Christmas toys from - our childhood can be made with - children
New Year is a happy and fun holiday. To create something beautiful, beautiful, and most importantly, do it yourself, especially during this period. After all, a great desire to please their loved ones and loved ones with beautiful things and unusual ideas.
Toys made of cotton wool look especially beautiful and cute, according to the old technology it is easy to make them, the main thing is to know the secret of these New Year decorations and have a fantasy.
Such toys can be presented as a gift, they can make an original composition in the room, moreover, such a "Soviet" toy can be hung on the Christmas tree, because retro items always add color and originality.
History of wadded Christmas tree toys
Today, a sparkling, richly decorated Christmas tree is a mandatory attribute of the New Year and Christmas. Glass beads, rain of foil, large bright balls hanging on fir branches, give adults and children faith in a fairy tale and holiday wonders.
However, Christmas decorations were not always made of plastic and glass. The first items to decorate the Christmas tree were made of cotton wool.
Since 1700, by decree of Peter I, the celebration of the New Year in the Russian Empire was postponed from September to January. On the eve of the holiday, people started a tradition of hanging the roofs, gates and doors of houses with coniferous branches. However, there was still no additional decoration.
At the end of the nineteenth century, Western influences came to the country. The custom of decorating a Christmas tree on Christmas Eve was borrowed from the German people.
In Europe, mass production of glass toys has already been launched. But for launching its own glass-blowing plants, Russia did not have the necessary amount of raw materials, and it was very expensive to import finished products from abroad. Therefore, Christmas toys were made of cotton wool.
Vata had excellent characteristics: it was valued for its softness, suppleness, durability and ability to interact with other materials. There was enough raw materials for work, and the craftsmen in the factories invested their whole soul in the creation of festive decor.
The first Christmas tree pendants were called "Dresden toys." They were made by hand from pressed cotton wool and were flat relief figures. Often, cardboard was taken as the basis: it gave the product greater strength.
A little later, the masters mastered the art of volumetric modeling and began the production of three-dimensional wadded toys in the form of Christmas symbols - stars and angels. Each figure was covered with paste paste, diluted on starch. This composition made the toy tough and less vulnerable to pollution.
During the revolution there was a change of power, and the new government did not encourage the celebration of Christmas. In 1929, an official decree was issued to ban Christmas and all its attributes.
But this did not stop people. Secretly in their homes, they still decorated the tree with cotton wool items. Creation of Christmas toys were doing underground. During this period, one has to create unique handicrafts that are valuable for current collectors.
In 1935, the people returned the holiday. The Christmas theme was replaced by a New Year's Eve; instead of cherubs and six-pointed stars, they began to produce figures of the Soviet mood - ordinary people, athletes, fairy tale characters. Natural motifs were spread - vegetables, mushrooms and fruits as symbols of wealth and fertility.
Since the 50s, the factories have been using machines for winding cotton wool and hot stamping cotton toys. This gradually replaces manual work.
In the 60s, the process of creating Christmas tree toys was completely mechanized and put on a grand scale. From these times, decorations for the New Year tree began to be produced massively according to one piece and lost their uniqueness. Therefore, products manufactured since 1966, are not considered rare and do not represent value for collectors.
Now the fashion for handmade toys made of cotton toys is back. Modern masters are trying to revive this trend in art and give it a second life.
Many modern well-known needlewomen create antique toys, using technology that was once invented by our grandparents.
One of such needlewomen is Elena Vasko, Christmas toys made of cotton in her performance are very popular. Master classes, secrets and peculiarities of creating these dolls inspire many to make such Christmas decorations on their own.
Such masters as Irina Cherepanova and Natalia Rodina enjoy considerable popularity in this area. Their lessons can be easily found on the Internet, they are a visual aid for how to make wonderful cotton creations.
Christmas toys made of cotton have the advantage that they are made from scrap materials and do not require large expenditures. The story tells that our ancestors did not know how to make toys for the Christmas tree, or did not have the opportunity to purchase them. That is why this technology was born.
So, stunning vintage, colorful and beautiful Christmas toys are created from the following materials:
Special attention should be paid to the fact that the faces for toys are often made from salt dough. If several toys are supposed, then it is best to create blanks in advance.
The technology of making faces from dough is this: you need to take two parts of flour and one part of salt, dilute with water, add body-colored dye to give the blanks a natural color. After that, you can sculpt the face, but do not need to make it very dense.
It is important to make a notch in the back. You can make a face on your finger, so that it does not spread.
This is followed by the process of baking blanks, for this you can use the oven or an open frying pan. Baked billet for half an hour. On top of them you need to paint: paint the eyes, mouth, eyebrows, etc. Then the workpiece to cover the transparent varnish, you can use regular nail polish.
In advance, you also need to prepare cotton: paint it in different colors. Aniline dyes for fabric are used for this. How to make cotton colored? It is necessary to unwind the pieces of cotton, put them in the pan. Dilute the dye in the pan beforehand and bring the water to a boil. For several minutes, cotton wool should be left in water with a dye, then pressed and hung out to dry.
It is advisable to think in advance what colors will be needed, and prepare all the necessary shades.
A little imagination, skill and patience - and your unique Christmas-tree decoration will work out. Below is the instruction to create Santa Claus and Snow Maiden - the traditional symbols of the New Year, always relevant.
- We need to take a long piece of smooth wire and bend it in half - it turns out a loop for the head. After that, two more loops are created, which will form the basis of the shoulders.
- It is necessary to pass a short piece of wire into the loops forming the shoulders and clamp them using pliers. This is necessary to ensure that the design does not slip out and break.
- With the help of pliers need to bend the foot and twist the lower ends in such a way as to get a waist.
- After that, you need to take cotton wool, painted in gray, and begin to spin it in the area of the foot of the toy. These will be boots. It is necessary to periodically lower the fingers into the glue and continue to fasten, slightly pressing the cotton to the wire. Glue will give strength created toy. The same must be done with the second leg.
- The same technology is used to create mittens on the hands of toys.
- Now is the time to go to the body. Initially, you need to use paper and wrap the torso with strips of newspaper, you must moisten the strips with glue.
- Hands and feet are also initially taped on paper.
- Skeleton toys created. Now it's clothing. First, the sleeves of colored cotton are wrapped around the sleeves, not forgetting to wet the fingers in the glue.
- Further, white trousers are made of white wool, and a fur coat is formed in the same way.
- White flowers should be made of wool on a fur coat.
This is a very old type of Christmas-tree toys, which were made in an artisanal way in artels. Figures of people and animals were made on a wire frame, which was then wrapped with cotton wool. Persons wadded men cast in special forms or glued lithographic images. Separate items of clothing made of crepe paper.
Try to make simple cotton toys - vegetables, fruits and mushrooms without frame.
Christmas tree toys made of cotton: what could be easier?
Vata - simple stuff, which is easy to get, and you will not spend a lot of money on creating a toy. Vata is safe, although with long work it is very dusty, there are hairs that settle on everything around. This can cause sneezing. The easiest New Year cotton wool toy - snowman.
Toy made of cotton on the tree "Snowman"
- Roll a large and tight ball out of cotton.
- Use a brush to coat the gel with white glue. thin layer.
- In the middle stick a toothpick.
- Make a smaller ball and repeat step 2.
- Make one smaller ball and repeat point 2 and 3.
- Put on the toothpicks on top of the balls in descending order of size - it will be the body of the toy. Give glue time dry completely.
- If you want to make a brighter holiday option, you can mix in small glitter in the glue.
- Handles are made from small twigs of suitable shape or from black wire.
- To hide the joint, on neck you can tie a scarf. Use a piece of waste fabric or a wide satin ribbon. Or ignore this item.
- For the peephole fit dark beads, small beads. If they are not available, draw the eyes of a snowman with a black gel pen and a black felt-tip pen.
- We shape the spout in the same way as the body, only knead the orange watercolor paint into the glue. Do not regret the colors: spout-carrot should get bright.
- All related parts are attached to the PVA glue, a moment or a gun - this is optional.
Snowman made of cotton
Christmas wadded toy "Snow Maiden"
- Vatu slightly sprinkle with water and sculpt face. We form a tight oval and intuitively make small depressions under the eyes and mouth. Irregularities brush with a brush, dipped in water.
- Give time to dry. On the head we make a loop of wire, and also form a toy frame from it.
- Wrap it with cotton, lightly moistened with white glue. On glue we fix the prepared face.
- At the time of winding, try to form the arms and legs - for example, in the hip area, you make the layer of wool thicker.
- On the head we put a handkerchief out of cotton, forming the desired volume and shape. You can fix the details with a wet brush.
- We also form a fur coat and felt boots. We send to dry for a day. At first 10-15 minutes dry in the oventhen in a natural way.
- We paint a figure with watercolors.
- Beige tint strongly diluted with water and cover the face to get a natural color. When it dries, we carry out the same procedure with a blush. BUT small and clear details (eyes, mouth, nose, eyebrows) better draw with acrylic paint.
Figures of their wool. Christmas decorations
Santa Claus from cotton wool on the Christmas tree
We made a Snow Maiden in a master class, which is described above, but she is lonely hanging on a Christmas tree without her kind and beloved grandfather. So now we will do Cotton Santa Claus.
What you need:
The process of making toys:
- Wire Pliers bend the eyelet.
- We cut out the frame of the future toy from cardboard. If it is difficult to navigate the eye, you can make a sketch in advance.
- We tear the newspaper into pieces. One sheet - about 3-4 parts, well wrinkled and glued to the cardboard, making the volume.
- Glue the loop on the back side, for strength, you can wrap nylon thread.
- Vatu we divide into strips and we cover the toy well, it is possible in several layers so that the newspaper does not shine through.
- Dilute glue with water in the ratio 1: 2. Well we coat the toy, leave to dry.
- With the help of additional pieces of cotton moistened with glue, we form a hat, a sheepskin coat, felt boots and other details of the image, after which we send to dry.
- We paint with colors and draw a face.
Preparation - Santa Claus from cotton wool
Making Christmas toys made of cotton with a child
For needlework, you can start with small and simple wadded Christmas tree decorations with your child. It is worth noting that drawing small parts to small children is difficult, so we advise you to leave this matter behind you.
You will need:
- cotton wool
- thick wire
- watercolor and acrylic paints,
- PVA glue.
We make cotton several dense balls and soak in the glue. Take the wire and bend the loop so that there is a small tip. We also lubricate it with glue and stick it in the middle of a cotton ball. Dry for at least 12 hours, and to speed up the process, you can put next to the battery.
These are our blanks for future Christmas animals.
Small parts are formed the same way as a ball of cotton, but at the expense of its size, 6-7 hours dry. You can glue them on glue gun or moment.
Then paint the toys with watercolors, which water a little - so they better fall on the surface. You may need 2-3 layers, and it is more convenient to draw faces fine brush and acrylic paints.
Simple toys from cotton wool on the tree with their own hands are ready! In such a technique, children most often make the characters of the Smeshariki cartoon because of the almost complete absence of small details, but you can help them make slightly more complex toys.
We also recommend watch the video with a master class on Christmas tree toys made of cotton:
More ideas for wadded toys for Christmas tree
Above, we told several techniques in which toys are made of cotton wool. The main thing - show imagination, and you can make any shape, and we'll give you some more ideas.
- Bright star. A blank is cut out of cardboard and made according to the principle of Santa Claus. When painting, mix small bright spangles into the paint or sprinkle the already finished product, but you need to do it quickly, before the paint has had time to dry.
- While creating figures of people faces It is better to make from salt dough or cold porcelain - so the toy will turn out more natural and live.
- Cotton can be formed only frameand clothes - from improvised fabrics and unnecessary shreds.
- Pay understanding on cotton when buying - it should be old sample. Now began to produce sinteponovuyu, from which it is impossible to make toys.
- If you do not have a wire at hand to make a loop, they will fit thick wool or twine.
- In the techniques above, you can do any animals - squirrel, fox, deer, wolf, bunny, hedgehog, bear.
- To save cotton wool, for the framework, you can use wire, cardboard, newspaper, office paper, unnecessary pieces of cloth and other improvised means.
Before starting work, draw a sketch of the future toys. Think over all the details, and then its production will not cause problems, and you will not have to wrestle in the process
We hope, now you do not have a question about how to make a cotton toy on the Christmas tree, because this simple and exciting experience. The cost of 1 figure is several times cheaper than the store. The creative process is fascinating and interesting, helps children to develop fine motor skills of hands and fantasy. Toys made with love fill the house with warmth and comfort.
1. Waste paper (old notebooks, newspapers, magazines, napkins).
2. PVA glue. There are on sale jars with liquid contents. Such a composition will do. If the glue is very thick, then it must be diluted with water in proportions of one to two.
3. Roll of natural cotton wool.
4. Wire that bends well.
5. Brush for glue.
6. Round stick or knitting needle.
7. A set of sparkles for decoration.
9. Polyethylene film.
12. Simple and durable thread.
13. Gouache paints and a thin brush for them.
14. Acrylic varnish.
The basic principle
The manufacture of any toys made of cotton has its own common features. Why is this technology called papier-mâché? Because the principle of work is very similar to the creation of decorations from paper. Only instead of scraps or strips cotton is used, and instead of paste - white glue.
Work begins always with a picture. This must be done in order to have an idea about the contours of the future object, which parts and what shape will need to be made. Next comes a layer-by-layer winding of a cotton piece and the surface glueing it with glue. Gives time to freeze.
When the craft is dry, the winding of the cotton wool continues, then the next layer is again smeared with glue. So perform up until the object does not acquire the necessary outlines. It will be necessary only to paint the figure and after drying to varnish it.
If the conceived toys of cotton wool have a complex shape, details that need to be separated from the general figure, then a wire frame is used. For example, when making a monkey, you need to separately make a long tail and a leg that is bent at the knee.
In order for such parts to hold and not fall, it is necessary to create a skeleton from a wire. It bends in the right places, forming what is needed by bending. Когда каркас готов, то его нужно обмотать фольгой, чтобы спрятать угловатые и острые края поделки. Потом уже на фольгу накладывается первый слой ваты.
Если новогодние игрушки из ваты круглой формы достаточно объемные, то, чтобы не расходовать большое количество ваты, используют бросовую бумагу. You can take any notebook sheets or napkins, in extreme cases, you can use old newspapers. One sheet comes off, crumples well in the hand and a ball or egg shape forms for the body of an animal. Then all this is wrapped with foil. By squeezing it in the hand we form the necessary bends of the body. If you need to clearly distinguish between the head and the body, then use a simple cotton thread. It must be strong, so as not to break with a strong tightening. The thread is wrapped around the torso in the place where the neck will be located, and tightened until a dent is formed around the circumference. The thread can be tied in a knot and left on a toy made of cotton wool.
This technology allows you to perform three-dimensional figures, such as a snowman or a bear. Let's take a closer look at this production example
This Christmas tree toy made of cotton is voluminous, which means we will use the technology presented above. We take a sheet of notebook and crumple it in hand, forming the shape of an oval.
A layer of foil is placed on top and pressed tightly against the lump made. To separate the lower thick ball from the medium in size, you need to use a simple thread, transferring the foil between them. The second ball needs to be squeezed a little more so that it differs in size from the large one. The billet is ready. Then a layer of cotton wool is applied. The roll is wrapped around the workpiece and pressed down by hand. When the entire surface is covered, you need to take a brush and lubricate it with glue.
Then we postpone the figure for drying, and we ourselves begin work on the snowman's head. If it is small, then it is enough to twist a lump of cotton wool. If the figure will stand under the tree on the table, then it will be necessary to repeat the whole process again with the waste paper again. We have small snowmen in the photo, so it will be enough to use only cotton wool. The resulting lump should be put on plastic wrap and opened with white glue. After the parts are dry, work continues. One more layer of cotton is applied, and again it is coated with glue.
When the necessary figure came out, the parts are fastened together with a toothpick. They insert it into the body, and from above, first the top is smeared with glue, and then they put the head on it.
When the work is dry, you can begin to decorate toys made of cotton.
For a snowman, you can make a scarf and hat. To do this, you need to roll a waddle of cotton between your palms and, spreading glue around the neck, attach a scarf. You can arrange it in different ways. Vata is a very malleable material, and glue can fix it in the right position.
Making hats similar to modeling from plasticine. The ball rolls out of cotton, then it is flattened to form a bowl, put on the head, smeared with adhesive, and covered on top too. The pom-pom on the cap is represented by a small ball of cotton wool glued to the top of the snowman. After complete drying, the figure is painted with gouache paints. Then you can smear the whole snowman with gloss mixed with acrylic varnish. Then the toy will look shiny and will not smudge the child’s hands with paint.
Usually children make a snowman out of snow and put a broom on her hand. It is possible to make this attribute for decorating Christmas toys made of cotton with their own hands. Here a thick twig from a tree and a bunch of thin, cut from a bush. They must be the same length. A thick stick serves as a broom pole, and the beam is tied at the bottom with a thread. Then the broom is either glued to the outside of the arm, or you can make a separate snowman's hands and wrap a layer of cotton around the pole. It will look as if he is holding a broom in his hand.
Swans on the lake
Such beautiful toys made of cotton with your own hands can be made as crafts for an exhibition at school. To create a long curved neck, you will need a wire frame.
Consider step by step how to make a toy of wool:
1. First, take a cotton ball and rolls a small oval in size, the body of a swan. All this is wrapped in a piece of foil, and the body is formed.
2. The wire is twisted around this oval, and the neck and head with a sharp beak are made of several layers of it.
3. Next, cotton wool is wound on the wire and coated with a solution of PVA.
4. Leave everything to dry. When the surface of the swan is completely dry, the work continues.
5. Wrap the body and neck of the swan once again with cotton. Pressing and tamping it in some places, we form the necessary outlines. After spreading glue on cotton wool is carried out with a metal knitting needle, acting as a stack. The contours of the wings and beak. Wet cotton wool is a very malleable material and quickly takes the necessary contours. Then the work is again put on polyethylene for complete drying.
6. If it seems to you that the bird has not yet been completely made, then it is recommended to apply another layer of cotton wool. If the master likes everything, then after the glue has completely dried, we start decorating.
7. At first, they paint the beak and head with gouache. Then, in order to make toys made of cotton, made with their own hands, would shine brightly when illuminating the tree, you can cover the whole body of the bird with a layer of glue mixed with gold sparkles, highlighting the main curves.
8. The work is finished, you can make a pond of blue cloth and carry to the exhibition to school.
In order to make this fabulous hero of Russian forests, in addition to wool, glue and wire, you will also need crepe paper. With its help, we will make a skirt on a mushroom cap. First, from the newspaper we make a large twisted lump of oval shape. So that it does not fall apart, you need to tie it along the entire length with simple threads.
Further, with the help of the wire, the frame for the hat and arms is twisted, everything is attached to the base. The billet is ready. It is only necessary to wrap it with foil, smoothing down all the joints and sharp places. Only after this, work on the fungus continues with the use of cotton wool.
Overlaying alternately several layers of cotton with glue, dub bends and draw the features of grandfather's face with a needle or thin stick. The bottom of the cap is glued over with crepe paper, leaving the wavy hanging part of the skirt under the cap. Do not forget during the last layer of cotton to put a magic character cane into one of the hands.
In the end it remains only to paint in gouache and varnish the product. Everything, the toy is made of cotton with their own hands.
Such a bird made of cotton is a voluminous figure. Therefore, we need additional waste material to give the desired shape of the body. The necessary bends are performed using simple strong threads. Tightened in the neck and beak. The tail can also be formed from a newspaper, and then wound with wire, making two legs. When the base is made, it is necessary to begin the layer-wound cotton wool. First, the torso and head are created. After the glue dries, a layer is added around the wings. After the wings are missed, the needles should be drawn on the feathers on one and the other side of the body of the bullfinch. The legs are also wrapped with one layer of cotton, wrapping it tightly around the wire.
After the body has acquired the correct shape, you need to paint it with gouache and cover it with acrylic varnish. If such a Christmas toy made of cotton (it is easy to make it with your own hands) will be hung on the Christmas tree, then at the stage of creating the wire frame, you need to bring out one of its coils on top of the head. Then they tie a thread to this loop.
To make such a funny cat, of course, you have to make a wire frame. For a festive festive collar again, you will need crepe paper folded in half. The rest is made according to the already known scheme: layering of cotton wool and applying glue. The pants and jacket of the character have a larger volume than the body itself, so they are made into a separate layer, forming thin straps of overalls from cotton wool.
After complete drying, the character is painted in gouache and varnished with glitter.
From the detailed instructions it is clear how to make Christmas tree toys from cotton wool with your own hands. Making them is very simple, and there is almost no cash costs. All materials can be found in the house. The main thing is to want to try this kind of hand made, but it will turn out for sure. It will be very interesting for the child to make toys for his Christmas tree himself.
Carrots and radishes made of cotton
wand or wooden skewer,
a set of children's watercolor paints,
green coated floral wire,
decorative feathers green,
water based acrylic lacquer optional
1. Make cotton blanks for carrots and radishes: Break off a piece of wooden toothpick. Screw some cotton onto the blunt end of the debris, dip it in paste and glue it into the hole in the paper tube. This will help make a sharp nose in a carrot.
2. Dip the end of the spindle into the paste. Tear off a small piece of cotton wool. Turning the spindle counterclockwise, wind cotton wool on it.
3. Moisten fingers in paste and apply it on newly wound cotton.
4. Tear off the next piece of cotton and continue to wind. Pinch the wool completely a bit and at the same time do not forget to lubricate the workpiece from time to time with paste.
5. Gradually increase the volume of the workpiece, giving it a conical shape.
6. After the cotton has completely dried, start painting the vegetable blanks with children's watercolor paints. Prepare two jars of clean water. Dilute with water the desired color.
7. Prepare the carrot stain completely. To do this, quickly dip it in clean water and begin to paint - on a wet surface the paint will be distributed evenly.
8. Dip radish in the same way in clean water, and then apply the paint only on its upper part. In watercolor sets, there is usually a color ideal for radish.
9. Cut crepe paper into pieces approximately 8 x 4 cm in size. Using wooden skewers, twist the tubing from them, fix the edge of the paper with glue-pencil.
10. For one carrot or radish, make three such tubes. Bend a wire length of 10 cm in half, using a pencil or stick, to get a smooth and beautiful fold.
7. Twist the two ends of the wire together to form a loop.
8. Between the ends of the wire, insert a bundle of prepared crepe paper tubes, press firmly with your hands and tighten the free ends of the wire.
9. Glue the loop with the tops into the hole that is in the top of the vegetable. If it is too wide, wind some cotton wool over the wire. Cut the tops to the desired length.
TIP The radish tops can be made from decorative feathers of green color, which are sold in stores of goods for creativity. For coloring vegetables with such tops more suitable watercolor with the effect of mother of pearl.
TIP By the same principle as the radish, you can make garden strawberries. In order to depict the seeds on the surface of the berries, grease the cotton piece with glue of PVA and sprinkle with semolina. After the glue has completely dried, paint the strawberries with watercolors. Then cover the toy with a layer of water-based lacquer. Cut the sepals out of crepe paper or sheet felt and glue to the finished berry.
Flat cardboard is one of the oldest Christmas tree decorations that came to us from pre-revolutionary times. We will try to make a figure of a fish, which will be almost an exact copy of a toy of the 1960s.
embossing tool (can be replaced with an unwriting pen),
PVA glue in a small bottle with a long spout
a piece of thin plastic from the folder corner,
fine knitting threads
acrylic paint of gold or silver color, as well as any other colors of your choice,
flat or round brush
2. In order to make a stencil for embossing from a piece of plastic, stick a strip of masking tape on it. Draw a line on the adhesive tape for orientation and make a series of holes in the plastic using a hole punch.
3. Place the fish on the stencil inside out, take the embossing tool and gently push through the first few rows of scales.
4. Push only that part of the circle that looks towards the tail. Move a little stencil and push the next row of scales.
5. Repeat steps 3–4 with the second part of the fish.
6. Use the non-writing pen to push parallel lines on the fins and tail from the front. Glue the two fins over the scales.
7. Glue both parts of the fish, laying inside the thread for suspension.
8. Cover the fish with several layers of silver or gold acrylic paint.
9. When the paint completely covers the cardboard, proceed to tinting: on a dry layer of silver or gold paint with a pad of your finger, apply quite a bit of colored paint and blend it.
TIP It is also possible to immediately mix a little silver or gold paint with a drop of colored paint and a finger pad to put on the toy.
TIP The fish scales can be made in an alternative way, cutting out of circles from watercolor paper using a punch set and attaching them to the main piece of the fish, cut from very thick cardboard, using PVA glue.
TIP According to the previously described technology, you can make any cardboard, such as chicken. To do this, first cut the main part out of thick cardboard, then glue the wing parts, tail feathers, legs and beards on both sides. The individual elements of the picture push the pen without ink. Cover the chicken with a layer of silver acrylic paint, adding to it a little paint of any shades according to your desire.
In Veronika Podgornaya's book “Everything for the Christmas Tree” you will find more than twenty master classes devoted to how to make toys in the old style on their own.