Vulvitis - symptoms, causes and treatment in women
Vulvitis in women is a disease in which the inflammatory process affects the external genitalia. The disease causes discomfort and can lead to the appearance of complications, among which we can highlight the appearance of ulcers, as well as the spread of the pathological process on the vagina and cervix.
According to the reasons that contributed to the development of pathology, vulvitis can be:
- Primary - the reason for this type of pathology is incorrect intimate hygiene, malfunction of the endocrine system, burns and injuries in the inguinal region, cystitis, allergic reactions, less often this form of vulvitis can be formed against the background of antibiotics and hormonal preparations for quite a long time,
- Secondary - external manifestation of violations of the internal genital organs, vaginitis, herpes and other pathologies - all these are provocateurs of the occurrence of this form of the disease.
One of the main causes of vulvitis, especially in women under 45 years old, is the weakening of the body's defenses. Reduced immunity may be due to a systemic bacterial or viral disease, prolonged use of certain drugs (glucocorticoids, cytostatics), deficiency in the diet of essential vitamins. The risk of inflammation of the external genital organs increases with alcohol abuse, taking drugs.
Other causes of vulvitis are:
- diaper rash due to the nature of the constitution of a woman (for example, the formation of skin folds on the external genitalia with excess weight),
- injuries, scratches, scratching,
- dermatological diseases (psoriasis, eczema),
- allergic reaction to gaskets and personal care products, latex,
- wearing close synthetic underwear,
- non-compliance with the rules of intimate hygiene,
- untimely replacement of tampons and gaskets during menstruation.
The risk of developing inflammation increases with the presence of concomitant diseases of the genital and endocrine systems (colpitis, vaginitis, diabetes mellitus). The occurrence of chronic or acute vulvitis contributes to the violation of the vaginal microflora. A similar situation can occur on the background of pregnancy, long-term antibiotic treatment, intake of improperly selected oral contraceptives, gynecological diseases, accompanied by a decrease in estrogen production. Depending on the cause of the onset of symptoms of vulvitis in women in gynecology, the following forms of the disease are distinguished:
- Atopic vulvitis occurs in response to a specific reaction to an allergen on the external genitalia.
- Atrophic vulvitis mainly occurs in old age or in diabetes due to disruption of the mucous membrane structure.
- Candida vulvitis is a consequence of the pathological reproduction of fungi of the genus Candida.
Also distinguish the bacterial form of inflammation that occurs under the influence of pathogenic microflora. It can also be caused by internal infections of the excretory system (cystitis, urethritis), fistulae between the bladder and the vagina.
Symptoms of vulvitis in women
The disease can manifest itself in two forms - acute and chronic. In women, the symptoms of vulvitis (see photo) of the acute type are:
- Burning and itching, soreness in the groin, especially when moving, touching and urinating,
- Severe swelling and hyperemia of the labia and clitoris, the appearance of erosions and ulcers. This also affects the inguinal folds and the inner thighs,
- Enlarged inguinal lymph nodes
- Increased body temperature (in some cases)
- Blood and serous-purulent discharges (with E. coli - watery consistency of yellow-green color with an unpleasant odor, with staphylococcus - thick consistency, yellow color, with Candida - cheesy type).
If the disease is not cured in time, then it becomes chronic. The symptoms of vulvitis in this case are characterized by moderate swelling of the mucous membranes, redness and soreness of certain areas of the vulva, burning and itching, slight discharge.
Complications can be manifested by the deformation of the genitalia, as well as the fusion of the labia, which disrupts normal sex life in adulthood and reproductive function in principle.
The examination for suspected vulvitis includes the following:
- collection of complaints. The patient is asked what is bothering him, how long the symptoms have appeared, what the person associates with their appearance, etc.,
- analysis of gynecological smear for flora. The study helps to identify the inflammatory process, as well as the presence of bacteria - the immediate cause of the pathological process,
- bacteriological gynecological smear,
- urinalysis reveals the presence of cystitis, which can be, as the cause of vulvitis, and its complication.
Treatment of vulvitis in women
For a comprehensive and adequate approach to the treatment of vulvitis in a woman, it is customary to apply two main areas:
- Pathogenetic effects directly on the site of infection, that is, on the inflammatory process in the active phase.
- Treatment (both etiotropic and symptomatic) of a primary or concomitant disease that directly or indirectly contributes to the onset and progression of vulvitis. This may be diabetes, and inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs, such as adnexitis, cystitis.
How to treat vulvitis by eliminating a concomitant disease there is no sense in considering the fact that each disease has its own aspects of therapy and patterns of prevention. But on the ethio-pathogenetic effect on the inflammatory focus, we will stop in more detail.
- First of all, the patient needs bed rest, naturally, complete sexual rest, as well as enhanced hygiene measures of the external genital organs. It is recommended to do either douching, or take sedentary trays with various herbs that have soothing and anti-inflammatory effects (chamomile, St. John's wort, plantain).
- Also well-proven bath with antibacterial solutions: chlorhexidine, furatsilin and others. Medications for vulvitis are also widely represented by local antiseptics, such as "Miramistin", potassium permanganate, and boric acid. However, you must also be careful with them, because you should not forget that these drugs can have an irritating effect, which can aggravate the disease.
In case of severe itching and burning, ointments for women with vulvitis containing anti-inflammatory, analgesic components and antihistamines are actively used. For example, hydrocortisone ointment, "Inflorax", "Suprastin", "Tavegil" and so on. These medicines can effectively relieve itching for quite a long time.
- In the case when the patient is diagnosed with an allergic vulvitis, she is prescribed a diet that provides for the exclusion of sweet, spicy and salty foods, as well as being treated with antihistamine drugs.
- In the diagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis, which provoked the development of vulvitis, a woman is prescribed local treatment with hydrocortisone ointment, and, if necessary, systemic hormonal anti-inflammatory therapy.
- Purulent hydradenitis also requires topical treatment. To do this, use steroid homones and antibiotics. Note: for a long course of the disease without positive dynamics, surgical excision of the affected skin in the vulvar area is indicated.
- With the atrophic nature of vulvitis, general or local estrogen replacement therapy is recommended.
It is imperative to treat the pathology associated with vulvitis, as well as to take drugs that strengthen the immune system (vitamins and immunostimulants).
Ointment for vulvitis
Consider effective ointments prescribed for the treatment of vulvitis:
- Nystatin ointment. It is used in the candida form of vulvitis. The active ingredient of the ointment contributes to the destruction of the protective shell of the pathogen and their subsequent death.
- Instillagel Used in the treatment of women and girls. Affects the tool on many groups of pathogens, including fungi. Instillagel quickly eliminates itching, burning and pain due to the presence in the composition of lidocaine.
- Radevit. This ointment promotes tissue healing. It contains vitamins that reduce inflammation and eliminate irritation. The natural composition makes it possible to use in girls of early age.
- Tetracycline ointment. It consists of a broad-spectrum antibacterial component. Helps to stop the growth and reproduction of pathogenic microflora.
- Levomekol. This is a combined agent with regenerating and anti-inflammatory properties. The composition of levomekol includes methyluracil and chloramphenicol.
- Actovegin. Ointment nourishes the tissues with oxygen, and also improves blood flow and metabolism. You can use the tool almost from birth.
Ointment is an easy-to-use dosage form that quickly eliminates the symptoms of vulvitis. Local remedies rarely cause side effects, and if this happens, they are local and pass quickly.
The ointment is applied gently on previously washed dry genitals. Act means begins after a few minutes. Not recommended for long-term use of ointment. If there is no effect, you should consult your doctor to adjust the treatment.
Prevention of vulvitis is the most common, well-known recommendations. However, if you follow these measures, you can avoid such an unpleasant in all respects disease as vulvitis.
Personal Care Rules:
- use special gels for intimate hygiene, which support acid-base balance, do not possess irritating and allergic effects, often contain herbal ingredients with anti-inflammatory action,
- antibacterial agents cannot be used, since the balance of conditionally pathogenic and beneficial flora in the body can be upset,
- abandon narrow synthetic underwear, wear loose underwear.
In addition, it is worth:
- strengthen the immune system, take a course of multivitamins, treat chronic diseases.
- fight obesity, treat diabetes.
- lead a lively lifestyle, give up bad habits.
The main thing is not to be afraid of the gynecologist and to visit for preventive purposes twice a year.
According to the mechanism of occurrence:
- Primary - penetration of infection through the mucous membrane. Most often manifested during pregnancy, hormonal disorders, immunodeficiency. In the reproductive age - a rare phenomenon, mainly girls and women are exposed after menopause.
- Secondary - develops on the background of inflammatory diseases of internal genital organs or related diseases. It occurs in women of reproductive age.
By the nature of the flow:
- Chronic - develops as a result of an untreated or undertreated acute form, lasts for years, passing through the stages of remission and exacerbation. During a lull, there are no manifestations or they are minimal.
- Acute vulvitis. The duration of the disease - a week. Symptoms are pronounced, occur suddenly.
- Atrophic vulvitis - most often formed in women during menopause. It is promoted by excess weight and diabetes.
Depending on the type of pathogen, it is customary to distinguish between bacterial and candidal vulvitis, and depending on the nature of the pathological transformations of the mucous membrane of the external genitalia, vulvitis is divided into atrophic, ulcerative and adhesive.
How to treat vulvitis in women?
If the symptoms of vulvitis occur, treatment is to eliminate the cause of it and / or treat associated diseases (diabetes, helminthiasis, diphtheria, gonorrhea, etc.). In the acute stage, bed rest and abstinence are recommended. Treatment of vulvitis in women or girls is carried out strictly individually.
The main aspects of therapy:
- Washing the vulva and vagina with antiseptic solutions (Chlorhexidine, Miramistin®, etc.), infusions of herbs (chamomile, sage, calendula, etc.). Douching is best done 1 time a day, at night, not forgetting to wash with a solution of large and small labia.
- Antibacterial drugs in the form of vaginal suppositories, for example, Terzhinan, Neo-Penotran, Makmiror and others. Usually they are administered after washing, overnight, for 7-10 days.
- For severe itching, antihistamines are used (Tavegil®, Claritin®, and others).
- With pain and burning use anesthetic ointment additionally.
Effective treatment of vulvitis, regardless of its form, is possible only with the appointment of complex therapy, which includes activities of local and systemic action. Necessarily the treatment of concomitant diseases and the elimination of factors that provoke inflammation of the external genital organs.
The prevention of vulvitis includes the following principles:
- timely consult a gynecologist if you find signs of genital diseases,
- observe personal hygiene,
- strengthen the immune system and adhere to a healthy diet,
- should be eaten fermented milk products containing live cultures,
- avoid casual sex
- stop using synthetic underwear
- take antibiotics according to your prescription.
Proper hygiene of girls - a pledge of their future women's health. Vulvitis, which was not treated as a child, can provoke serious gynecological problems in the future, the most important of which is infertility.
2. Symptoms of the disease
Itching, burning and tingling in the area of the vestibule of the vagina are the main signs of vulvitis in women. The mucosa swells and reddens, with a certain discomfort. The severity of the inflammatory process may be different. In severe cases, hyperemia and edema extend to the groin area, the perineum.
On the mucous membrane of the vulva appears plaque, which has a white color or various shades of yellow, greenish color. Women with vulvitis are usually concerned about discharge. Their nature depends on the type of pathogen.
Often there are discomfort or pain during intercourse. Disturbed dysuria (frequent, painful urination, often accompanied by urgent urges). General malaise, weakness are rare symptoms.
Acute vulvitis is manifested by a more pronounced inflammatory reaction, significant edema, and redness of the labia. Plaque may be pussy, cheesy. In chronic course, signs of inflammation are usually less pronounced, they disappear during remission.
Symptoms of atrophic vulvitis are somewhat different. The disease often occurs in women during menopause and is associated with a natural estrogen deficiency. Against the background of hormonal changes, the mucosa of the vulva becomes thinner and easily injured. A woman has a feeling of dryness, tightness and itching.
Candidiasis (thrush) often occurs as a vulvovaginitis: inflammation is rarely limited to the mucous membrane of the vulva, the infection is found and higher in the vagina.
Thrush discharges have a characteristic cheesy texture, white color and a weak sour smell. Itching, discomfort, and burning can be quite severe. Candida vulvitis is often exacerbated during pregnancy.
3. Diagnostic methods
Anamnesis is of great importance for the diagnosis of vulvitis. It should be noted factors that increase the risk of developing the disease. This helps to establish the exact cause of inflammation and to choose the right treatment.
Psoriasis, diabetes mellitus, leukemia, scleroderma, or regular intake of glucocorticoids are provocateurs, so a complete cure is impossible with insufficient control of the underlying disease.
It is also important to assess such risk factors as unprotected sexual intercourse, the presence of several sexual partners, the use of aggressive chemical agents.
On examination, you can identify:
- 1 Hyperemic and edematous mucous membrane of the vulva.
- 2 Serous or purulent attacks.
- 3 Discharges from the genital tract of different nature, color and consistency.
- 4 Traces of scratches on the vulva, ulcers and erosion.
- 5 In case of atrophic vulvitis, a thinned mucous membrane with bleeding areas.
- 6 The inguinal lymph nodes may be enlarged.
- 7 For women during a pelvic exam, inserting mirrors can be very painful.
Laboratory diagnosis includes the following activities:
- 1 Smear from the surface of the vulva.
- 2 Smear on flora and GN. At the same time, a degree of purity of 3-4 is determined; in the material under study, a large number of leukocytes, mainly coccal flora. In candidiasis, fungal cells and pseudomycelium are determined. When trichomonas vulvitis in a smear found Trichomonas.
- 3 Additionally, a bacteriological examination can be carried out (the household name is bacposev). The method allows to establish the type of microorganism and its sensitivity to antibiotics.
- 4 If you suspect an STI, PCR is recommended for major sexually transmitted infections (PCR-12).
In older women it is necessary to differentiate atrophic vulvitis from infectious-inflammatory. Обследование может быть дополнено кольпоскопией и взятием мазка на цитологическое исследование.
During the inspection note the smoothness and thinness of the mucous membrane of the vulva and vagina. When colposcopy, these signs are confirmed, there are similar atrophic changes in the vagina, there is uneven staining according to Schiller. Cytological examination in a smear determined the cells of the basal and parabasal layer.
What applies to the vulva
The structure of the external genital organs is such that they protect the entrance to the vagina and the opening of the urethra from probable infection. What is included in the concept of the vulva?
- Big labia. These are two skin folds, which outside cover the vulva and protect it from external influences. The skin on them may be more pigmented, especially this difference during pregnancy. The surface of the labia is covered with hair.
- Small labia. Two soft skin folds that form the eve of the vagina. At the junction in front of them is the clitoris. In form, due to general ontogenesis, it resembles a male penis. Below the clitoris, but above the vestibule of the vagina is the opening of the urethra.
- The hymen. In girls and girls, as well as some women who have not had sexual relations, a thin skin fold covers the entrance to the vagina. After the first contact, it breaks, but finally breaks only at the moment of delivery.
- Crotch The area between the posterior commissure of the labia and the anus. Its structure provides support to the pelvic organs.
The inner surface of the labia majora, as well as the rest of the vulva, is lined with epithelium, which is different from the skin. It has a gentle structure, requires constant hydration. The Bartolini glands, which are located inside the entrance of the vagina, provide the necessary state of the vulva.
Causes of illness
Vulvitis in women can occur as a primary or secondary inflammation of the labia minora.
- Primary vulvitis. It develops as a reaction to some stimuli in the place of their impact. More typical for children.
- Secondary vulvitis. Is a consequence of the spread of infection from the overlying departments of the reproductive system - from the cervix, uterus, appendages. It can also be caused by diseases of other organs that are not directly related to the reproductive system. This form is characteristic of women of reproductive and older age.
The course of the disease can be in two forms.
- Spicy Symptoms appear on the background of complete well-being. The treatment completely eliminates the signs of the disease.
- Chronic. Pathology manifests itself periodically, often provocateurs are menstruation, stress, errors in lifestyle or nutrition. Chronic inflammation gradually leads to a change in the epithelial membrane: there are areas of atrophy, lichenisation.
Chronic vulvitis is characteristic of children and women during menopause. In the reproductive age, acute forms of the disease are more common. What is the danger of chronic vulvitis? For older women, this is an area of permanent discomfort. They are worried about the feeling of dryness and burning. In girls, chronic inflammation may result in the formation of synechiae - pathological adhesions. At the initial stage, they are adjusted by local preparations, but in a state of neglect they require surgical disengagement.
Regardless of the primary or secondary form of the disease, the following conditions are necessary to begin with.
- Personal hygiene . Failure to follow basic rules can lead to the development of inflammation. Every woman has a small amount of whiter. They flow freely from the vagina. But further hygiene procedures are needed for cleansing. If a woman neglects a shower or bidet, then the discharge becomes a breeding ground for germs. The same applies to menstrual blood and timely replacement pads. Also, do not forget about the daily change of linen.
- Chemicals Redness of the mucous membranes may develop as a reaction to the used hygiene products. Frequent use of soap, washing with antibacterial agents, as well as cosmetics containing perfumes and dyes can result in an inflammatory reaction or an allergy.
- Injuries. Mechanical microdamages may occur from wearing tight linen and clothing, prolonged use of gaskets, during sexual intercourse.
- Combing Small scratches caused by mechanical irritation. Itching of the vulva can be observed with helminthiasis in girls, neurosis in women.
- Vaginal discharge. Abnormal vaginal discharge can cause pronounced maceration of the vulva. It may be whiter due to inflammation of the uterus, cervix or appendages. Irritation causes constantly leaking urine as a result of incontinence.
- Reduced immunity. The oppression of local or general protective forces leads to the appearance of foci of inflammation. This may be the result of the use of antibiotics and cytostatics, radiation therapy or long-term illness.
- Hormonal adjustment. Pregnancy, puberty, time before the next menstruation, menopause are periods when the hormonal background undergoes significant changes. Vulva refers to hormone-sensitive areas. Therefore, any fluctuations in their concentration can affect her condition. Hormonal effects can be traced in ovarian hypofunction, diabetes, obesity.
Inflammation of the vulva may be of a specific and non-specific nature. The causative agents of specific inflammation are gonococci, tubercle bacillus. Conditionally pathogenic flora belongs to nonspecific pathogens.
What will the diagnosis
For adequate treatment, you must come to the doctor. Difficult diagnosis is not required here. The gynecologist will hold a conversation to find out what preceded the appearance of unpleasant symptoms.
The next step will be an inspection on a chair and a smear from pathological areas. Microscopy is enough to determine the microbial composition of the source of infection. Bacterial seeding can be performed to identify a specific pathogen.
It is also necessary to find out the presence of concomitant diseases of the genital organs, endocrine pathologies that can cause vulvitis. General blood and urine tests will tell you about the state of health.
How to treat
Treatment of vulvitis should be related to its etiology. If you do not eliminate the causative factor, then all actions will be in vain. Women with this pathology do not need hospitalization. The gynecologist at the reception gives advice on how to cure vulvitis at home.
- Hygiene Be sure to follow basic rules of hygiene. Rinse at the time of treatment without soap, especially if it was the cause of the disease. Daily need to change clothes. Gaskets for daily use is better not to use, and during critical days to change them every three hours, at least.
- Antibiotics. When specific causes of the disease are prescribed antibacterial agents against a specific pathogen. Candles "Hexicon", "Povidone-iodine", capsules "Polygynax" can also be used. They can affect many non-specific pathogens.
- Elimination of itching. Discomfort can be eliminated during proper treatment with antibiotics. But sometimes they do not pass. Then, with inflammation, itching and pain, antihistamines can be sent to fight. They are used internally in the form of tablets "Suprastin", "Cetirizine", "Fenkarol". Hydrocortisone in the form of ointment and tablets has antihistamine properties. But hormonal ointment cannot be applied to the zones of bacterial inflammation; it will further reduce local immunity and increase inflammation. When atrophic format of vulvitis during menopause ointment with estrogen is prescribed.
- Baths. Sit-baths and washing with antiseptic solutions will help eliminate local reactions. In this case, folk remedies will be effective in the form of chamomile decoction, a solution of potassium permanganate. Allowed to use aloe juice. Baths are well carried out before applying creams or the introduction of candles.
Douching in the treatment of vulvitis can not be called the method of choice. This is a procedure that, with frequent use, can lead to leaching of the normal microflora of the vagina and the development of dysbiosis. Then it can take a lot of time and money to restore the normal balance of microflora.
The treatment regimen of vulvitis during pregnancy involves the use of mainly local means. Antibiotics inside appoint only from the second trimester according to strict indications.
How not to get sick
Prevention of vulvitis is unpretentious. This pathology is more associated with personal hygiene and is not sexually transmitted. Therefore, you should think about your own approaches to cleanliness:
- change linen
- do not use aggressive soap,
- treat genital diseases,
- eliminate endocrine pathologies,
- monitor nutrition,
- observe the day regimen
- choose the right underwear and clothing.
The list of such simple recommendations can be expanded. But the main thing here is common sense. Even sex requires clean hands and hygiene. You need to think about your health, the consequences of vulvitis in women are unpleasant. If inflammation is triggered, it can spread higher and turn into vulvovaginitis. And this is a completely different story.
There are not only the reasons for the development of this pathological process, but also factors that are provocateurs of the onset of vulvitis.
- Wearing uncomfortable, tight underwearmade of synthetic fabric.
- Increased body weight. It leads to increased sweating and the appearance of leather diaper rash in intimate places.
- Non-compliance with the rules of personal cleanliness of the body and intimate hygiene.
- Being in adverse conditions with high humidity.
- In old agemay develop against the background of hormonal estrogen deficiency.
- In the period of pregnancy, high levels of hormones, usually provoke this disease.
Vulvitis acute form
In acute form, the following symptoms are noted:
- Painful sensations that cause discomfort when emptying the bladder, or sexual intimacy.
- Discharges from the vagina appear. Their character depends on the pathogen, they are serous or purulent - serous.
- The feeling of itchiness does not leave the woman throughout the day, and increases at night.
- Puffiness and reddening of the external genital organs, which is sometimes accompanied by the appearance of ulcers, and small bubbles.
- Sometimes there may be a sharp hyperthermia, and an increase in regional lymph nodes.
- Symptoms of dysuria.
- Because of the constant feelings of discomfort, pain, itching, scratching, sleep disturbance occurs. The patient may look excitable, emotionally unstable.
In the chronic form of this pathological process, the symptoms are not bright, and often the woman does not contact the antenatal clinic. Recognize the disease, and to establish an accurate diagnosis, help annual physical examinations.
Chronic vulvitis is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- Slight burning sensation and itching in the genital area.
- The excretions are scanty.
- Slight reddening of the large genital lips.
Forms and types of the disease
This pathology is characterized by the presence of three forms of vulvitis:
- Spicy The main feature, the presence of a bright clinical picture, lasts no more than one month. After that, the clinical manifestations subside.
- Subacute. It has a cyclical process, aggravation, is replaced by a period of remission. Due to the fact that the clinical symptoms pass by themselves, the patient does not seek help. Continues for 3 months.
- Chronic. Sluggish form of vulvitis.
According to the etiology, vulvitis can be:
- Infectious.Caused by microbial lesions. It can be called:
- Conditionally pathogenic microflora (Escherichia coli, staphylococcus, streptococcus).
- Specific infections (gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, ureaplasmosis).
- Candida vaginitis is caused by Candida fungi.
- Noninfectious. Occurs as a result of injury, the development of allergies (allergic vaginitis), burns.
Also vulvitis can be:
- Primarywhen the disease occurs with the arrival of a microbial infection from the outside.
- Secondary, running, is a consequence of an infection that already exists in the body.
This pathological process is classified according to the type of disease at different ages:
- The emergence of vulvitis in the first years of life (up to 1 year).
- Children's age (up to 8 years).
- Adolescent vulvitis (before the onset of the first menstruation).
- Vulvitis puberty after menstruation.
Consequences of vulvitis in women
Vulvitis in women, in whatever form it develops, does not lead to death.
But if it is not recognized in time, and the therapy is not undertaken, various complications can arise:
- Due to the fact that it is accompanied with severe itching, scratches appear. They eventually become infected, and lead to the development of erosions, and ulcerative lesions of the genitals.
- The disease becomes chronic., so that it is much more difficult to cure.
- Infection spreads in ascending order., and affects the bladder and other organs (developing cystitis or cervicitis).
- Promotes adhesions, the place of localization of the labia (especially in children).
- Another dangerous consequences for girls can be inflammation of the hymen. It becomes dense, and its hole can completely overgrow. When the first menstrual period appears, this can lead to accumulation of blood in the vagina.
- This can also cause a number of inconveniences at the first sexual contact.
- In chronic forms of a long-term infection process can lead to the development of infertility..
- The development of this pathology is very dangerous during the course of pregnancy. Since it causes a violation of the elasticity of tissues, and during the onset of labor, with the appearance of attempts, undesirable consequences may occur, leading to rupture of the muscles of the perineum.
- Also, when the fetus passes through the birth canal, an eye infection occurs in the newborn.which develops in the form of blepharoconjunctivitis.
- If the disease is caused by opportunistic bacteria, the child may develop dysbacteriosis.
- Due to this disease in the postpartum period increases the riskendometritis development.
Treatment of primary and secondary vulvitis in women
With the development of secondary vulvitis, there are some features in the treatment of this disease.
To achieve complete healing from this disease, it is possible only if the pathological process that underlies this disease is eliminated.
If, for example, the cause is venereal diseases, then their symptom is vulvitis. It will disappear only if the main infection is cured.
Primary vulvitis may appear more often in childhood and adolescence compared to other diseases or mechanical injuries.Methods are used for its treatment, as in the treatment of acute vulvitis.
Treatment of vulvitis with the help of folk remedies
In the treatment of this pathology in recent times often resort to the use of recipes of folk healing. Their use does not give a guaranteed cure effect for vulvitis. But with proper use of medicinal herbs help to quickly recover from this disease.
When using medicinal herbs and fruits of medicinal plants, it is necessary to consult a doctor in order to coordinate their use with antibacterial and antimycotic drugs. This is a necessity to do, because many medicinal herbs, if used improperly, can produce the opposite effect and aggravate the course of the disease.
Medicinal herbs can be used:
- In the form of infusions and decoctions inside.
- Locally as baths.
- For lotions and compresses.
- As solutions for rehabilitation.
- To enhance immunity at home, you can prepare a decoction based on the pink radioli and medicinal ram. To prepare this broth, you need to take one part of these ingredients, mix them, and put them in a thermos. Pour a glass of boiling water and let it brew. Content is divided into three doses and drunk after breakfast, lunch and dinner. Used throughout the drug therapy.
- As an additional means of medicinal treatment, you can use mother and stepmother, sweet clover and wintergreenthey are mixed in equal portions, poured half a liter of boiling water, insist. And drink 70 ml 3 times a day.
- During the period of vulvitis, women experience significant discomfort due to severe itching in the region of the labia and perineum. To reduce this unpleasant feeling it is necessary to take in equal parts chamomile, nettle, grass of the highlander bird. The ingredients are thoroughly mixed, filled with boiling water in a volume of 300 ml, and infused in a thermos for several hours. The drug is ready to use, used for 2 weeks.
- To reduce the effect of genital itching, you can use the sit trays with the addition of potassium permanganate. Для этого необходимо использовать небольшой таз, бросить в него пару кристаллов перманганата калия (вода должна иметь бледно-розовый цвет). Take this bath is possible for 30 minutes, daily, in the evening, throughout the week.
- Very good effect is observed when using calendula flowers.. To do this, take 20 grams of marigolds, they are placed in a liter of boiling water. Cool, filter, use for douching. The procedure can be repeated twice a day, throughout the duration of the drug treatment.
- In the event that vulvitis occurs with an ulcer lesion of the genitals, you can use tampons with sage. Before this, mix 20 grams of herbs with a glass of water, and steam for 15 minutes in a water bath. After filtering and cooling it can be wetted with cotton-gauze tampons and injected deep into the vagina. Perform the procedure preferably at night through the day.
- You can also use liquid honey to make tampons. (if not allergic), sea buckthorn oil.
- To eliminate the symptoms of inflammation, you can use a decoction of nettle. For its preparation uses steep boiling water in the amount of 200 ml, a couple of spoons of well-ground nettle leaves are thrown into it and steamed in a water bath for 10 or 15 minutes. Filter and cool. You can take one tablespoon before each meal.
- Symptoms of itching disappear after applying a decoction of onion peel. To do this, you must use 2 medium onions, they are peeled, which is washed under running water, and then boiled for 15 minutes in 500 milliliters of water. The resulting solution is used for washing the external genitalia.
What is candidal vulvitis
Infectious disease, which is accompanied by a spontaneous lesion of the mucous membranes of the vulva and vagina, in modern gynecology is called vulvitis candidal or thrush on the labia. A characteristic illness can develop at any age, young children are also at risk. If the disturbance of microflora progresses, the pathological process is complicated by other harmful bacteria and secondary infections. Effective treatment of vulvitis begins with a search for the causative agent of the disease, elimination of pathogenic factors.
Inflammation of the external genital organs begins with visible redness and swelling of the vagina, there is acute discomfort during urination, palpable soreness after each trip to the toilet. It is difficult for the patient to put up with such recurring pains, so an unscheduled visit to the gynecologist should not be delayed. With the advent of an itch it is required to be alert, other characteristic signs of vulvitis candidal (photos of foci of pathology available in the network) are presented below:
- intimate area swelling,
- pain during sexual intercourse,
- problem with urination (manifested by burning, pain),
- the appearance of cheesy discharge,
- pathologically reduced libido,
- the roughness of the inner surface of the labia,
- ulcerative lesions and erosion of the mucous.
The etiology of the pathological process is increased activity of yeast-like fungi, which fall on the mucous membrane, rapidly multiply, disrupting the vaginal microflora. This is how the primary vulvitis develops as an independent pathology. The clinical picture with secondary vulvitis is somewhat different, since relapse is an unpleasant complication of the underlying (chronic) disease. Pathogenic factors of fungal lesions of the external genital organs are presented below:
- prolonged hypothermia
- premenstrual syndrome,
- menopause, menopause,
- antibiotic therapy
- weakened immunity
- violation of the rules of intimate hygiene,
- hormonal imbalance,
- mechanical, chemical injury of the mucous,
- stress, emotional shock,
- the presence of chronic infections
- fistulas from the intestines or urinary tract.
Forms of pathology
Exacerbation of thrush is associated with excessive activity of the pathogenic fungus, which begins when favorable conditions for the pathogenic flora appear. Depending on the course of the pathological process, vulvitis is candidal in women:
- Acute forms. Vulvitis is accompanied by swelling, acute pain when going to the toilet, ulcers, redness of the external genitalia, and cheesy discharge.
- Chronic form. Symptoms of vulvitis are mild, moderate itching prevails, body temperature slightly increases. The attacks of pain are systematic, especially under the influence of pathogenic factors.
How to treat candidal vulvitis
Effective treatment with the participation of medicines includes the following therapeutic measures: eliminate the pathogenic factor, conduct symptomatic therapy to get rid of unpleasant symptoms, restore the vaginal microflora. It is important to determine clinically what precedes acute inflammation and eliminate contact with pathogenic factors. Other valuable recommendations are presented below:
- Local treatment can remove the visible symptoms of vulvitis candidal, and with the help of tablets for oral intake to destroy the pathogenic flora from the inside, thereby speeding up the healing process.
- It is recommended that lesions be treated several times a day with local antiseptics, but first make sure that there is no allergic reaction to the chosen drug.
- Multivitamin and multivitamin complexes, natural antioxidants, immunostimulants should be present in the intensive care scheme as an auxiliary element of conservative treatment.
Ointments and creams
For external use with vulvitis candidal doctors recommend the use of ointments, gels, creams and solutions that relieve inflammation, remove itching and burning. This is an effective way to eliminate the vaginal fungus, reduce its activity and prevent further occurrence with repeated relapses. Here are effective medications for vulvitis:
- Macmiror complex. It is an antifungal cream that is supposed to be used externally. The list of contraindications, side effects is minimal. When applied externally, a woman should be given 2–3 g of cream once a day for 8 days.
- Pimafucin This is another antifungal cream that is supposed to lubricate the inflamed labia in the morning and evening. For topical use, it is better not to find a remedy for vulvitis candida, but Pimafucin is not cheap.
Why does the disease develop
The pathology usually affects the external organs, but the process is rarely an independent phenomenon — vulvovaginitis that affects the initial vaginal regions is much more often diagnosed. Not only adults have to worry about the disease, as the acute vulvitis and its chronic form can be diagnosed in children against the background of an imperfect immune system and anatomical structure. The problem may lie in the numerous vaginal folds and the thin mucous layer that is subject to damage.
The causes of vulvitis are quite diverse, but there are also major ones that should be considered first of all:
- Problems with personal hygiene, especially during menstruation.
- Incorrectly chosen means to maintain intimate hygiene in women.
- Wearing close linen made of synthetic fabrics.
- The use of flavored pads, the use of tampons from low-quality materials.
- Frequent causes of vulvitis are mechanical microtraumas of the mucous layer during rough or excessively active sexual contact, injuries can be caused by improper underwear.
- Vulvitis may develop due to excessive sweating.
- Symptoms of vulvitis in women can be triggered by prolonged irritation caused by discharge of the mucous layer of the vulva.
- The reason for the formation of genital diseases can be a prolonged use of hormonal drugs, antimicrobial drugs used to treat any other pathology.
- The reason for the formation of the disease include radiation therapy.
- Any disease can be a contributing factor - diabetes, the presence of hypovitaminosis, overweight, leukemia and impaired ovarian function.
- Allergic reactions.
- The presence of helminths.
- The appearance in the intestine or urinary tract fistula.
For women, the presence of these causes becomes dangerous when an infection joins them. An imbalance of microflora leads to inflammation when opportunistic microorganisms begin to be activated under the influence of certain factors. Most often, inflammation is caused by staphylococci and streptococci, Candida fungi and E. coli, other microorganisms.
Pathogenic microflora - gonococci, trichomonas or chlamydia, and other pathogens may also be to blame for the formation of female inflammations.
Proven fact. The development of the female pathology in question is observed with impaired integrity of the mucous layers and deterioration of the immune system.
Diagnostic measures and principles of therapy
Competent treatment should be based on a confirmed diagnosis. Accordingly, when suspicious signs appear, the woman needs to see a gynecologist, who, in addition to a visual inspection, will prescribe certain tests. The doctor collects anamnesis, checks for other gynecological diseases that can cause the development of the inflammatory process. Inspection using a magnifying glass allows you to assess the condition of the organs and find the inflamed areas and bubbles filled with fluid.
Modern gynecology in the case of the formation of the disease in question involves carrying out not only vaginal, but also rectal or bi-manual research. Such diagnostics in the diagnosis is characterized by the selection of a smear for cytology to determine malignant cells. If necessary, vulvoscopy may be prescribed. The analysis of feces allows you to identify helminths in the body.
Treatment of vulvitis in women primarily involves the elimination of the pathogen that provoked the development of the disease. This is followed by the treatment of the inflammatory process, for which special preparations are selected. It will be necessary to remove every chronic background disease that provokes the formation of the problem in question. In a word, only complex therapy is able to completely cure this female disease. There are a number of recommendations on how to treat vulvitis with the greatest therapeutic effect:
- Pathology, accompanied by acute inflammation and other pronounced symptoms, requires adherence to bed rest. Additionally, during treatment it is necessary to abandon sexual intercourse.
- For the treatment of vulvitis, antimicrobial medication is mandatory. They are prescribed in accordance with the female results of bacteriological seeding.
- With the appearance of severe itching, burning or soreness, anesthetics and painkillers are used, physiotherapy methods are used - UV or electrophoresis.
- If an allergic form of the disease occurs, it is treated with antihistamines. Also therapeutic measures suggest the appointment of a diet with the abolition of spicy dishes, smoked and pickled foods, sweets and desserts.
- In order to strengthen the immune system take immunostimulants and vitamin complexes.
- In parallel, it is necessary to treat diseases that contribute to the formation of vulvovaginitis.
- Topical treatment for inflammation involves ointments for vulvitis, creams, compresses and cold lotions, baths and the treatment of foci with antiseptic preparations.
Important. Do not refuse and treatment of vulvitis at home using recipes of traditional medicine. In this case, it is necessary to discuss each such remedy with your doctor.
The use of medicinal and folk remedies
Now in more detail about how the appearance of vulvitis to treat the disease at home with the use of ointments, creams, antimicrobial agents and painkillers. Of the antibiotics, Ceftriaxone, Metronidazole, Ornidazole or antimicrobial agents with a wide range of effects are most often prescribed. Favorable patient reviews also mention Trihopol and Terzhinan.
In addition to tablets, antimicrobial agents in demand are drugs in the form of suppositories; MacMiror, Hexicon or Terzhinan are among the most popular. Suppositories are recommended to be inserted into the vagina before a night rest, the duration of use is from 7 to 10 days.
It is possible to cure vulvitis with antiseptic solutions and ointments, many feedback from victims indicates their effectiveness. Such drugs help relieve puffiness, eliminate discomfort and itching. Apply Miramistin, Hexicon, Betadine, Chlorhexedine and other means. In the case of an allergic form of the disease, Loratadine, Suprastin or Tavegil is a popular preparation for relieving itching. To improve the immunity using Viferon, Cycloferon and Genferon.
Separate consideration for the treatment of vulvitis deserve ointments, creams and gels. Many patients cured the disease, using only ointment and other local means, while maintaining bed rest. The main advantage of this therapy is a local effect directly on the infectious focus. At the same time, local medicine does not affect other organs, does not cause dysbiosis and other complications. The preparation used may be anesthetic, antifungal, antiseptic, the choice of remedy depends on the etiology of the disease. Universal and the most popular is the ointment from vulvitis Betadine, the active ingredient in it - Povidone-iodine. The drug has a positive effect on viral, bacterial and fungal infections and is effective in the case of non-specific inflammation.
Another popular ointment with which the disease is treated is Hexicon. The drug affects numerous microorganisms, excluding fungi, viruses and bacteria that are resistant to acidic environments. Gels and creams with anti-mycotic properties include Pimafucin, Ifenek, Candide and Lomeksin. Zovirax is used against viral pathogens, and among the antimicrobial gels Dalacin and Clindamycin are most in demand.
Now about how to cure pathology, using folk recipes. Home treatment is most often based on the intake of sedentary baths, washing the external organs with plant decoction, douching. Consider how to treat pathology:
- Chamomile baths are effective - two large spoons of crushed chamomile color are added to one liter of boiled liquid, the medium is brought to a boil, infused for 30 minutes and filtered before use.
- St. John’s wort is used as a washing liquid — two large spoons of the plant are steamed in half a liter of boiling water, covered with a lid and boiled over low heat for another five minutes, then cooled and filtered.
- For douching, mix half a large spoonful of chopped oak bark with the same amount of chamomile color, add one and a half tablespoons of nettle and two large spoons of bird mountaineer. The mixture is steamed in one liter of boiled water, infused and filtered, used twice a day, diluting two large spoons of the product in a liter of preheated water.
The best way to do without treatment is to prevent the development of the disease. To this end, it is recommended to revise the means of intimate hygiene, strengthen the immune system, get rid of excess weight and do not necessarily ignore the preventive visit to the gynecological clinic.