes differ from each other in form, structure and type of activity. KLA determines only the total number of leukocytes.

Reduction the amount of WBC in the blood test decoding.

  • weakening or deficiency of immunity,
  • bone marrow problems
  • blood diseases.
Boost the amount of WBC in the blood test decoding.
  • inflammation,
  • allergy,
  • infection,
  • poisoning,
  • blood diseases, etc.

HGB - hemoglobin

Protein, contains iron (hence the red color). Located in the erythrocyte, is involved in the delivery of oxygen to the tissues of the body, exchanges it for carbon dioxide.

This is the main, but not the only work of the RBC. Deviations from the normal level of hemoglobin, the number of red blood cells in the blood - a reason for immediate treatment to the doctor. The reason for this may be a disease of the bone marrow and blood.

PLT - THROMBOCYTES

These are not cells, but blood plates, little bodies, cellular elements. They "patch" damage in the walls of blood vessels, help the tissues to recover. Without them, the process of blood coagulation is impossible. Thanks to them, bleeding from wounds stops

Reduction platelet numbers:

  • bleeding
  • bleeding.
Increase:
  • blood clots
  • heart attack
  • stroke, etc.
For more information on the blood platelet test: PLT in a blood test - what is it? Decoding and indicators of the norm

Future moms

During pregnancy, ESR can reach 20 - 30 mm / h.

Leukocytes - rise to 15 x 10 9 / l.

These are physiological abnormalities - they do not contradict the norm!

An important indicator - reflects the ability of red blood cells to settle or stick together with each other. The erythrocyte sedimentation mechanism is not precisely established. It is known that the process depends on the size of the erythrocyte, its bioelectric charge and blood flow velocity. The main factor affecting the ESR - the biochemical composition of blood plasma

Fluctuations ESR:

  • from 20 to 30 mm / hour - immunity in tension (after surgery, illness). Indicator of the presence of sluggish infection.
  • 30 mm / h and more - acute inflammation, autoimmune process is possible. This is a good reason to go to the doctor.

Preparation for the delivery of the KLA

  • better in the morning on an empty stomach
  • possible: during the first half of the day, one and a half to two hours after eating,
  • stress, exercise, alcohol distort the true picture of the KLA.
For analysis required:
  • passport (other identity document),
  • small amount of money
  • clean finger
  • desire to be healthy.

All indicators, including the WBC blood test, are easy to decipher yourself.

Features of preparation

Before taking a blood test, you must refrain from eating at least 10-12 hours. It is allowed to drink only pure water without gas, coffee and tea are prohibited. This is due to the fact that the level of leukocytes increases several hours after eating. You should also not drink alcoholic beverages a couple of days before blood sampling, since they adversely affect the body, may affect the change in indicators, as a result of which the result will be wrong. You also need to avoid stress and emotional stress before analysis. In addition, you need to refrain from serious physical exertion for two or three days before visiting the laboratory. Women need to pay attention to the possible pregnancy and the period of the cycle, because before the onset of menstruation, changes in the level of white blood cells occur.

Now we know what it is WBC in the blood.

general characteristics

In modern medicine, blood tests are important. Their decoding makes it possible to judge the general health of adults and children, monitor the course of drug treatment, and determine various pathological conditions.

In a general blood test, the results of the content level are not only WBC, but also the values ​​of the RBC and HGB indices.

All these indices in the complex allow the doctor to make a general picture about the state of human health, only by examining the complete blood count.

Very often, a complete blood count assists the timely detection of various diseases in men, women and children, which leads to an increase in the effectiveness of medical therapy.

The analysis on WBC, RBC and HGB allows you to identify various diseases in the very early stages of their development.

In diagnostic terms, the value of a general blood test can not be overestimated. Its informativeness and effectiveness proved by time.

The general analysis gives high-precision results both in terms of the WBC value and in terms of the RBC and HGB indices.

Knowing the results of the analysis on the WBC, RBC and HGB indices, one can recognize all the negative phenomena that occur inside the body of adults and children.

The WBC index is of great interest to health care workers in terms of assessing the immune system in humans and the presence of infections of the most diverse nature in the body.

Interpretation of the study of the blood liquid can determine the state of leukocytes and their average number.

Leukocytes or white blood cells play an important role in the human body and are one of the main indicators of the general condition of the body.

From a medical point of view, leukocytes are cells that prevent the penetration of various types of infections into the human body.

In that case, if the rate of these cells is constant and stable, then the human body is able to effectively resist the invasion of a variety of viruses.

If for some reason the norm is violated, then it will be necessary to carry out therapeutic measures aimed at strengthening the immunity.

In the blood of people white blood cells are of several types, depending on their functionality. The origin of these cells occurs in the bone marrow and lymph nodes.

If the rate of leukocytes is stable, then the internal organs of a person are reliably protected from the penetration of all kinds of bacteria, microbes, viruses and foreign cells.

Performing their protective functions, leukocytes in the body of an adult or a child participate in all immune reactions.

Thanks to them, antibodies are formed, which subsequently protect adults and children from a variety of pathological situations.

These white blood cells play a key role in the binding and subsequent destruction of malicious agents.

The analysis on the WBC allows to judge the quantity and quality of leukocytes in the blood.

In the event that the WBC index has an increased value, then it is very likely to speak of the occurrence of an infectious focus in the body, which must be eliminated without fail.

If the rate is lowered, then the person may experience permanent general weakness and a sharp loss of strength, which indicates a malfunction of the immune system.

Decoding Principles

There are several different types of WBC indices that are commonly recognized by a general blood test in both adults and children.

The main ones are:

Each of the above indicators performs its individual specific functions, which means that from time to time the values ​​should be checked.

All types of the universal WBC index in the aggregate represent the so-called blood formula, the decoding of which allows a medical professional to judge the presence of pathological states of a very different nature inside the human body.

In this case, it is worth paying attention to the fact that the percentage content of one type of WBC index may slightly change up or down due to non-constant fluctuations of the other.

For example, if a blood test on the WBC showed a general increase in the number of cells of leukocytes, then during additional diagnostics it can be determined by what happened.

A general blood test on the WBC allows doctors not only to identify possible complications of the disease in a timely manner, but also to suggest the main features of the course of the disease for a certain time.

When examining leukocytes, the norm for the WBC index must be checked.

It should be noted that the value of the WBC index may have different values ​​in an adult and in a child. It all depends on the age of the patient.

You should not try to compare the values ​​for a child and an adult, as their norm will have different indicators.

In this case, it is worth noting that the WBC indicator in children is slightly higher than the normal value for men and women. In addition, this figure is particularly high compared with adults in a child up to six months.

The WBC index for middle-aged men and women ranges from 19 to 37% of the cells that are directly responsible for immunity in the body.

In children, this digital indicator begins to more or less correspond to the rate of adults only by the age of fifteen.

From this we can conclude that the rate of the WBC index in a child is directly dependent on his age and differs significantly from that in adults. In the analysis, the value of the WBC is always presented in digital terms.

To obtain the most reliable data when donating blood to the WBC, it is necessary to properly prepare for the analysis.

A few days before the scheduled study time, you should exclude fatty, as well as fried food from the daily ration.

In addition, the use of potent drugs that may affect the blood condition is stopped.

Also not recommended on the eve to engage in heavy physical labor. The examination itself is carried out, as a rule, in the morning and always on an empty stomach.

During the decoding of the analysis, the physician should be aware of the colds suffered by the patient, since this parameter can significantly distort the results obtained.

Final conclusion

Deciphering the obtained value of WBC allows the doctor with a high probability to establish a variety of inflammatory processes.

So, with the help of a general analysis, meningitis, otitis media and bronchitis are diagnosed. This study allows timely detection of inflammation of fiber, various forms of kidney failure.

The WBC index also shows internal bleeding and various types of neoplasms.

In the case when, according to the results of the analysis, it was established that the index was above the normal value, then we are talking about a phenomenon called leukocytosis.

Leukocytosis, in turn, may indicate the development of such pathologies as viral infection, allergic reaction, renal colic.

The cause of leukocytosis can be severe injuries, burns, suppuration and internal inflammation.

Leukocytes in the blood can be increased even in such states of the body as, for example, severe fatigue after physical exertion, suffered stress, and pregnancy.

If in the process of research it was established that the WBC index has a lower value, then it is a question of a condition with the name leukopenia.

In some cases, it can seriously threaten a person’s life. Leukopenia is observed with various degrees of radiation sickness, a sharp exacerbation of leukemia, as well as with the appearance of tumors in the area of ​​the bone marrow.

In addition, the reason for reducing the value of WBC very often become depression, fasting, low blood pressure.

The value of the WBC index carries a large amount of important information about a person's health. Despite this, the doctor can not make an accurate diagnosis only on the results of blood tests.

This analysis is usually carried out in conjunction with other diagnostic measures.

By combining all the data obtained after conducting research, it is possible to establish not only the pathology itself, but also the nature of its appearance, which is very important when prescribing medical therapy.

Do not refuse to take a blood test, which shows the value of the WBC index.

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