Is diabetes mellitus transmitted through blood or saliva, inherited from parents?
Perhaps one of the most insidious and dangerous diseases of our time is diabetes. No matter how modern and innovative medicine is, so far it has not managed to find a means to combat it. Every year the number of patients increases, due to a number of factors. Is diabetes mellitus inherited? It is this question that worries humanity, because it is much more important to prevent the development of the disease than to deal with it throughout life.
What is diabetes?
The development of pathology is primarily associated with impaired insulin production in the pancreas. This diagnosis is not a sentence. Millions of people around the world continue to live an active and fulfilling life, just following the recommendations of the doctor. But in this case it is necessary to prepare for serious financial expenses, regular visits to doctors and a complete reorganization of the lifestyle for the conditions dictated by the disease. It is impossible to cure diabetes mellitus - this is something that should be understood and remembered, but it’s quite realistic to extend your life with the help of modern drugs and improve its quality, it is in everyone’s power.
Forms of the disease
The classification of diabetes mellitus implies the presence of several forms that determine the course of the disease, its features. Currently, experts distinguish two main forms of the disease:
- Type 1 (insulin-dependent diabetes) - diagnosed in patients whose body either does not produce insulin at all, or does not produce enough (less than 20%). Type 1 diabetes mellitus is inherited less frequently, however, is the actual topic of discussion,
- Type 2 (insulin-dependent diabetes) - insulin in the patient's body is produced in sufficient quantities, sometimes the rate of production may be slightly overestimated, but as a result of certain processes it is simply not absorbed by the cells of the body.
These are the main forms of the disease, diagnosed in 97% of cases. The insidiousness of diabetes lies primarily in the fact that even a completely healthy person, leading a correct lifestyle, under the influence of certain circumstances can get sick.
Insulin is needed in order to deliver glucose to the cells and tissues of the human body. She, in turn, is the product of the splitting of food. The source of insulin is the pancreas. No one is immune from irregularities in her work, and that’s when the problems with insulin deficiency begin. Like any disease, diabetes does not appear without cause.
The following factors can increase the likelihood of an illness
- diseases of the pancreas, provoking a violation of metabolic processes,
- sedentary lifestyle,
- stressful situations that trigger adrenaline rush,
- excessive drinking
- diseases that reduce the ability of tissues to absorb insulin,
- viral diseases, which resulted in a decrease in the protective properties of the organism.
Diabetes and heredity
The topic is quite relevant for every person on the planet. To date, there is no exact and unequivocal answer to the question of whether diabetes mellitus is inherited. If you go deeper into this issue, then it becomes obvious that the transfer of susceptibility to the development of this ailment under the influence of so-called risk factors. In this case, the type of disease may be different, and it will develop in different ways.
The gene responsible for the development of the disease is most often transmitted precisely through the paternal line. However, 100% risk does not exist. It is believed that T1D is a hereditary disease, and T2D is acquired in 90% of cases. Although numerous studies have shown that patients with diabetes of the second type existed sick relatives, even distant. This in turn indicates the likelihood of gene transfer.
Is there any cause for concern
In order to assess the likelihood of infection and the level of susceptibility to the development of diabetes, it is necessary to know the history of your entire family. It is difficult to call a hereditary disease unequivocally, but the predisposition is unequivocally transmitted within the family, most often along the paternal line. If there are people in the family of a person or there are people with a similar diagnosis, he and his children are clearly exposed to the danger identified on the basis of a number of regularities:
- Type 1 diabetes is more common in men than in women
- The insulin-dependent form can be transmitted through the generation. If grandparents were sick, their children may be completely healthy, but their grandchildren are at risk,
- The probability of transmitting T1DM in the case of illness of one parent is on average 5%. If the mother is sick, this figure is 3%, if the father is 8%,
- With age, the risk of developing DM1 decreases, respectively, in the case of a strong predisposition, a person begins to hurt from early childhood,
- The probability of the disease T2DM in a child in the event of illness of at least one of the parents reaches 80%. If both mother and father are sick, then the probability only increases. Risk factors can be obesity, wrong and sedentary lifestyle - in this case, the transmission of diabetes mellitus is almost impossible to exclude.
Probability of illness of the child
We have already found out that in most cases the diabetes mellitus gene is inherited from the father, but this is a predisposition, not the disease itself. In order to prevent its development, it is necessary to keep the baby’s condition, blood sugar level under control, to exclude all risk factors.
Quite often, future parents wonder whether it is possible to inherit diabetes mellitus through blood. It should be recalled that this is not a viral infection, so this possibility is completely excluded.
We tried to answer the question of whether diabetes mellitus is inherited. Now it's time to talk about the symptoms of the disease. It is much easier to deal with the disease diagnosed at the initial stage, then it will be possible without significant restrictions to provide your body with insulin in the required amount. Currently, the main symptoms of diabetes mellitus of both types are identified, it is they that will allow to identify the disease at the initial stage:
- inexplicable feeling of thirst, frequent urination, which lead to dehydration,
- dry mouth
- weakness, drowsiness, fatigue,
- itching of the skin and genitals,
- sharp weight loss
- blurred vision.
If you notice one of these symptoms, immediately take a test to determine the level of sugar in the blood. This can be done in any clinic in your city.
Methods of struggle
If the answer to the question of whether inherited diabetes mellitus is inherited is ambiguous, then in the case of the probability of cure, everything is very clear. Today it is an incurable disease. But observing the main recommendations of the observing specialist, one can live a long and fulfilling life. The main tasks that the specialist has set themselves are the restoration of insulin balance, the prevention and control of complications and disorders, the normalization of body weight and patient education.
Depending on the type of the disease, insulin injections are prescribed or drugs that lower blood sugar levels. A prerequisite is a strict diet - without it, it is impossible to compensate for carbohydrate metabolism. Self-monitoring of blood sugar levels is one of the main measures to maintain the optimal condition of the patient.
If your relatives suffer from diabetes, you are also at risk, for sure you passed this gene from your parents. That is why it is necessary to adhere to certain preventive measures that minimize its manifestation. Proper lifestyle will not only delay the disease, but also to ensure life without it.
Acquired diabetes is inherited with the same probability as congenital diabetes, which is why it is necessary to undergo examinations, try to maintain a healthy lifestyle, eat right. A visit to specialists will never be superfluous, at least once a year. Remember that diabetes can and should be controlled.
How is diabetes inherited?
Insulin-dependent diabetes occurs as a result of the development of an autoimmune process, the nature of which today is not fully understood. Insulin-independent pathology occurs due to disruptions in metabolic processes.
Whether diabetes is inherited - yes, but its mechanism of transmission differs from the usual one.
In the event that one of the parents has an illness, gene material is transferred to the child, including a group of genes that provoke the appearance of pathology, but the child is born absolutely healthy.
In this case, to activate the pathological processes requires the influence of provoking factors. The most common precipitating factors are the following:
- pathology in the pancreas,
- impact on the body of stressful situations and hormonal disruptions,
- violation of metabolic processes,
- the use of drugs in the treatment of certain diseases, which have diabetic effects as a side effect.
To avoid in this case, the appearance of the disease is possible, if you minimize the impact on the body of negative factors.
The described situation is valid for children who have one of the parents, father or mother, suffers from a disease of the second type.
The value of genetic predisposition in the appearance of diabetes
Answering the question whether diabetes is inherited from a father or mother is difficult to answer unequivocally.
It has been reliably established that the gene responsible for the emergence of the disease is transmitted most often through the paternal line, but, nevertheless, there is no absolute risk of developing the disease.
Heredity plays an important role, but not fundamental in the appearance of pathology.
At the moment, it is difficult for science to answer how inherited diabetes mellitus is transmitted and what should be done to those people who got such a gene. For the development of the disease requires a push. If, in the case of insulin-independent pathology, the wrong way of life and the development of obesity can serve as such an impetus, then the main causes of the onset of the insulin-dependent form of the disease have not yet been precisely established.
There is a misconception that type 2 diabetes is a hereditary disease. This opinion is not entirely true, this is due to the fact that this type of illness is an acquired pathology that develops in a person with age, while among relatives there may not be patients suffering from this pathology.
The probability of development of the disease in a child
If both parents suffer from diabetes, the probability of inheriting the disease is about 17%, but it is impossible to unequivocally answer the question of whether a child is sick or not.
In the event that the presence of pathology is revealed only in one of the parents, for example, the father, then the probability of its transfer to the child does not exceed 5%. Prevent the development of the disease of the first type is almost impossible. For this reason, parents should, if there is a probability of transmission of the violation by inheritance, strictly control the condition of the child and conduct regular measurements of the amount of glucose in his body.
Due to the fact that insulin-independent diabetes and metabolic disorders are autosomal signs and are capable of being transmitted from parents to children, the likelihood of transmitting such disorders is about 70% if both parents suffer from these pathologies.
However, for the development of this form of the disease, an obligatory component is the influence on the person of the provoking factors. In the role of such factors may be:
- Keeping sedentary age.
- The presence of excess weight.
- Unbalanced diet.
- Impact on the body of stressful situations.
Adjusting the lifestyle in this situation contributes to a significant reduction in the risk of developing the disease.
Very often, people can hear questions about whether diabetes is transmitted through blood or diabetes is transmitted through saliva? With respect to these questions, the answer is negative, since the pathology is chronic, it is not an infectious disease, so there is no infection during the contacting of healthy people with diabetics.
At the present stage of development of scientific knowledge is not always possible to understand the relationship of diabetes with generations. Sometimes cases of inheritance of morbidity during pregnancy in each generation are recorded and at the same time situations of formation of carbohydrate metabolism pathologies through the generation are often recorded, for example, the grandfather or grandmother has a violation, their daughter and son are absent and manifest again in the granddaughter or grandchild.
This property of the disease to pass from generation to generation confirms the assumption that in addition to heredity, environmental factors and the way of life of a person play a huge role in the development of the disease. In fact, a person is inherited susceptibility to the disease.
Whether gestational diabetes is inherited
Doctors distinguish, in addition to type 1 and 2 of the disease, another special kind of it - gestational diabetes. This pathology develops in women during pregnancy. The disease is registered in 2-7 percent of women carrying a child.
The development of this type of disease is associated with the fact that during pregnancy a serious hormonal adjustment is observed in the woman’s body, which is aimed at enhanced production of hormones ensuring the development of the fetus.
During the period of prenatal development of the child, the mother's body requires significantly more insulin to maintain the required level of glucose in the blood plasma. The need for insulin increases, but in some cases the pancreas is not able to provide a synthesis of a sufficient amount of the hormone, which leads to an increase in the sugar content in the body of the future mother. As a result of these processes, gestational diabetes develops.
Most often, the normalization of the work of the female body after delivery leads to the normalization of carbohydrate metabolism of women. But with the onset of another pregnancy, the pathological process can arise again. The presence of this particular form of pathology during pregnancy may indicate a high probability of developing diabetes in later life. To prevent such negative development of processes, it is necessary to pay great attention to the state of health and, if possible, eliminate the influence of negative and provoking factors.
At the moment, the exact reasons for the development of this particular form of pathology in the period of fetal development of the child are not known for certain. Many researchers of the disease agree that hormones associated with the placenta contribute to the progression of gestational diabetes. It is assumed that these biologically active substances interfere with the normal operation of insulin, which leads to an increase in the level of sugars in the blood plasma.
The appearance of gestational diabetes may be due to the presence of overweight in women and non-observance of the rules of a healthy lifestyle.
Preventive measures for susceptibility to diabetes
In the presence of diabetes mellitus, both parents are at high risk of transmitting a predisposition to the disease from them to their offspring. To prevent the onset of pathology, such a child should do everything possible for him throughout his life in order not to provoke the progression of the disorder.
Most medical researchers argue that the presence of an unfavorable hereditary line is not a sentence. To do this, you need to follow certain recommendations from childhood to eliminate or significantly reduce the effect on the body of certain risk factors.
The primary prevention of pathology is in compliance with the rules of proper and healthy nutrition. Such rules require the exclusion from the diet of most foods containing fast carbohydrates. In addition, one should carry out procedures that temper the child’s body. Such activities help strengthen the body and its immune system.
The principles of nutrition should be reviewed not only in relation to the child, but also the family as a whole, especially if close relatives have diabetes.
При соблюдении правильного питания, а это и диета при повышенном сахаре, следует понимать, что это не является временной мерой – такой пересмотр должен стать образом жизни. Правильно питаться нужно не ограниченное количество времени, а на протяжении всей жизни.
Из рациона следует полностью исключить потребление таких продуктов:
- chocolate and sweets made with it,
- carbonated drinks,
- cookies, etc.
It is not recommended for the child to give snacks in the form of harmful chips, bars and similar food. All of these products are harmful and have a high degree of caloric content, which has a negative impact on the digestive system.
Preventive measures should be started from early childhood, so that a child from an early age is used to limit himself in the consumption of harmful food components.
In the case of a hereditary predisposition, it is necessary, as far as possible, to protect the child from exposure to all risk factors contributing to the development of the pathological condition.
Such events do not give a full guarantee that the disease does not appear but significantly reduces this probability.
The first type of diabetes and heredity
Why do people suffer from diabetes, and what is the reason for its development? Anyone can get sick with diabetes, and it is practically unreal to insure yourself against pathology. The development of diabetes is influenced by certain risk factors.
The factors that provoke the development of pathology include the following: overweight or obesity of any degree, diseases of the pancreas, impaired metabolic processes in the body, sedentary lifestyle, constant stress, many diseases that depress the human immune system. This can be written and the genetic factor.
As you can see, most of the factors can be prevented and eliminated, but what if the hereditary factor is present? Unfortunately, it is absolutely useless to fight genes.
But to say that diabetes mellitus is inherited, for example, from mother to child, or from another parent, is fundamentally a false statement. If we talk in general, then a predisposition to pathology can be transmitted, nothing more.
What is the predisposition? Here you need to clarify some details about the disease:
- The second type and type 1 diabetes are inherited polygenically. That is, traits that are not inherited are based on one factor, but on a whole group of genes that are only able to influence indirectly, they can have an extremely weak effect.
- In this regard, we can say that risk factors can affect a person, as a result of which the effect of genes is enhanced.
If we talk about the percentage, then there are certain subtleties. For example, the husband and wife are in good health, but when children appear, the child is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. And this is due to the fact that genetic predisposition passed on to the child through one generation.
It is worth noting that the probability of developing diabetes in the male line is much higher (for example, from grandfather) than in the female line.
Statistics say that the likelihood of developing diabetes in children, if one parent is sick, is only 1%. If both parents have a disease of the first type, the percentage increases to 21.
In this case, the number of relatives suffering from diabetes mellitus of the first type is necessarily taken into account.
Heredity and type 2 diabetes
Diabetes and heredity are two concepts that are somewhat related to each other, but not as many people think. Many people worry that if the mother has diabetes, then she will have a child too. No, this is not at all the case.
Children are susceptible to disease factors, as are all adults. Just if there is a genetic predisposition, then you can think about the likelihood of developing pathology, but nothing about a fait accompli.
In this moment, you can find a definite plus. Knowing that children can have "acquired" diabetes, it is necessary to prevent factors that can affect the enhancement of genes that are transmitted through the genetic line.
If we talk about the second type of pathology, then there is a high probability that it will be inherited. When a disease is diagnosed in only one parent, the likelihood that a son or daughter will have the same pathology in the future is 80%.
If diabetes is diagnosed in both parents, then the “transmission” of diabetes to the child is nearing 100%. But again, it is necessary to remember the risk factors, and, knowing them, you can take the necessary measures in time. The most dangerous factor in this case is obesity.
Parents should understand that the cause of diabetes lies in many factors, and under the influence of several at the same time, the risk of developing the pathology increases. In view of the information provided, the following conclusions can be drawn:
- Parents should take all necessary measures to eliminate risk factors from their child’s life.
- For example, numerous viral diseases that weaken the immune system are a factor; therefore, the child needs to be hardened.
- From early childhood, it is recommended to control the weight of the child, monitor its activity and mobility.
- It is necessary to attach children to a healthy lifestyle. For example, write to the sports section.
Many people who have not experienced diabetes do not understand why it develops in the body and what the complications of pathology lie in. Against the background of lack of education, many ask whether diabetes is transmitted through a biological fluid (saliva, blood).
The answer to this question is no, diabetes cannot “go over”, and in general cannot in any way. Diabetes can be “transmitted” by a maximum of one generation (the first type), and then it is not the disease itself that is transmitted, but genes with a weak effect.
As explained above, the answer is whether diabetes is transmitted, the answer is no. The only point inheritance may be in the type of diabetes. If to say more precisely, the probability of developing diabetes of a certain type in a child, provided that one parent has a history of the disease, or both parents.
Undoubtedly, in diabetes, both parents have a certain risk that it will be in children. However, in this case, it is necessary to do everything possible and everything depending on the parents to prevent the disease.
Health workers argue that an unfavorable genetic line is not a sentence, and you need to follow certain guidelines from childhood to help eliminate certain risk factors.
Primary prevention of diabetes - proper nutrition (exclusion of carbohydrate products from the diet) and hardening of the child, starting from infancy. And the principles of nutrition for the whole family should be revised if close relatives have diabetes.
You need to understand that this is not a temporary measure - it is a lifestyle change at the root. Eating right should not be a day or a few weeks, but on an ongoing basis. It is extremely important to monitor the weight of the child, therefore, exclude from the diet the following products:
- Chocolate candies.
- Carbonated drinks.
- Cookies, etc.
You need to try not to give the child harmful snacks, in the form of chips, sweet chocolate bars or cookies. All this is harmful to the stomach, has a high calorie content, which leads to excess weight, as a result, one of the factors of pathology.
If it is difficult for an adult who already has his certain habits to change his lifestyle, then everything is much easier with a child when preventive measures are introduced from an early age.
After all, the child does not know what a chocolate bar or tasty candy is, so it is much easier for him to explain why he cannot eat it. He has no craving for the consumption of carbohydrate foods.
If there is a genetic predisposition to pathology, then you need to try to eliminate the factors leading to it. Clearly, this will not insure 100%, but the risks of developing the disease will significantly decrease. The video in this article describes the types and types of diabetes.
What is diabetes?
The development of pathology is associated with the peculiarity of the production of the hormone insulin in the pancreas. The first type of the disease is characterized by a lack of insulin of its own, resulting in the accumulation of glucose in the blood.
The cessation of insulin production in the pancreas occurs as a result of an autoimmune process, as a result of which a person’s own immunity inhibits hormone-producing cells. Why this is happening has not yet been clarified, as well as the direct link between heredity and the development of pathology.
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired carbohydrate metabolism, in which cell susceptibility to glucose is impaired, that is, glucose is not consumed as directed and accumulates in the body. Man's own insulin is produced, and it is not necessary to stimulate its production. Usually it develops on the background of excess weight, which entails a metabolic disorder.
The first (insulin-dependent) type requires insulin to be ingested by injection. The second type of disease (insulin-resistant) is treated without injections, with the help of diet therapy.
Causes of development
The insulin-dependent form develops as a result of an autoimmune process, the causes of which have not yet been clarified. The insulin-resistant form is associated with impaired metabolic processes.
The impetus for the development of diabetes can be the following factors:
- pancreatic diseases,
- stresses and hormonal disruptions,
- lack of exercise,
- metabolic disease,
- taking certain medications with a side effect of diabetes,
- genetic predisposition.
The disease is inherited, but not in the way it is believed. If one of the parents has this disease, a group of genes that cause the disease is passed to the child, but the child is born healthy. To activate the genes responsible for the development of diabetes, an impetus is needed, which can be prevented by doing everything possible to minimize the other risk factors. This is true if one of the parents suffered from type 2 diabetes.
The value of genetic predisposition
The question of whether diabetes mellitus is inherited from a mother or father is difficult to answer unequivocally.
The gene responsible for the development of this disease is transmitted most often through the paternal line. However, there is no absolute risk of developing the disease. To develop diabetes mellitus of the first or second type of heredity plays an important role, but not fundamental.
For example, type 1 diabetes may appear in a child with perfectly healthy parents. It often turns out that this pathology was observed in one of the older generation — grandmothers or even great-grandmothers. In this case, the parents were carriers of the gene, but they themselves did not get sick.
It is difficult to answer unequivocally how diabetes is transmitted and what should be done by those who inherited this gene. For the development of this disease requires a push. If, in the case of an insulin-independent form, the wrong lifestyle and obesity become such an impetus, then the causes of type 1 disease are still not precisely known.
You can often hear the misconception that type 2 diabetes is a hereditary disease. This statement is not quite true, since it is an acquired pathology that can appear with age in a person whose relatives have no diabetes.
The probability of illness in a child
If both parents are ill with the insulin-dependent form of the disease, the probability that their diabetes mellitus is inherited is about 17%, but it is impossible to say for sure whether the child is sick or not.
If pathology is found in only one parent - the chance of developing the disease in children is no more than 5%. Prevent the development of type 1 diabetes is impossible, so parents should carefully monitor the health of the baby and regularly measure the level of glucose in the blood.
The insulin-independent form is characterized by a metabolic disorder. Due to the fact that both diabetes and metabolic disorders are transmitted from parents to children, the probability of the child getting sick in this case is much higher and is about 70% if both parents are sick. However, the development of an insulin-resistant form of pathology requires an impetus, which is a sedentary lifestyle, obesity, an unbalanced diet, or stress. Changing lifestyle in this case can significantly reduce the risk of developing the disease.
You can often hear the question of whether diabetes is transmitted through contact either through blood or not. It should be remembered that this is not a viral and not an infectious disease, therefore there is no risk of infection if it comes in contact with the patient or his blood.
An unequivocal answer to the question of whether inherited diabetes mellitus is difficult to give. If you look in more detail, it becomes obvious that the susceptibility to the development of this disease is transmitted. In addition, each type of disease can behave in completely different ways.
In absolutely healthy parents, children have every chance of getting type 1 diabetes. Such heredity is manifested through the generation. As a prophylaxis, regular hardening of children can be performed. Consumption of flour products is better to limit or completely eliminate from the diet.
As a percentage of only 5-10% of children, this ailment can manifest itself, but for parents it is only 2-5%. At the same time, men’s risk of morbidity is significantly higher than that of women.
If one of the parents is a carrier of type 1 diabetes, then diabetes is inherited only in 5% of cases. 21% of the probability is the incidence of children, when both mom and dad are sick with diabetes. If twins are born and one of the babies is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, then the second child will be diagnosed with diabetes over time. The percentage may fluctuate if, in addition to the parents, the SD was at least a relative.
But there are more cases of how diabetes mellitus type 2 is transmitted. Even with one sick parent, the baby is 80% at risk of developing T2D. Failure to comply with elementary recommendations can only accelerate the development of the disease.
Even with such a high percentage of diseases, you can prevent the likelihood of its manifestation. For this you need:
- eat rationally. Proper nutrition implies the rejection of sweets, flour products, fats, which can cause weight gain. Fast snacks in fast foods should be completely excluded. Limit the use of salty foods. In no case should not overeat. Everything should be in moderation,
- to walk outside. At least half an hour a day you need to take to walk in the fresh air on foot. Movement by unhurried step does not tire, but at the same time the body receives a slight physical exertion,
- follow the figure. Particular attention is paid to the waist, which is often a sign of good health. In men, this figure should not exceed 88 cm, and in women 80 cm. If there are deviations from the norm, then there is a probability share of obesity,
- avoid stress. Many people, thinking about how diabetes mellitus is transmitted, are in a state of constant stress, which is often “stuck”. After some time, this habit leads to an accumulation of excess weight. To avoid this, you need to learn to relax in accessible ways. This may be a swimming pool or listening to music.
Unfortunately, even those who follow all the recommendations are not 100% protected from possible exacerbation of health. Such people should constantly monitor blood sugar levels, not allowing an increase in the permissible level. And when the first symptoms appear, you should immediately consult a doctor to prescribe the necessary therapy.
When the disease develops
But for the development of the disease is not enough to have relatives of diabetics, the development of pathological changes provoke the following factors:
- excess weight (in detecting malfunction of type 2 sugar metabolism, when insulin is produced, but the hormone does not work fully, ensuring the splitting of glucose, approximately 80-85% of patients have a tendency to obesity),
- inflammatory processes in the pancreas,
- constant stress
- autoimmune diseases
- infectious diseases of the abdominal cavity (hepatitis, peritonitis, acute pancreatitis),
- hypertension, accompanied by the occurrence of frequent crises,
- the presence in the vessels of atherosclerotic changes that disrupt the normal blood flow (if there is no full-fledged metabolism, then there may be a failure either in insulin production or in the weakened effect of this hormone on blood sugar),
- pregnancy (some women have a high sugar content during gestation, the so-called diabetes of pregnancy, may not disappear after childbirth, but become chronic),
- smoking and alcohol provoke failures in metabolic processes,
- drugs, more often for the treatment of thyroid dysfunction, can cause changes in sugar metabolism, even if heredity is not burdened by the presence of diabetics in the genus,
- sedentary lifestyle (in children who spend a lot of time at the computer, in the presence of predisposition, a type 1 diabetic disorder may develop, in which the glands responsible for insulin production atrophy).
Все эти причины влияют на деятельность поджелудочной железы и нарушают продуцирование гормона инсулина.
Но наследственное заболевание диабет или нет и можно ли его избежать, если оно носит наследственный характер.
Hereditary disease implies the presence in the family of pathology of one type (often the first, the second is more characteristic acquired character). If both types of pathology are found irregularly among relatives, heredity does not play a big role here, although there is a predisposition, but the occurrence of the disease will depend on external factors.
According to medical statistics, the following figures can be considered reliable:
- The second type of pathology occurs if 2 or more relatives suffered from it in the previous generation.
- A mother with the first diabetic type can give birth to a healthy child, whose risk of becoming ill is 3%.
- If the father is sick, the risk factor rises to 9% (in the male line, the transmission of the susceptibility to illness from father to child is much higher).
- When both parents are sick, for the child the risk will be 21-22%, this probability increases, if the mother before the pregnancy already had a pathology of sugar metabolism or it arose during gestation.
Diabetes and heredity
It is necessary to begin with the fact that the “sweet disease” does not belong to classical congenital or genetic pathologies. If someone from the family is sick, this does not mean that their descendant will suffer from persistent hyperglycemia.
However, this development obliges the family doctor and parents to closely monitor the growth of their offspring in order to identify a potential problem as soon as possible.
Is diabetes mellitus inherited? No, but the chance of occurrence of carbohydrate metabolism in children of sick parents is higher than that of ordinary babies. Diabetes refers to polyetiological diseases. Therefore, only predisposition to it is inherited, and not the problem itself.
The difference between types 1 and 2 of diabetes
It is important to know that the potential chance of progressing a formidable disease differs in the first and second variant of the disease. This is due to complex genetic reactions that are not yet fully understood.
It is only known that in human DNA there are at least 8-9 genes that directly affect the process of carbohydrate metabolism. To talk about those that act indirectly, in general, is not yet possible. The only reliable information is the knowledge of risk factors for developing the disease.
Type 1 diabetes occurs after the following provoking situations:
- The presence of parents with a similar diagnosis. The chance of inheritance is 10-20% (depending on different data from medical literature) with 1 patient relative and 20-40% with 2 patients.
- Transferred intrauterine infection (chlamydia or toxoplasmosis in the mother).
- Viral affection at an early age (sup. Coxsackie, parotitis, rubella).
- Toxic effect on the fetus (nitrates, nitrosamines and others).
A slightly different picture for the second variant of the disease. Is type 2 diabetes inherited? That is what really interests the sick. The answer is no, but you need to know what factors potentially increase the risk of its occurrence ...
- Heredity and diabetes. It has been scientifically proven that there is a direct correlation between the presence of an ailment among parents and the chance of it occurring in children in the future. So, if there is only a mom or a diabetic dad, it is 40-50%, if two people are sick, 50-70%.
- Dyslipidemia. An increased amount of low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides and cholesterol potentially worsen the patient's condition.
- Arterial hypertension.
- Heart attacks and strokes in the past.
- Stein-Leventhal syndrome (polycystic ovary).
- The birth of a fetus weighing more than 4 kg or a history of gestational diabetes.
- Impaired carbohydrate tolerance.
Can inherit diabetes?
Very interesting is the fact that the potential risk of a problem is different depending on the proximity of the relationship. It is proved that the chance of transmission of the disease from mother to child is 10-20%. If the child has an identical twin, the percentage increases to 50%. In the case of both sick parents, equal to 70-80% of the second child (only when the first one is also unwell).
It is not always possible to understand how diabetes is inherited. Sometimes there are episodes of occurrence of a problem in each generation. Nevertheless, cases of the formation of the pathology of carbohydrate metabolism in the grandfather and grandson, for example, are often recorded.
This once again confirms the thesis that the “sweet disease” is not hereditary. Transmitted increased susceptibility to it.
What to do?
Immediately it should be said that to protect against the appearance of the disease is very difficult. No one can say exactly when it will begin. However, there are a number of measures that can potentially reveal the risk of hyperglycemia, and in some cases prevent it.
- Clear control of the course of pregnancy in the mother with the appropriate diagnosis. At the first signs of increased glycemia, it is worthwhile to immediately begin therapy.
- Gene monitoring. A very expensive method. You need to understand that he will not be able to stop the progress of the problem, but will certainly indicate the chance of diabetes.
- Diet. With impaired glucose tolerance, the restriction of light carbohydrates can qualitatively reduce the amount of sugar in the blood.
- Physical exercise. Therapeutic gymnastics is one of the best ways to prevent "sweet disease".
- Weight and blood pressure control
- Regular examination by a doctor.
Such an approach will not protect the patient by 100%, but will definitely strengthen his health. Diabetes mellitus is not inherited, but children with a burdened genetic history should be treated very carefully.
The first type of disease
The ailments of the first and second types are inherently completely different diseases. They have a different course and different causes. What they have in common is that as a result of the course of pathological diseases, one common symptom is observed - an increase in the level of sugar when conducting research through blood. Therefore, in order to find out whether diabetes mellitus is inherited, you need to take into account its shape.
Type 1 diabetes is inherited quite often. This disease is caused by an autoimmune process. This process kills specific pancreatic cells that produce insulin. As a result, eventually, there is nothing to produce insulin in the body. In this case, only insulin injections can help the patient, that is, administering it from the outside in a carefully calculated dose.
At the moment, almost all the data on how diabetes is transmitted is clarified. However, the answers to the questions whether it can be cured and whether it is possible to prevent its development in a child are still negative. Currently, scientists do not know how to influence the inheritance of certain diseases from a mother or father, as well as to stop autoimmune processes. But an artificial pancreas is currently being developed - it will be mounted externally and automatically calculate the required dose of insulin, after which it will be injected into the body.
Second type of disease
The answer to the question of whether type 2 diabetes is inherited is also positive. There is a genetic predisposition to its occurrence. This disease develops when insulin is produced in the pancreas in normal volume.
However, insulin receptors in body tissues (mainly fat), which must bind to insulin and transport glucose into cells, do not function or do not function enough. As a result, glucose does not enter the cells, but accumulates in the blood. The cells, however, signal a lack of glucose, which causes the pancreas to produce more insulin. Propensity for low receptor efficacy and is inherited.
When working in this mode, the pancreas is quickly depleted. Cells that produce insulin are destroyed. Fabrics can be replaced by fibrous. In this case, there is nothing more to produce insulin, and the failure of the second type goes into the first. This is the answer to the question of whether a failure of the first type can occur if it is not inherited from the father or mother.
- The first type of diabetes is transmitted from the father in 10% of cases, from the mother - in 3 - 7%. It manifests itself in this case in a child not older than 20 years, usually as a result of stress or a serious illness, that is, when immunity is weakened,
- When both parents are sick, the probability of having a baby - diabetic is 70 - 80%. However, if up to 20 years to protect the child from stress and serious illness, he can "outgrow" this type of illness,
- Heredity can also predetermine the second type of diabetes. It manifests itself in older age - after 30 years. Most often transmitted from grandparents, while the probability of transmission from one of the relatives is higher - 30%. If both parents are diabetics, the probability of having a child with an illness is 100%,
- The second type of diabetes can not only be inherited, but also be acquired as a result of an unhealthy lifestyle,
- For a malfunction of the first type, the danger of transmission through the male line, as well as a male child, is higher than that of the female,
- If the grandmother and / or grandfathers suffered from the disease of the first type, then the probability that their grandchildren will also be sick is 10%. Whereas their parents can only get sick with a 3-5% chance.
Parents should take into account that if one of the twins is diagnosed with diabetes in an insulin-dependent form, then the probability that the second twin is also sick is 50%. When it comes to insulin-independent form - 70%.
Transmission of the disease
Some people also wonder how diabetes is transmitted. Regardless of its type, the only way to transmit this failure is hereditary. That is, they cannot be infected through the blood; it is not transmitted through the physical contact of a sick person with a healthy one.
However, they can get sick not only by inheriting from their parents. Diabetes of the second type occurs independently. There are several reasons for this:
- In old age, the effectiveness of receptors decreases, and they begin to lose contact with insulin,
- Obesity leads to the destruction of receptors or their damage, so you need to monitor the weight,
- Lack of physical activity leads to the fact that glucose is slowly processed into energy and accumulates in the blood,
- Harmful habits (smoking, alcoholism) violate the metabolism and adversely affect the metabolism, which can be the causes of diabetes,
- Malnutrition - the abuse of preservatives, carbohydrates, fats can also increase the likelihood of getting sick.
Predominantly a hereditary disease diabetes can be "acquired" and independently. Because you should be attentive to your health and follow the lifestyle, especially those who are at risk for this ailment.
Types of diabetes and the role of genetics in the transmission of the disease
This disease is caused by the fact that the beta cells of the pancreas are damaged. Then, in turn, the body starts up such autoimmune processes in which t-lymphocytes are involved and at the same time MHC proteins are produced on the cell surface.
In the case of the presence of certain genes (they are known about fifty), there is a massive death of pancreatic cells. This genotype is inherited from parents to their children.
Types of diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent). The pancreas produces little insulin.
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus (insulin resistant). The body cannot use glucose from the blood.
Is type 1 diabetes inherited
The specific feature of this type of diabetes is that it can manifest itself not in the first generation, but in subsequent ones. It turns out that if the parents do not have this disease, this does not mean that their children will not suffer from it.
Another unpleasant fact, proved by scientists, is that type 1 diabetes can be transmitted, even if risk factors are absent. The implementation of preventive measures (diet, moderate physical activity) does not always allow a person to avoid this disease.
So even a competent specialist, having all the necessary test results in hand, will not be able to answer the question "Is diabetes mellitus type 1 possible inherited?" This can be either a complete absence of signs of the disease, or the presence of diabetes or pre-diabetes.
High blood sugar levels will be characteristic of prediabetes, and as a result, high numbers of indicators such as glycosylated hemoglobin will be characteristic. If you do not promptly compensate for the increased sugar with a special diet and exercise, then this can lead to disastrous consequences. This is a massive destruction of cells that produce insulin.
To get an answer to the question whether diabetes mellitus type 1 can be inherited, you can refer to the statistical data. If you believe the numbers, the percentage of morbidity associated with hereditary factors is quite small (2-10%).
If the father is sick, the disease is more likely to be inherited - 9%. If the mother is sick, only 3%.
If we consider the case of identical twins, then the likelihood of developing diabetes, if both parents suffer from the disease, will be about 20%. But if the disease manifested itself in one child of the couple, then the second, most likely, also has this disease. For the time being, it may be latent and not have clinical symptoms. The likelihood of such a development is almost 50%.
If you take tests for sugar at least once a couple of years, then this will be enough to recognize the disease in time and engage in its treatment. In this case, the organs and tissues will not have time to undergo irreversible changes.
It should be noted that, based on recent data, the incidence of type 1 diabetes began to decrease. And at the age of about 30 years, the chances of getting sick almost go to zero.
Types of diabetes
WHO classification identifies 2 types of the disease: insulin-dependent (type І) and insulin-independent (type II) diabetes. The first type is referred to in those cases where insulin is not produced by pancreatic cells or the amount of the hormone produced is too small. About 15–20% of diabetics suffer from this type of disease.
In most patients, insulin is produced in the body, but the cells do not perceive it. This is type II diabetes, in which the tissues of the body cannot use glucose entering the blood. It is not converted into energy.
Ways of developing the disease
The exact mechanism of the appearance of the disease is unknown. But doctors identify a group of factors, in the presence of which increases the risk of the occurrence of this endocrine disease:
- damage to certain structures of the pancreas,
- metabolic disorders,
- infectious diseases
- low activity,
- genetic predisposition.
Children whose parents suffered from diabetes, increased susceptibility to his appearance. But this hereditary disease is not shown at all. The probability of its occurrence increases with the combination of several risk factors.
Type I disease develops in young people: children and adolescents. Babies with a predisposition to diabetes can be born to healthy parents. This is due to the fact that often genetic predisposition is passed on through a generation. In this case, the risk of getting the disease from the father is higher than from the mother.
The more relatives suffer from the insulin-dependent type of the disease, the more likely it is that the child will develop it. If one parent has diabetes, then the chance of his appearance in a child is on average 4-5%: for a sick father - 9%, for a mother - 3%. If the disease is diagnosed in both parents, then the probability of its development in a child of the first type is 21%. This means that insulin-dependent diabetes will appear in only 1 out of 5 children.
This type of disease is transmitted even in cases where there are no risk factors. If genetically determined that the number of beta cells responsible for producing insulin is insignificant, or they are missing, then even with a diet, maintaining an active lifestyle deceive heredity will not work.
The probability of occurrence of the disease in one identical twin, provided that the second is diagnosed with insulin-dependent diabetes, is 50%. This disease is diagnosed in young people. If up to 30 years it will not, then you can calm down. At a later age, type 1 diabetes does not manifest.
To provoke the onset of the disease can stress, infectious diseases, lesions of parts of the pancreas. The cause of diabetes mellitus 1 can even become a childhood infectious disease: rubella, mumps, chickenpox, and measles.
With the progression of these types of diseases, viruses produce proteins that are structurally similar to beta cells that produce insulin. The body produces antibodies that make it possible to get rid of virus proteins. But they destroy cells that produce insulin.
It is important to understand that not every baby has diabetes after the illness. Но если родители матери или отца были инсулинозависимыми диабетиками, то вероятность появления диабета у ребенка повышается.
Чаще всего эндокринологи диагностируют болезнь ІІ типа. The insensitivity of the cells to the insulin produced is inherited. But it should be remembered about the negative impact of provoking factors.
The likelihood of diabetes reaches 40% if one of the parents is sick. If both parents are familiar with diabetes firsthand, then the child will have a disease with a 70% probability. In identical twins, the disease appears simultaneously in 60% of cases, in fraternal - in 30%.
Finding out the probability of transmission of the disease from person to person, it should be understood that even with a genetic predisposition, the probability of developing the disease can be prevented. It is aggravated by the fact that this is a disease of people of pre-retirement and retirement age. That is, it begins to develop gradually, the first manifestations pass unnoticed. People pay to the symptoms when the condition worsens markedly.
At the same time, patients become endocrinologist people over the age of 45 years. Therefore, among the primary causes of the development of the disease is not called its transmission through the blood, and the action of negative precipitating factors. If you follow these rules, the likelihood of diabetes can be significantly reduced.
In the world there are 2 types of diabetes, they differ in the body's need for insulin:
- Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In this case, the hormone is practically not produced, but if it is not produced enough for a full carbohydrate metabolism. Such patients need replacement therapy with insulin, which is administered throughout life in certain doses.
- Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In this case, insulin production occurs within the normal range, but cellular receptors do not perceive it. For these patients, treatment consists of diet therapy and taking pills that excite insulin receptors.
Risk groups and heredity
According to statistics, each person can have such a pathology, but in the case when certain favorable conditions are created for its development under which diabetes mellitus is transmitted
The risk groups that are prone to developing diabetes include:
- Genetic predisposition
- Not controlled obesity,
- Chronic and acute diseases of the pancreas,
- Metabolic disorders in the body,
- Sedentary lifestyle,
- Stressful situations serve to stimulate a huge release of adrenaline into the blood,
- Alcohol abuse,
- Chronic and acute diseases, after which insulin receptors become insensitive to it,
- Infectious processes that reduce immunity,
- Acceptance or administration of diabetes agents.
Types of disease
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by impaired blood sugar levels. The pathology is divided into 2 types - diabetes of the first type and the second type.
The first type of diabetes is called insulin-dependent. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas and is responsible for the absorption of sugar by the cells of the body. In type 1 diabetes, insulin is not produced in principle or it is critically low. As a result, acetone accumulates in the blood, which gradually leads to kidney disease. In addition, type 1 diabetes can lead to the fact that some of the necessary proteins in the body cease to be synthesized. The consequence of this is a significant weakening of the human immune system. As a result, the patient is losing weight rapidly, and his body can no longer fight the simplest viruses and bacteria. In order to prevent a person from dying, it is necessary throughout his life to give him insulin injections, artificially maintaining the necessary hormonal level.
When the disease is of the second type, insulin enters the blood in a normal amount, but the cells lose sensitivity to it and, accordingly, the sugar ceases to be absorbed by them. In this regard, the sugar is retained in the blood causing various side pathologies. For example, it destroys the walls of blood vessels, leading to necrosis of the tissue of internal organs, hands or feet. Sugar also dissolves the sheath of nerve fibers, destroying the work of the whole organism, its nervous system and even the brain. In this case, the treatment is constant monitoring of the consumption of sugar and fast carbohydrates.
If you follow the right diet, the quality of life and the state of the body will be quite satisfactory. But, if the patient continues to consume sweets and carbohydrates in large quantities, he may fall into a diabetic coma or die.
Is inherited 1 type of diabetes
Whether type 1 diabetes is inherited. There is no unequivocal answer to the question. The disease itself occurs at any age and for reasons unknown so far. Be inherited, there may be a predisposition to the disease. Especially if a person is exposed to risk factors:
- Excessive fullness, accompanied by obesity.
- Inflammation of the pancreas, chronic pancreatitis.
- Metabolic disorders caused by thyroid pathology.
- Sedentary lifestyle associated with sedentary work.
- Chronic stress or depression.
- Infectious disease of a chronic nature.
If a person has all the above risks and lifestyles, someone in the family was sick with diabetes, mother or father, then in this case we can assume that diabetes mellitus was inherited as a result.
In addition, diabetes and heredity are associated not only from the direct parent, mother or father, but also through a generation, that is, from grandparents or grandparents. But again - the fact of inheritance must be confirmed by risk factors.
Statistical studies show that if one of the parents had diabetes, then the child has a 1% chance of getting the disease. If both parents are sick, then the child can get sick with a probability of up to 20%.
Whether 2 type of diabetes is inherited
In this case, a hereditary disease of diabetes, occurs in children of diabetics with a probability of up to 80%. And it's not that it's contagious. With type 2 diabetes, obesity plays a decisive role. That is, if a person inherited from father or mother, had a tendency to pimpness, coupled with the fact that the parent was sick with diabetes, then the probability of getting sick is almost 100%.
Knowing about this, any parent is able to prevent the development of the disease in his child by continuously monitoring his diet. In other words, if not diabetes mellitus is inherited, but a tendency to obesity, then it is very easy to avoid it. It is enough to give the child to the sport from an early age and make sure that he is not fond of sweets.