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Avitaminosis: symptoms, treatment, prevention, causes

Vitamin deficiency - a disease resulting from prolonged malnutrition, in which there are no vitamins. Avitaminosis are pathological conditions in which there is a complete absence of one or another vitamin in the body. In this condition, the symptoms will be pronounced. But again, they will differ, depending on which vitamin is missing. This pathological condition is most common with prolonged fasting.

Essential vitamins for the human body

  • Hair - A, B2, B6, F, H.
  • Eyes - A and B.
  • Teeth - E and D.
  • Nails - A, D and C.
  • Vitamins A, B, B12, E and F have a beneficial effect on the skin and on the whole body.

The main reasons for the development of beriberi

The disease is typical for the winter-spring period, when a source of many vitamins, vegetables and fruits are not as accessible and saturated with vitamins as in summer and autumn. However, in summer it is not so easy to get the required amount of vitamins from fruits only. To fill the daily need for vitamins and microelements, it is necessary to eat at least 1.5-2 kg of fruits, berries and vegetables.

Of course, other factors of a general negative effect on the body also play their role: unbalanced nutrition, eating poor-quality products, smoking, environmental conditions that are far from ideal. These processes, both external and internal, interfere not only with the intake of vitamins from food, but in most cases violate the possibility of absorption of vitamins from the digestive system into the blood. Thus, the body, having the necessary amount of vitamins in food, cannot “take” them. In this case, vitamin deficiency develops as a result of dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. This is possible in children with malabsorption syndrome, when the process of digestion and absorption of various nutrients in food is greatly disturbed, and the absorption of vitamins is also affected. Another cause of vitamin deficiency may be intestinal dysbiosis. Often dysbacteriosis is a consequence of long-term antibiotic treatment.

The ingestion of “antivitamins” is another reason. Antivitamins are substances that have the opposite effect to vitamins. More precisely, antivitamins make it impossible for the function of vitamins and lead to the development of vitamin deficiency even with a normal content of vitamins in the body. One example of the toxic action of antivitamins is vitamin K antagonists (syncumar, dicumarol) poisoning in the treatment of increased blood clotting. At the same time the hemorrhagic syndrome characteristic of classical vitamin K deficiency develops.

But the main reason for the appearance of this disease is the lack of physical ability to obtain all the required vitamins with food.

Signs of beriberi

We are always afraid of vitamin deficiency. How to determine on our own whether we really lack them. As experts say, rarely when the body lacks only one specific vitamin. As a rule, we need a group of these nutrients. If a person refuses animal products, there is usually not enough vitamin A, D, E and biotin. If there are not enough plant products in the diet, then there is a deficiency of vitamins C and group B.

So, what signs will give avitaminosis:

Lack of vitamins makes the skin dry and flaky. And sometimes you can even see the appearance of coarse flaky scales of the epidermis. Be alert if your lips are constantly cracked or peeling off, suddenly there is acne, as well as cracks and sores in the corners of the mouth. The appearance of inflamed areas of skin, large bruises or an unusual reaction to jewelry or clothing - all this may be a sign of a lack of vitamins.

With a lack of vitamins, nails become dull, brittle, and even their care products, such as oils or special products, do not save the situation. The lack of vitamins is also indicated by the paleness of the nail plate, the appearance of dimples, stripes or spots on it.

The main symptom of a lack of vitamins on the part of the hair is their fragility and tendency to hair loss. But the sudden appearance of dandruff, gray hair, sores and pimples on the scalp or its constant itching should also alert.

  1. Blush and watery eyes

Reduced vision, especially at dusk, is the most serious sign of vitamin deficiency. In addition, hypovitaminosis can cause redness and swelling of the eyelids, persistent itching and discharge from the eyes, and frequent inflammatory diseases. Often the consequence of a lack of vitamins becomes intolerance to bright light, glare, double vision and even a developing cataract.

Increased bleeding of the gums, sores on the cheeks and tongue, loose teeth with sensitive enamel and a tendency to crumble, as well as swollen, patchy or discolored language are also obvious signs of a lack of vitamins.

  1. The face swells, the joints swell

The appearance of edema on the face and hands that are not related to marinades or yesterday’s alcohol intake should be wary. Sudden swelling of the joints, numbness, muscle pain, cramps, and poor coordination of movement may also be symptoms of a lack of vitamins.

  1. Smell changes

In addition, muscle weakness, a burning sensation under the skin and in the joints, as well as a constant feeling of cold and even increased or changed body odor indicate a vitamin deficiency.

  1. Apathy, poor concentration

Our nervous system also reacts to the lack of vitamins. Inability to concentrate, insomnia, depression, apathy, irritability, lack of energy, constant irritability - all this may be signs of a lack of vitamins.

Constipation, diarrhea, change in taste, weight gain, increased cholesterol in the blood, nausea and intestinal absorption of nutrients are symptoms of vitamin deficiency. And even loss of appetite, smell and taste.

In many cases, reducing sexual desire is not to blame for fatigue, and unbalanced diet.

Types of avitaminosis

  • Vitamin A vitamin deficiency. This vitamin plays an important role in the normal functioning of the organ of vision, therefore its deficiency will cause disturbances in the work of the visual analyzer. There will be "night blindness" (deterioration of twilight vision), dryness of the mucous membrane of the eye (feeling of sand, burning, discomfort), due to the constant scratching which may even form sores. This vitamin is important for the skin. If it is not enough, the skin becomes dry, with small boils and inflammations, it can peel off. If a lack of vitamin A is observed in a child, then its development will be slowed down, and disturbances in the nervous system may occur. Also with this type of avitaminosis, immunity will decrease, which is fraught with increased incidence.
  • Vitamin deficiency associated with a lack of vitamins B-group will manifest insomnia, sudden mood swings. There will be disorders of the digestive system in the form of constipation or diarrhea, anorexia. Oral mucosa in this pathology is inflamed. There will be "zadyy".
  • Vitamin C deficiency. It will manifest as increased fatigue, decreased performance, drowsiness, reduced resistance to various infections. The elasticity of the skin will also decrease. A small blow will produce significant bruises and bruises. Eyesight deteriorates. An extreme form of vitamin C deficiency can be called the development of Tsing's disease, the main symptom of which is bleeding gums and tooth loss.
  • A lack of vitamin D will most quickly cause a disorder in the musculoskeletal system. If we talk about children, then they will experience the development of rickets, fatigue, sweating, the formation of the skeleton and teeth will be disturbed. In adults, due to the lack of this vitamin, brittle bones, pain in the musculoskeletal system, tooth decay will be observed. It is important to remember that the lack of this vitamin can cause the development of diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and even cancer.
  • With a lack of vitamin E in the body, the genital organs are disturbed, and there are changes in the liver - the fatty degeneration of its cells begins.
  • With a lack of vitamin PP, the digestive system suffers in the first place. Immediately there will be aversion to food, dry mouth, vomiting, and impaired stool will be observed. In addition, significant violations will be observed in the stomach. So, this organ will stop secreting gastric juice. The general condition will deteriorate significantly. In addition, violations will be visible on the skin. The skin will become rough to the touch, there will be areas of depigmentation.

Avitaminosis treatment

Since the main cause of avitaminosis remains unbalanced nutrition, the main measure of its treatment is the correction of its diet. Proper nutrition, by the way, will be a measure of prevention of this condition. So, for a start it should be said that the basis of the diet should be as simple as possible products, culinary processing which will be minimal. It should be eaten whole grain cereals, as well as bread made from wholemeal flour. Of course, do not forget that there should be as much as possible a variety of fruits and vegetables. And, of course, you cannot exclude meat products from your diet. You can also use synthetic vitamins to correct the condition, but it is still better to give preference to food. Treatment is possible only in the form of replenishing vitamin deficiencies with food intake or in the form of vitamin preparations. But since the latter are not very effective, it may be optimal to use folk remedies to combat vitamin deficiencies. It is also important to lead a healthy lifestyle, if possible to live in a favorable ecological environment and in time to cure diseases that may impair the possibility of absorption of vitamins in the body.

Folk recipes for the treatment of beriberi

  • Hemlock speckled (leaves and seeds) - 2 parts, mustard seed powder - 1 part, 90% alcohol - 4 parts. Mix all the ingredients. Insist in the dark for 7 days. Tincture take 2 drops no more than 5 times a day.
  • Gentian yellow (roots) - 1h. spoon, mustard seed powder - 1h. spoon, centaury (grass) - 1h. spoon, yarrow (grass) - 1h. spoon. Mix the mixture with 3 cups of water, boil for 7–10 minutes and strain. Drink the dose evenly throughout the day.
  • Hypericum (grass) - 3 tbsp. spoons, mustard seed powder - 1 tsp, white yarnok (flowers) - 2 tbsp. spoons, blackberries (leaves) - 2 tbsp. spoons. Grind the mixture and steam for 3 hours in 1 liter of boiling water. Drink hot during the day in equal portions.
  • Kippra (leaves) - 1 part, nettle (leaves) - 1 part, mustard seed powder - 1 part, buckwheat (flowers) - 1 part. 3 tbsp. spoons of collection, pour 2 cups boiling water, leave for 3 hours and strain. Drink 3-4 meals a day during the day, 20 minutes before meals. The course of treatment is 6–8 weeks.
  • Nettle (leaves) - 1 part, yarrow (flowers) - 1 part, mustard seed powder - 1 part, dandelion (root) - 1 part. 1 tbsp. spoon pour 1.5 cups of boiling water over, insist 3 hours and strain. Drink in 3-4 doses during the day, 20 minutes before meals. The course of treatment is 8 weeks.

Treatment of beriberi will not be difficult if its appearance is caused only by malnutrition. You just need to adjust your diet: eat as much as possible whole-grain cereals (the best option is oatmeal and buckwheat), try to serve foods that are minimally culinary. When eating bakery products, preference should be given to those made from coarse flour. Oil is better to use unrefined. Fresh vegetables and fruits in the diet should be required.

In this case, in no case can not refuse from animal products. The required daily amount of vitamin A is contained in the yolks of chicken eggs, beef liver, fish oil. An excellent source of essential vitamins is fermented milk products (kefir, yogurt, fermented baked milk), which also contain a lot of calcium.

If we are talking about the treatment and prevention of vitamin C deficiency, then more should be consumed products, which include vitamin C contains: citrus fruits, apples, red and black currants, sauerkraut. In fact, with the goal of maximizing the micronutrients necessary for health, each person is fully capable of organizing proper nutrition.

Vitamins and complexes

Our ancestors were much more active lifestyle and worked hard, spending energy and strength. If you start eating like this, then the problem with vitamin deficiency will most likely be solved by earning a new one - overweight. That is why it makes sense to use vitamin complexes produced in various dosage forms. If you take such complexes in therapeutic doses, they do not accumulate in the body and do not give side effects. No need to fear the use of synthetic vitamins. They also do not cause side effects and allergic reactions.

Modern multivitamins are harmoniously balanced, chemically pure compounds that do not have the disadvantages that are present in preparations of plant and animal origin. It is only important not to forget that most of the vitamins are absorbed only with food intake, that it is not possible to drink coffee, soda water and milk with vitamins in order to avoid insufficient absorption. Today there is a great variety of options for such vitamins: pills, tablets, powders, capsules, liquid form. The most convenient form is a capsule, which, as it moves through the intestine, loses layer after layer, with the result that vitamins are easily absorbed. Take the capsule without chewing, entirely. The best time to take multivitamin complexes is the morning. The use of vitamins should not exceed the daily need for them! Overdose threatens to adversely affect the general condition and lead to new diseases.

How to pick up vitamins?

Selection of vitamins with vitamin deficiency selects nutritionist, depending on the clinical manifestations of vitamin deficiency. At this stage, the smaller the person will be amateur, the more positive the forecast will be.

Doctors recommend taking vitamins in the form of capsules, because they are made in such a way that as they move through the organs of digestion at each stage, the vitamins are gradually absorbed by the body, providing its entire path with the necessary dose of nutrients.

How to take vitamins?

The most suitable time for taking vitamins is the morning when the body adjusts to daily activity. Most vitamins are absorbed only with food. But do not drink vitamins milk, soda and coffee - these drinks can interfere with their normal absorption. Vitamins in the form of capsules must be taken whole, without chewing.

Consequences of beriberi

  • Avitaminosis A (retinol). It can lead to inhibition in the development and growth of the child, as well as cause vision problems, night blindness.
  • Avitaminosis B1 (thiamine). Thiamine deficiency can trigger the development of a disease like Beriberi.
  • Vitamin deficiency B2 (riboflavin). A deficiency of riboflavin can trigger the development of such diseases as cataract, conjunctivitis, growth retardation in children, and mental retardation.
  • Avitaminosis B3 (PP, niacin). Niacin deficiency can trigger the development of a disease like - pellagra.
  • Avitaminosis B5 (pantothenic acid). It is a common cause of spontaneous abortion of children in the early stages.
  • Avitaminosis B9 (folic acid). Manifested in the form of impaired reproductive function in men, as well as anemia.
  • Avitaminosis B12 (cobalamin). Contributes to mental retardation - poor memory, absent-mindedness, dementia.
  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid). A lack of ascorbic acid for a long time can lead to the development of such a disease as scurvy.
  • Avitaminosis D (calciferol). Calciferol deficiency for a long time can lead to the development of such a disease as - rickets.
  • Avitaminosis E (tocopherol). Tocopherol deficiency can lead to muscular dystrophy, anemia, and anemia.
  • Avitaminosis F (linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acid). In children under 1 year of age is reflected in the lag in growth and development. The tendency to cardiovascular diseases - atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke increases.
  • Avitaminosis K.Manifested in the form of severe bleeding from the nose, gums, subcutaneous, in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract.

Symptoms of child avitaminosis

Often, children suffer from beriberi. That is why caring parents must know about how vitamin deficiency manifests itself in children. So, the first sign of a shortage may be a decrease in the activity of the baby, deterioration of appetite and a decrease in immunity. If avitaminosis lasts long enough, then it is quite possible for the baby to lag behind in development and growth from its peers.

Also, with a deficiency of vitamin D and calcium, a child can develop a disease called rickets. This pathology occurs in infants and infants. Such a disease can lead to serious problems with the musculoskeletal system in the future. Therefore, parents should ask the qualified pediatrician about what to do with vitamin deficiency and how to prevent it. Indeed, in this case, only prevention will prevent the occurrence of serious problems.

So, vitamin deficiency manifests itself in different ways, affecting a particular area of ​​the human body. To determine what kind of substance is missing, only a therapist can. Occasionally, a special analysis for the content of vitamins in the blood is carried out according to its purpose. In any case, careful attention to your own health will allow, if not to prevent vitamin deficiency, then at least to cure it in time.

Causes of beriberi and predisposing factors

  • Vitamin deficiency during pregnancy or lactation.
  • Psychic overstrain or a state of chronic stress.
  • Improper diet and fasting.

Improper absorption of vitamins occurs with helminthiasis (infection with worms), failure of internal metabolism, as well as with severe infections and stomach cancer.

Symptoms of avitaminosis

  • excessive sleepiness,
  • frequent dizziness,
  • there is a decrease in performance and the appearance of lethargy,
  • irritation,
  • low mood, down to depressive state,
  • the condition of the skin, nails and hair, teeth and gums worsens,
  • immunity decreases, the body becomes susceptible to infections.

Insulin resistance - what is it, symptoms, causes, treatment, diet

Today we will talk on alter-zdrav.ru about insulin resistance (IR).

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  • via massage (for the most part, point, which allows you to help yourself on your own),
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  • hirudotherapy (treatment with leeches),
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Psychological tests and stress management techniques (healthy human psyche) help to survive in the world of speed. Lack of time should not affect your health. The techniques proposed here take very little time, but require regular implementation.

Muscle weakness in avitaminosis E

Muscle weakness is a characteristic symptom for tocopherol deficiency. Impaired muscle tone leads to a decrease in efficiency, passivity, and increased fatigue. Weakness can manifest itself both in the whole body and in its individual parts. Lower and upper extremities are most often affected. In addition to loss of muscle tone, with a deficiency of vitamin E, patients often complain of numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, loss of sensitivity, weakening of grasping and other reflexes.

In older people, vitamin E deficiency is often manifested by severe pain in the calf muscles that occurs when walking. In an effort to reduce pain, the patient with vitamin E deficiency changes their gait, leading to lameness.

Avitaminosis of thiamine or beriberi

This form of beriberi mainly occurs with insufficient intake of vitamin with food. It is found in people who eat exclusively white rice. In modern society, beriberi is rare.
There are several forms of this pathology, which differ in the body systems involved in the pathological process.

Clinical forms of beriberi are:

  • dry form
  • cerebral form,
  • wet form.
Dry beriberi
This form is also called peripheral polyneuropathy, as it is characterized by a lesion of the nerve endings of the lower extremities. The term polyneuropathy refers to a pathological process in the nerve endings, which is accompanied by a loss of function of the area that is innervated by the nerve.

Beriberi is characterized by multiple, but, at the same time, symmetrical lesion of peripheral nerves.

Complaints of patients with polyneuropathy are:

  • burning sensation in the feet,
  • paresthesias (sensitivity disorders) in the lower limbs,
  • convulsions (involuntary contractions with severe pain) in the calf muscles,
  • weakness and fatigue when walking.
The gait of the patient with polyneuropathy also draws attention to himself - the patient steps on the outer edge of the foot and the heel, since the emphasis on the fingers is very painful. When examined by a doctor, the calf muscles look tight and painful to the touch. In the later stages, muscular atrophy develops, in which the tendon reflexes and muscle strength are completely lost. All kinds of sensitivity disappear simultaneously. The final stage of beriberi is characterized by the development of paralysis (complete lack of movement in the limbs). The dry form of beriberi can occur both in isolation and in parallel with other forms.

Cerebral form
The cerebral form of beriberi is also called hemorrhagic polyencephalitis or Korsakov-Wernicke syndrome. This pathology is also a manifestation of severe vitamin B1 deficiency. Initially, symptoms such as memory disorder and disorientation of orientation in space appear. Then join the symptoms associated with cerebrovascular insufficiency and which are symptoms of encephalopathy.

Symptoms of encephalopathy with beriberi include:

  • ophthalmoplegia - paralysis of the muscles of the eye, in which the eyeball becomes immobile (because oculomotor nerves are affected),
  • ataxia - violation of gait and coordination of movements,
  • confusion - Patients are disoriented in time and space, and sometimes in their own personalities.
The above symptoms are explained by a violation of energy metabolism and the accumulation of toxic glutamate. The activity of those enzymes in which vitamin B1 plays the role of a coenzyme is critically reduced (we are talking about such enzymes as pyruvate dehydrogenase and transketolase). Also, in the absence of vitamin B1 in brain tissue, glucose consumption by nerve cells is reduced. Since glucose is the main source of energy in brain tissue, energy deficiency develops. Amid this deficiency and reduced enzyme activity, glutamate accumulates. It has a neurotoxic effect, that is, it violates the structure and function of the nervous system. Similarly, it has a damaging effect on the cranial nerves, which is manifested by such symptoms as nystagmus, ophthalmoplegia. In the absence of emergency measures to provide medical care, coma develops and death is possible.

Wet shape
With this form of beriberi, the cardiovascular system is affected. It is characterized by the development of cardio dystrophy (damage to the heart muscle) and a violation of vascular tone. The wet form of avitaminosis B1 is manifested in two variants - hypodynamic and hyperdynamic. In the hypodynamic variant, a low cardiac output is noted, therefore its main manifestations are low arterial pressure. In the hyperdynamic variant, cardiac output, on the contrary, is elevated. Therefore, the main manifestations of this form are high blood pressure and tachycardia (frequent heartbeat). It is also characterized by the rapid development of heart failure, in which there are edema, difficulty breathing and pulmonary edema.

Beriberi symptoms in children

In children, thiamine avitaminosis is extremely rare. As a rule, it is observed in infants from about 2 to 4 months who were born from mothers suffering from severe beriberi. This pathology manifests itself with very diverse symptoms.

Symptoms of beriberi in children are:

  • signs of heart failure - bluish color of the skin, wheezing in the lungs, low cardiac output,
  • signs of damage to the nervous system - anxiety, sleep disturbance, lack of tendon reflexes,
  • aphonia - a condition in which the sonority of the child’s voice is disturbed,
  • prolonged absence of stool (constipation) and other disorders of the gastrointestinal system,
  • visual impairment.

Manifestations of Vitamin B B2 on the skin

Skin manifestations in vitamin B2 deficiency are the earliest among all the signs of vitamin deficiency. The skin becomes dry and flaky, cracks appear on it. Manifestations of vitamin B2 beriberi are seborrheic dermatitis and angular cheilitis.

Symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis are:

  • redness of the skin,
  • peeling and dry skin,
  • accumulation in the sebum hair follicles,
  • sometimes formation of whitish or yellow scales.
Symptoms of dermatitis can appear anywhere, but the favorite places are the wings of the nose and auricles.
Angular cheilitis is called a lesion of the skin and simultaneously of the mucous membrane in the area of ​​the corners of the mouth. Initially, there is a slight maceration (softening) in the corners, which is further complicated by the appearance of cracks. In the people, these inflamed cracks are called jade. Further, when joining the infection, the buns may become inflamed and bleed.

A lack of vitamin B2 can also manifest itself by various rashes, which most often have the appearance of red scaly spots. Sometimes the periungual bed may inflame. However, most often the nails themselves become brittle. Hair also loses shine, splits and falls out.

Eye symptoms with vitamin deficiency B2

Eye symptoms of riboflavin deficiency manifested in photophobia, burning sensation and pain in the eyes. All these symptoms are associated with the development of blepharitis, keratitis and conjunctivitis. When blepharitis inflamed edges of the eyelids, with keratitis - the cornea of ​​the eye is affected. In severe cases of beriberi, there may also be a cataract, in which the lens becomes cloudy and the patient loses sight. Conjunctivitis is a frequent manifestation of ocular symptoms. In this manifestation, the mucous eyes are always red and swollen, and the patient is tormented by photophobia, burning sensation and the feeling of sand (or other foreign body) in the eyes.

In the later stages, when severe vitamin B2 deficiency develops, symptoms of the nervous system and anemic syndrome are added. Dysfunction of the nervous system is manifested in impaired coordination of movements (ataxia), impaired sensitivity (paresthesias), and elevated tendon reflexes. Anemic syndrome is characterized by a reduced number of red blood cells and hemoglobin. In anemia, there is also increased fatigue associated with oxygen deficiency, frequent heartbeat, and excessive sleepiness.

Types of vitamin deficiency

  1. If there are signs of the absence of only one type of vitamin, then monovitaminosis is observed,
  2. If there are not enough different categories of vitamin-like substances, then in this case, a person has multivitaminosis.

Very often spring avitaminosis occurs, which is characterized by small deviations in the activity of the internal organs and it is possible to get rid of the existing disease by saturating the body with the required vitamins.

The main source of vitamins and trace elements is plant food, and a greater amount of it comes in summer and autumn.

During this period, the body makes all the required reserves, which is enough for several months.

At the end of winter in vegetables and fruits, the amount of nutrients is significantly reduced, which is why it leads to hypovitaminosis.

This is especially acute for those who have liver problems.

It is possible to identify the main causes of the disease, in particular, such as:

  • unhealthy diet
  • untimely introduction of complementary foods to the baby,
  • fasting and strict diets
  • improper handling and storage of products.

In addition to food causes of violations, there are also such as:

  • extreme living conditions
  • stressful conditions and emotional turmoil,
  • unfavorable ecological situation
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract,
  • excessive exercise.

All these reasons can provoke serious violations, which is why it is necessary to promptly recognize the pathological condition and eliminate it.

What is manifested - the main symptoms and signs

Vitamin deficiency is a fairly common occurrence throughout the world, and it is important to know what are the main signs of the pathology that arises so that you can eliminate them in a timely manner.

You can highlight such symptoms as:

  • chronic fatigue,
  • irritation,
  • fast fatiguability,
  • insomnia,
  • rash on face
  • hair loss,
  • deterioration of nails,
  • immunity deterioration
  • growth retardation and development in children.

When there is a deficiency of a certain vitamin substance, the appearance of signs that are more and more intensified as its concentration in the body decreases.

The lack of a certain vitamin substance in the body in children and in adults provokes the appearance of characteristic signs.

Consider some types of avitominoza:

  • Vitamin A (Retinol)

With insufficient intake of retinol and carotene, the following symptoms are observed:

  • blurred vision
  • frequent occurrence of respiratory diseases,
  • impaired growth and development of the child.

This type of beriberi is quite rare, but in case of late detection of the disease, the consequences can be very serious.

Ultimately, this condition can lead to complete blindness.

  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Ascorbic acid is found in fresh vegetables and fruits. A feature of this vitamin substance is that it is not able to accumulate in the body, which is why it needs to be consumed daily.

The main manifestations of ascorbic acid deficiency can be:

  • frequent infectious diseases
  • bleeding gums and tooth loss,
  • pain in the legs
  • skin rash and excessive dryness
  • constant irritability.

Lack of ascorbic acid is especially observed in the spring, when there are not enough fresh vegetables and fruits, therefore, it is desirable to additionally use vitamin complexes.

  • Vitamin E (tocopherol)

Lack of tocopherol or vitamin E provokes very severe pathologies and this is especially characteristic of young children, and this is manifested in the form of:

  • growth and developmental delays,
  • anemia,
  • dermatosis
  • strong weakness
  • muscle dystrophy.

In adults, the deficiency manifests itself in the form of sexual dysfunction, and aging processes are accelerated.

При возникновении всех этих признаков, нужно обратиться к доктору для проведения диагностики и последующего лечения.

Как лечить и восполнить недостаток витаминов в организме?

There are many ways to combat vitamin deficiency, each of which has its own specific characteristics.

Basically, treatment of avitaminosis is carried out with the help of high-quality balanced nutrition:

  • Dairy products must be present in the daily ration, which not only provide for a whole day a portion of the required nutrients, but are also used to prevent constipation that hinder the normal absorption of nutrients.
  • Many people do not like cereal porridge, however, they contain a minimum of harmful substances, but at the same time, they are rich in vitamins and various trace elements.
  • Fresh squeezed juices are considered to be the best and most effective method of combating avitaminosis. Also, be sure to consume vegetables, berries, fruits.
  • Eat honey, nuts, drink rosehip juice and cranberries.
  • In addition, in the daily ration in sufficient quantities must be present greens and grain seedlings, as they help not only to combat vitamin deficiency, but also help to maintain energy balance.
  • However, for the complete treatment of beriberi, an integrated approach and more serious techniques will be required. Be sure to additionally need to take vitamin complexes in capsules or tablets.

Large selection of natural high-quality vitamin complexes, see here.

Avitaminosis prevention

To avoid a vitamin deficiency in the spring, be sure to know how to prevent avitaminosis.

The best prevention is to maintain a healthy lifestyle, which means providing a balanced diet for the body.

The daily diet must contain the full range of nutrients required.

Multivitamin intake is also shown, especially during periods of extreme cold, with severe mental and physical work and adaptation to new climatic conditions.

Timely treatment and competent prevention of vitamin deficiency will help to improve well-being and prevent serious problems with internal organs.

Manifestations of avitaminosis B3 (vitamin PP)

There are several synonyms for vitamin B3, the most popular of which are niacin, nicotinic acid, vitamin PP. This vitamin is involved in many vital reactions of the body. However, the main role is the generation of energy and the normalization of the cardiovascular system (heart and blood circulation). Since in order to get energy, niacin breaks down fats, it also has an anti-cholesterol effect.

The symptoms of vitamin B3 avitaminosis are:

  • depression,
  • dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract,
  • elevated cholesterol.

Symptoms of pellagra or avitaminosis PP

This pathology is characterized by the classic triad of symptoms, which includes dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia (in the people - dementia).

Dermatitis is the inflammation of the skin, namely, its upper layer - the epidermis. Dermatitis with pellagra is characterized by rough and hardened skin. This is the main manifestation of pellagra, because from Italian this term means “rough skin”. The skin at the same time inflamed, bright red and constantly flaky. These manifestations are especially noticeable on the face, neck, shoulders, that is, on those parts of the body that are exposed to ultraviolet rays.

Diarrhea is called intestinal upset, in which stool is observed more than 3 times a day. In this case, the stool is liquid, unformed, with an admixture of undigested food particles. With diarrhea associated symptoms of beriberi such as loss of appetite and impaired digestion.

Dementia (dementia) is an extreme degree of damage to the nervous system during pellagra. At first, symptoms such as weakness, memory loss, confusion. Patients begin to forget the elementary things, they become scattered. Then come symptoms such as disorientation in time and space. Senile dementia develops, which means a complete breakdown of mental functions. In the people such condition is called senile marasmus.

Drowsiness with vitamin B6 vitamin deficiency

Drowsiness is one of the most common symptom of vitamin B6 deficiency. Lack of vitamin B6 provokes a number of pathological processes. As a result, a patient with pyridoxine deficiency does not sleep well at night. Chronic lack of sleep leads to distraction, inability to concentrate and reduced working capacity.

The factors that trigger drowsiness are:

  • worsened production of neurotransmitters (hormones that transmit nerve impulses),
  • poor quality supply of nerve cells with glucose,
  • muscle cramps during sleep.
Vitamin B6 is involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters, which are necessary for the normal functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system. In addition, the lack of pyridoxine adversely affects the supply of glucose to nerve cells. Nervous system disorders affect the quality of sleep, which prevents the body from recovering at night and leads to daytime sleepiness.
Spasms of the calf muscles at night, which are a frequent occurrence with vitamin B6 deficiency, also disrupt the relaxation process. At the same time, convulsions have a pronounced character, patients awaken in the middle of the night and cannot sleep for a long time.

Manifestations of avitaminosis B6 on the face

Skin lesions are part of the triad of symptoms accompanying pyridoxine deficiency. Most often, skin problems take the form of seborrheic dermatitis, the site of localization is the face.

The symptoms of avitaminosis B6, which appear on the face, are:

  • peeling of the face (full or partial)
  • dry skin areas in the nasolabial folds,
  • peeling of the skin over the eyebrows and around the eyes.

Anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency

Anemia is a decrease in the number of red blood cells and the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood. With vitamin B12 vitamin deficiency anemia is the most common manifestation.

The cause of anemia is insufficient and poor-quality formation of blood cells, for the formation of which this vitamin is necessary. When cyanocobalamin deficiency develops hemoblastosis, which is characterized by large forms of white blood cells, platelets and the rapid destruction of red blood cells. A distinctive feature of B12-deficient anemia is that along with mature red blood cells, young forms of red blood cells (called reticulocytes) are also reduced. This means that the pathological process is realized already at the stage of the formation of red blood cells. There is not only a decrease in the number of blood cells (erythrocytes, reticulocytes, platelets), but also a change in their shape. They increase in size, but at the same time, their wall becomes fragile and therefore they quickly collapse. Hematoblastosis with avitaminosis B12 is also characterized by a decrease in the number of leukocytes and platelets.

In anemia, a person experiences constant headaches, dizziness, weakness, and increased exhaustion. The reason for this is oxygen deficiency, which always accompanies anemia (since hemoglobin is a carrier of oxygen). B12-deficient anemia is characterized by a specific coloration of the skin. So, the patient's skin gets a shade of lemon color. This color is due to the release of large amounts of bilirubin from the red blood cells into the bloodstream. He gives the skin a specific shade.

Laboratory picture of blood in B12-deficient anemia

concentration less than 3.7 x 10, increased in size

reduced, less than 4 x 10 to the ninth degree

reduced, less than 180 x 10 to the ninth degree

less than 120 grams per liter

more than 17 - 18 micromoles per liter

abnormal erythrocyte inclusions

corpuscles Jolly - nuclear fragments

Kebot rings - shells of destroyed red blood cells

Intestinal Disease in Avitaminosis B12

Signs of damage to the digestive tract with vitamin B12 vitamin deficiency are:

  • nausea, vomiting,
  • recurrent constipation
  • lack of appetite and, as a result, weight loss,
  • glossitis (inflammation of the tongue), manifested by a sensation of burning and stinging.
With a deficit of B12, glossitis is called Gunter. It is characterized by a change in the structure of the language. This is reflected in a change in color (the tongue becomes bright red) and the smoothing of its relief.

It should be noted that despite the abundance of symptoms from the gastrointestinal system, the clinical picture is often blurred. The above symptoms may periodically appear and disappear, or be replaced by other symptoms. This is the reason that patients for a long time do not seek the help of a doctor. Drowsiness and weakness, headache, intermittent nausea, and poor appetite do not provide a vivid clinical picture.

The defeat of the nervous system with avitaminosis B12

The defeat of the nervous system with a deficiency of vitamin B12 often accelerates the diagnosis of beriberi. Neurological syndrome with cyanocobalamin deficiency is called funicular myelosis. The cause of neurological symptoms is the absence of myelin in the nervous system. Vitamin B12 is involved in the reactions of myelin metabolism, which further forms the myelin sheath of nerve fibers. This membrane provides nerve impulses through the nerve fibers 10 times faster than unmyelinated fibers. Therefore, with the funicular myelosis, the myelin sheath degenerates with the further development of motor and sensory impairments. This pathology is characterized by damage to both the posterior and lateral pillars of the spinal cord.

Manifestations of neurological syndrome in avitaminosis B12 are:

  • emotional lability - increased irritability, low mood,
  • unstable gait,
  • numbness of the lower limbs,
  • stiffness in the legs
  • severe muscle weakness
  • cramps (sharp muscle contractions),
  • in late stages, loss of deep sensitivity.

Anemia with folic acid deficiency

Anemia with folic acid deficiency is called megaloblastic. It is characterized by the appearance of large forms of red blood cells (macrocytes) of irregular oval shape. Basophil granularity in erythrocytes and hypersegmentation of nuclei in leukocytes are also detected. This picture is specific to megaloblastic anemias and is not found in other species.

The reason for the development of anemia with folic acid deficiency is a violation of DNA synthesis and, as a result, abnormal mitosis (cell division as a way of their reproduction). As a result, in the bone marrow there is a delay in the maturation of red blood cells, and their further reproduction (as there is not enough building material for this). Thus, the process of blood formation is disturbed, which concerns not only erythrocytes, but also other blood cells.

Blood picture in case of folic acid avitaminosis

  • hemoglobin less than 120,
  • color index more than 1.05.

Leukocytes less than 4 x 10 to the ninth degree

Platelets less than 180 x 10 to the ninth degree

Reticulocytes (young forms of red blood cells) less than 2 percent.

The blood smear contains cells of various sizes.

The presence of red blood cells of various forms, for example, club-shaped or pear-shaped.

Leukocytes with several segments of nuclei are detected.

The presence of megaloblasts. Megaloblasts are called large erythrocyte progenitors with delayed maturation of the nucleus, with normal cytoplasm.

Damage to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with folic acid deficiency

Abnormal mitosis (cell division) occurs not only at the level of the bone marrow, but also at the level of other systems. Thus, the appearance of giant epithelial cells at the level of the gastrointestinal mucosa leads to the development of inflammatory processes.

For inflammation with folic acid deficiency include:

  • stomatitis - inflammation of the oral mucosa, which is accompanied by severe pain,
  • glossitis - inflammation of the mucous membrane of the tongue, which is manifested by the sensation of burning and tearing in the tongue,
  • gastritis - an inflammatory lesion of the gastric mucosa, which is characterized by pain in the stomach, nausea, vomiting,
  • enteritis - inflammation of the mucous membrane of the small intestine, accompanied by a disorder of the chair.

Folic acid deficiency in pregnant women

The most dramatic effect is avitaminosis of folic acid in pregnant women. This vitamin makes a decisive decision in the development of the fetus at an early stage of pregnancy (namely in the first trimester). He is involved in the formation of the neural tube, blood formation processes and in the formation of the placenta itself.

The consequences of folic acid deficiency in pregnant women are:

  • anomalies of the nervous system, which are most often incompatible with life - cerebral hernia, hydrocephalus ("dropsy of the brain"), anencephaly,
  • anomalies of formation and attachment of the placenta,
  • vascular abnormalities, which leads to abortion,
  • premature birth and, as a result, the birth of premature babies,
  • mental retardation and mental disorders in children.
In pregnant women themselves, folic acid deficiency is accompanied by the development of megaloblastic anemia, with all the ensuing consequences. The main danger posed by anemia for pregnant women is chronic oxygen deficiency in the fetus. Since the main function of hemoglobin, which decreases with anemia, is oxygen transport, as it decreases, oxygen deficiency or hypoxia develops. Chronic hypoxia is also the cause of multiple fetal abnormalities and the development of pediatric encephalopathy. Delayed fetal development occurs in every fourth woman who suffers from anemia. Also, anemia during pregnancy is dangerous at increased risk of uterine bleeding (because megaloblastic anemia is accompanied by a decrease in platelets). The threat of abortion in anemia occurs in 30 - 40 percent of cases, premature detachment of the placenta - in 25 percent. Also, childbirth in anemia is often complicated by bleeding and inflammatory complications in the early postpartum period.

Manifestations of vitamin C (scurvy)

Vitamin C deficiency is one of the most common vitamin deficiencies. Vitamin C or ascorbic acid regulates the most important functions of the body. In order to understand how dangerous vitamin C deficiency is, it is necessary to know its function and biological role.

The functions of ascorbic acid in the body are:

  • detoxification and neutralization of superoxide radicals,
  • immunomodulation function, due to the recovery of vitamin E and interferon,
  • promotes iron absorption,
  • stimulates collagen synthesis,
  • participates in the formation of serotonin from tryptophan,
  • has a strengthening effect on blood vessels,
  • takes part in the formation of bile acids.
Thus, vitamin C is involved in maintaining the work of many organs and systems. Its deficiency affects the immune, hematopoietic, nervous and gastrointestinal systems of the body.
It is customary to distinguish a lack of vitamin C and its complete absence. Lack of ascorbic acid develops within one to three months of its deficiency in the diet. The complete lack of vitamin C in the body is called scurvy. This condition develops after three to six months of ascorbic acid deficiency. There are three levels of vitamin C deficiency.

The degrees of vitamin C deficiency in the body include:

  • first degree - manifested by such symptoms as muscle pain, fatigue, increase in gums in volume,
  • second degree - manifested by a loss in weight, mental exhaustion, recurrent nosebleeds,
  • third degree - characterized by hemorrhages in the internal organs, gingivitis gangrenous nature, tooth loss.

First degree avitaminosis C

It starts with mild symptoms of malaise and fatigue. The reason for this is anemia (decrease in blood hemoglobin) and reduced immunity. Anemia develops due to impaired iron absorption at the level of the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, ascorbic acid is involved in the conversion of ferric iron into ferrous iron. Iron, which enters the body with food and is used to synthesize hemoglobin, has a third degree of valence, but at the level of the mucous membrane, only iron of the second valence is absorbed. Vitamin C converts ferric into ferrous iron, thereby ensuring its absorption. Further, heme is synthesized from iron, part of hemoglobin. When there is a lack of vitamin C, the iron is not absorbed by the mucous membrane, since it remains trivalent. This leads to its deficiency and, consequently, to the development of anemia. Since hemoglobin is an oxygen transporter, oxygen deficiency develops when it is deficient. Therefore, a person experiences fatigue, severe weakness, muscle pain.

The gums swell a little and often bleed. Small hemorrhages are also characteristic of the first degree of beriberi. They occur due to excessive fragility of blood vessels and increased permeability of the vascular wall. Ascorbic acid plays a major role in enhancing vascular tone and resistance. При ее дефиците кровеносные сосуды становятся ломкими и хрупкими, поэтому любой удар провоцирует образование гематом и кровоизлияний.

Третья степень авитаминоза С

При третьей степени авитаминоза С пациенты находятся в очень тяжелом состоянии. Развиваются обширные кровоизлияния в мышцы, внутренние органы, что влечет за собой различные осложнения. Trophic ulcers appear on the lower limbs due to hematoma infection. Gingivitis becomes gangrenous in nature - the gums constantly bleed, swell, and also become covered by ulcerations. All this leads to the fact that teeth start falling out at all.

Numerous hemorrhages in the internal organs are often complicated by the addition of infection. Therefore, mortality at this stage due to sepsis is very high.

Symptoms of scurvy

Tsinga or scurvy is manifested by various symptoms. At the initial stage, it is characterized by general symptoms, manifested in the form of weakness, fatigue and pain in the legs. Subsequently, weakness, apathy, and drowsiness join these manifestations. However, specific symptoms for scurvy are frequent hemorrhages and damage to the gums.

The gums become bluish, swollen and easily injured when brushing your teeth. The gum tissue becomes loose, and the teeth begin to loose. Over time, the fixation of the teeth in the jaw weakens so much that the teeth begin to fall out.

Due to impaired collagen synthesis, the vascular wall becomes very brittle. This entails frequent hemorrhages and the formation of hematomas (accumulations of blood). These hematomas can form in the internal organs, in the skin, in the subperiosteal space. If the hematoma is localized between the bone and the periosteum (most often it occurs on the lower limb), then it provokes severe pain. This symptom is often observed in vitamin C vitamin deficiency in children.

Hemorrhages in the skin can be in the form of a small rash (at the initial stage) or in the form of dark red spots (ecchymosis). With the development of major hemorrhages, the skin under them can be rejected. So, scurvy ulcers are formed. Violation of the integrity of the blood vessels in the internal organs is accompanied by nasal, gastric, intestinal, renal bleeding. Tsinge is always accompanied by anemia, physical and mental exhaustion.

Causes of Vitamin D D

Vitamin D deficiency is a common pathology, which is facilitated by climatic conditions, dietary habits or some diseases.

The factors that lead to vitamin D avitaminosis are:

  • overweight,
  • lack of sunlight
  • vegetarian food system,
  • deterioration in the absorption (absorption) of the vitamin,
  • poor processing of vitamin into active form,
  • taking drugs that violate the metabolism of the vitamin.
Most people, whose weight index exceeds 30 (the norm varies from 18, 5 to 25), suffer from a lack of vitamin D. The deficiency develops because the fatty tissue absorbs this vitamin in large quantities.

Lack of sunlight
One form of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) is synthesized in the body under the influence of sunlight. Therefore, residents of the northern regions often lack this element. Also deficiency of this vitamin is affected by people who spend a large amount of time in rooms where sunlight does not penetrate. The production of cholecalciferol is significantly reduced when using sunscreens, since they do not allow the skin to absorb ultraviolet light. Inhibits the synthesis of vitamin D melanin (a natural pigment of the skin), so people with a dark skin tone are more at risk of developing vitamin deficiency.

Vegetarian food system
Vitamin D is presented in two forms (cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol) and each of them is found in animal products. Therefore, people who follow a strict vegetarian diet and refuse fish, liver, eggs, are subject to this pathology.

Vitamin absorption impairment
In the presence of certain diseases, the body’s ability to absorb vitamin D from food is significantly reduced. Inflammatory processes of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) worsen the absorption functions of the mucous membrane, which leads to a deficiency of this element. Avitaminosis D is often found in patients with Crohn's disease (inflammatory lesion of the gastrointestinal tract), cystic fibrosis (pathology of organs secreting mucus, including the intestine).

Poor processing of the vitamin into the active form
In order for vitamin D to be absorbed by the body, it must go to the active form. The processing process takes place in the liver, then in the kidneys. Therefore, when the deterioration of the functionality of these organs may develop a deficiency of this vitamin. The most susceptible to beriberi D due to its poor-quality transformation people in old age.

Taking drugs that violate the metabolism of the vitamin
The group of drugs that inhibit the metabolism of vitamin D include antacids (means for lowering the acidity of gastric juice). Reduce the quality of assimilation of this vitamin drugs designed to combat high cholesterol. Vitamin D mineral metabolism and synthetic laxatives worsen.

The content of the article

Avitaminosis is a disease caused by the complete absence of a certain vitamin in the human body or its inadequate absorption. Avitaminosis and hypovitaminosis should be distinguished: the latter is a condition characterized by a lack (but not complete absence) of vitamin or vitamins. Below we look at how to treat beriberi, from what it appears and how it happens.

Avitaminosis: symptoms and signs

Why does beriberi develop: causes of the disease

Catalysts that cause vitamin deficiency vitamins A, B, C and others, are divided into external (food, environmental, etc.) and internal (due to dysfunction of the internal organs).

Among the nutritional conditions distinguish the following reasons for the development of vitamin deficiency:

  • Unbalanced nutrition.
  • Early or improper introduction of complementary foods to babies.
  • Starvation, strict diet.
  • The use of substandard products.
  • Irrational heat treatment and improper storage of food.
  • The use of drugs that block the normal absorption of vitamins by the body.

In addition to the nutritional causes of the appearance of a strong avitaminosis, there are such external prerequisites for its development as:

  • Extreme living conditions (long stay in cold / hot latitudes, high in the mountains).
  • Strong or prolonged stress conditions.
  • Alcohol abuse, nicotine and drug addiction.
  • Living in adverse environmental conditions.
  • Excessive exercise.

It is also necessary to mention the internal prerequisites caused by diseases and disorders of the internal organs. These include:

  • Deviations in the functioning of the digestive tract.
  • Insufficient level of development of the digestive tract organs (in children).
  • Disorders of the endocrine system.
  • Weak body defenses.
  • Malfunctions in the system of absorption of vitamins. Manifested in violation of transport and enzyme functions, the permeability of cell walls, as well as deviations in the process of metabolism of vitamins.
  • The presence of parasites in the body.
  • Dysbacteriosis.
  • Diseases of the liver and kidneys.
Manifestation of beriberi on the skin.

Avitaminosis: Symptoms

Depending on what kind of vitamin is lacking in the body, the signs of beriberi can vary greatly. Below is a list of symptoms arising from a lack of vitamins A, B, C, D, E, PP, K.

Changes in the condition of hands and nails with vitamin deficiency

  • Avitaminosis on the skin manifests itself in such states as: dryness, itching, burning, hyperpigmentation, increased skin pattern, decreased elasticity, the appearance of spider veins, rashes in the form of acne and acne, the formation of small weeping erosions, dry scales and microcracks, the appearance stretch marks and wrinkles. In some cases, peeling of the upper layer of the skin is possible.
  • On the part of the digestive system, there is a decrease in appetite, diarrhea or constipation, weight loss, and vomiting.
  • On the part of the organs of the oral cavity, bleeding gums, thinning of the tooth enamel, tooth sensitivity towards hot, cold, sweet, sour, slowing the growth of teeth in children, tooth loss in adults may appear.
  • On the part of the hair and nails there is brittleness, delamination, yellowing and deformation of the nail plates, hair loss.
  • Muscle cramps can be diagnosed.
  • On the part of the circulatory system: the appearance of bruises, bleeding gums, hemorrhage in the vessels.
  • On the part of the organs of vision: "night blindness", reduced visual acuity, feeling of sand under the eyelids.
  • On the part of the musculoskeletal system: brittle bones, pain in the joints and bones, slow development of bone mass in children.
  • The general condition of the body: chronic fatigue syndrome, weakness, drowsiness, irritability, apathy, depression, dizziness, sleep disturbances, headaches, mood swings.

Options for how avitaminosis is manifested can vary. Therefore, to establish an accurate diagnosis, you must consult a doctor.

Vitamin deficiency in children

Children suffer from a lack or lack of vitamins in the body more often than adults. This is due to their fragile immune system and insufficient level of development of the gastrointestinal tract.

The condition of beriberi can lead to a number of serious diseases such as rickets and ichthyosis. Therefore, when the first signs of vitamin deficiency appear (in case of avitaminosis of hair, avitaminosis on fingers, on lips or feet), take the child immediately to a pediatrician for consultation.

Vitamin deficiency in women during pregnancy

During the carrying of the fetus on the mother's body an additional load falls. To make it easier to carry the pregnancy, and also to provide the baby with the necessary vitamins, the expectant mother should carefully monitor her diet. Only a doctor can correct it and supplement it with necessary vitamins. It is forbidden to do this on your own, as some vitamins cannot be taken during a certain trimester of pregnancy.

Vitamin deficiency during pregnancy

Types of vitamin deficiency

The most common types of the disease are:

  • Vitamin A vitamin deficiency. The main indicators of this vitamin deficiency are visual impairment, anemia and symptoms of vitamin deficiency on the skin (dry and flaky). Treatment requires adjustment of the diet: the inclusion of fish oil, sour cream, vegetable oils, carrots, sea buckthorn and spinach in the diet.
  • Vitamin D vitamin deficiency. This vitamin is generated by exposure to sunlight. Its deficiency in the body is manifested through excessive sweating, rapid heartbeat, irritability, problems with normal sleep. Nutrition for vitamin D avitaminosis should be enriched with meat, fish, fish oil, liver, chicken eggs.
  • Vitamin E deficiency. It is characterized by nervous disorders. The diet should include vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, meat, eggs, milk.
  • Lack or lack of vitamin C. Manifested in the form of bleeding gums, swelling of the lower extremities, anemia, white tongue, weakness, dizziness. It is necessary to use wild rose berries or decoction of them, citrus fruits, sorrel, bell pepper, mountain ash.
  • Vitamin K deficiency. Its symptom is bleeding and hemorrhage. Beef liver, spinach, Brussels sprouts should be introduced into the diet.
  • Vitamin deficiency of group B vitamins. A deficiency of one of the vitamins of this family, B1, B6, B12, B9, leads to headaches, memory disorders, cramps, insomnia, stomatitis, impaired coordination, depression, tachycardia. The emphasis in the diet should be placed on eggs, liver, beans, bananas, cheese, fresh vegetables, bread
  • Vitamin P deficiency. The main symptom is hemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes. In the diet should be added rosehip berries, green tea, citrus.

Winter and spring vitamin deficiency

In early spring, some people develop fatigue, dry skin and hair loss. Many mistakenly call this condition avitaminosis. In the spring, it is usually a question of hypovitaminosis - not the complete absence of a vitamin, but only its lack. The same can be said about the winter months.

Avitaminosis: treatment

With a slight deficiency, the doctor may prescribe drugs orally. If there is a pronounced lack of a vitamin, intramuscular injections will be required. Physiotherapeutic procedures may also be required (for vitamin D avitaminosis).

With vitamin deficiency helps not only medication, but also popular treatment: decoction of wild rose berries, mountain ash, viburnum. In addition, you can prepare a vitamin mixture of ground nuts, dried apricots, prunes, lemon, raisins and honey.

What it is

Many of us have come across the concept of beriberi. In the people such phrases as “seasonal avitaminosis”, “spring and autumn avitaminosis” are especially popular. But, in fact, under these concepts lies the usual seasonal lack of vitamins that occurs in autumn and spring, which is not critical for the body and easily replenished with the onset of summer by eating fresh fruits and vegetables or after taking the simplest vitamin complexes. But this condition is more likely called hypovitaminosis - the failure of one or several types of vitamins, which in the body, although there are only a small amount, are still present. With proper nutrition and care for their health, such vitamin deficiency is quickly replenished with necessary substances. But if we still talked only about hypovitaminosis, what is avitaminosis and how does it manifest itself? Avitaminosis is a very serious disruption in the work of the human body, which is accompanied by global functional impairment and can lead to serious complications, and sometimes, in the case of acute total insufficiency, even to death. However, with timely treatment, the disease has a favorable prognosis and in most cases is easily cured. With vitamin deficiency there is a critical shortage or complete absence of one or more vitamins.

  • lack of food ration, lack of fresh vegetables and fruits, greens, cereals, meat, eggs, milk or cottage cheese,
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, in which the vitamins are not absorbed by the villi of the intestine and simply do not enter the blood,
  • violations in the functioning of cellular transport, which is why vitamins do not become biologically active substances in tissues,
  • improper metabolism
  • vitamins can not be synthesized and not absorbed by the human body,
  • harmful habits that violate the synthesis and absorption of vitamins,
  • chronic stress or constant fatigue,
  • the feeding period of the young mother, when all the vitamins go to the baby,
  • taking medications that "turn off" the effect of vitamins. These are, for example, some antibacterial drugs, drugs that include acetylsalicylic acid and agents that inactivate vitamin K, which are necessary to thin the blood and reduce its clotting.

  • changes in the condition of the hair - they become dull, excessively split and broken, the amount of lost hair increases,
  • nails also suffer - they start to peel off and crumble, very soft and fragile,
  • skin becomes dry and pale, looks lethargic and even slightly greyish,
  • lips quickly dry and crack, may cause herpes on the lips,
  • eyesight is not as sharp, and sometimes deteriorates significantly,
  • blood may appear during brushing, as the gums bleed,
  • a person often begins to get colds and colds,
  • old chronic diseases, for example, fungal infections, thrush in women, herpes sores, and
  • appetite worsens, and sometimes disappears completely,
  • there is aching pain in the joints and muscle tissues, convulsions may appear,
  • the nervous system and the psychological sphere suffer - a person is mostly in a bad mood, he is apathetic and depressed, prone to depression, drowsy and sluggish, hardly gets out of bed, brain work worsens, in particular, memory and concentration suffer.

Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of different types

Despite the common signs of beriberi, the lack of a particular vitamin manifests itself differently from others, has its own causes, methods of diagnosis and treatment.

Vitamin Aalso known in medical circles as retinol, it participates in many life processes, providing skin renewal, visual acuity, strengthening the immune system, harmonizing the central nervous system and maintaining the balance of hormones. The lack of this substance can be caused, firstly, by a violation of its release from food, and, secondly, due to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (dysbacteriosis or malabsorption, a decrease in gastric secrecy), which is why the vitamin is not absorbed. Also, the cause of violations may be the period of pregnancy and lactation of the baby, old age, kidney and liver diseases in a chronic course, diseases of the biliary tract. The symptoms of vitamin A deficiency are manifested in:

  • visual impairment,
  • burning eyes and dryness, lack of lacrimal discharge,
  • the appearance of “night blindness”, that is, the vision in the darkness worsens,
  • possible appearance of an eyesore,
  • skin flakes and becomes dry,
  • hair is brittle and dry,
  • yellowing of the nail plate,
  • teeth turn yellow.
Обычно о начале заболевания пациент может догадаться сам, так как симптоматика очевидна и доступна наблюдению. Чаще всего никаких дополнительных исследований не требуется, потому что любой врач может поставить диагноз только судя по клинической картине, а для этого достаточно простого осмотра и сбора анамнеза. However, when symptoms appear, it is necessary to consult two specialists - an ophthalmologist and a dermatologist. They diagnose the disease and prescribe treatment - as a special for visual and skin disorders, and to fill the body with missing vitamin A.

  • milk and its products,
  • liver,
  • seafood,
  • butter,
  • sea ​​fish,
  • eggs,
  • currant and gooseberry berries,
  • apricots,
  • vegetables - spinach, carrot, lettuce and onions.

Group B There are many vitamins that are very important for healthy living. These substances are responsible for metabolic processes in the body, ensure the functioning of internal organs and systems, support the immune system. But each vitamin from this group is distinguished by its specific symptoms. However, these substances must enter the body in a complex, and not separately, as they are closely interrelated.

  • B1 (thiamine) causes premature wilting of the skin, muscle weakness, abnormalities in the central nervous system, arrhythmia and respiratory disorders. It is manifested in the appearance of pruritus, shortness of breath and difficulty breathing, worsening or complete lack of appetite, decreased cognitive functions. The lack of thiamine by eating yeast, bakery products, wholemeal flour and vitamin complexes is replenished.
  • B2 (riboflavin) manifested by loss of weight and appetite, skin lesions, inflammation of the internal cavity of the mouth, photosensitivity. The greatest amount of a substance is found in cereals and peas, in meat and milk.
  • B3 (niacin) affects the regulation of sleep - during the day a person wants to sleep, and at night he suffers from insomnia. Also, its deficiency causes increased skin sensitivity, hair loss and discoloration, depression. To compensate for the shortage, you need to eat a lot of greenery, fruits and vegetables, dairy products and chicken eggs, as well as more liver, both animal and bird liver.

  • B5 (pantothenic acid) It is characterized by a violation of the pigmentation of both the skin and the hair - spots appear on the body, hair changes pigmentation and falls out strongly. Accompanied by the appearance of severe itching. Many pantothenic acid can be found in meat and fish, in poultry, milk, vegetables, nuts and legumes.
  • Disadvantage vitamin b6 causes nausea and cramps at night, causes cognitive dysfunction and even psychosis. Replenished with egg yolks, liver and potatoes, spinach, carrots and nuts.
  • B9 (folic acid) - A very important element during pregnancy. It is the building foundation for a new organism. Its deficiency is accompanied by anemia (anemia), weight loss and insomnia, as well as severe headache and digestive disorders. It is replenished with products from kidneys and a liver, fresh vegetables and greens, and also cereals and nuts.
  • B12 (cyanocobalamin) - an important building element, as it participates in the construction of the DNA of every cell in the body. Therefore, when it is deficient, serious disorders in the form of psychosis or even paralysis occur. There may be stuttering, a very unpleasant body odor, inflammation of the internal oral cavity, chronic fatigue and numbness of the arms and legs. Replacing the deficiency is somewhat problematic, since the substance is found in products only in small quantities - it is practically absent in plants, and there is little in meat products - in calf and beef liver, in seafood and fish, and also in mutton.

A deficiency of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) appears for the same reasons as other types of vitamin deficiency. Of particular danger are periods when the body is weakened - pregnancy and lactation, active growth in children, the elderly person's age, excessive loads, both physical and mental. The symptoms of avitaminosis C are manifested by increased bleeding, including the gums, the development of caries, breathing problems and digestive disorders, fatigue and weakness, the presence of pain without a certain localization. The shortage is treated With the administration of large doses of ascorbic acid to the patient's diet, for example, through products (vegetables and berries, black currants, tomatoes and spinach), as well as through the use of medication through tablets or injections.

Vitamin D (Calciferol) is a synthetic compound that is produced by human skin under the influence of sunlight - ultraviolet. With a lack of D in children, growth and development slows down, and the general symptoms are manifested by lesions of the teeth (caries), joint pain, convulsions, fragility of the bones and their disturbance, the appearance of slouching, weight loss and weakness. The deficiency causes such serious diseases as rickets, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, multiple sclerosis and type 2 diabetes. Avitaminosis D is treated by including foods such as beef and pork liver, chicken eggs, dairy products and fatty fish in the diet. Ultraviolet radiation, calcium supplements and concomitant treatment of internal diseases are also prescribed.

Vitamin E (tocopherol) is very dependent on the external and internal environment of the body. It is easily destroyed by exposure to toxic substances such as alcohol or nicotine. Therefore, people who are prone to bad habits are much more susceptible in tocopherol vitamin deficiency. Lack of E causes cirrhosis, infertility and impotence. The aging process is also accelerated, the skin quickly fades, and vision is impaired. The person with avitaminosis E becomes very hot-tempered and irritable, and also gets tired quickly, even if there were no physical or mental loads. For treatment, the patient is prescribed a diet rich in tocopherol: eggs, cabbage and spinach, celery and carrots. Very useful vegetable fats - olive oil, sesame and linseed oil. Also a large amount of tocopherol is found in such herbs as motherwort, peppermint and wild rose, mountain ash and sea buckthorn. Therefore, it is recommended to use herbal teas from these herbal mixtures.

Vitamin F consists of a complex of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which refers to the substances omega-3 and omega-6. This complex promotes the production of energy by the body, participates in the transport of oxygen, regulates the hormonal balance, provides interaction between the cells. Fatty acids affect the cardiovascular system, relieve inflammation, strengthen the immune system, and can also reduce cholesterol levels. Avitaminosis F is fraught for a person with heart and vascular diseases (heart attack, stroke, hypertension), paralysis, the development of oncological diseases with a rapid course and general weakening of the body.

Vitamin H (Biotin) - an indispensable component of the synthesis of higher fatty acids. It also promotes the exchange of amino acids and carbohydrates. Biotin is synthesized by intestinal microflora. Therefore, when treating with antibiotics that destroy the intestinal microflora, vitamin H deficiency may occur. If biotin is deficient, hypotension and anemia occur, weakness and drowsiness, poor skin condition can increase cholesterol and sugar levels, and growth occurs in children. Some substances can destroy biotin - alcohol, raw eggs and preservatives E221-E228. Therefore, it is better to avoid these products for the purpose of prevention. To compensate for the lack of H you need to eat more soybeans and eggs (just yolks), peas and cauliflower, liver and mushrooms.

Vitamin K associated with blood, with its coagulability, is involved in the formation of the lungs and heart, and also contributes to the strength of the skeletal system. A small amount of K can be synthesized in the intestine, but the largest part of it is ingested with food. Good vitamin absorption requires a healthy liver and biliary system. Signs of vitamin K deficiency are: severe and prolonged bleeding, even with tiny injuries, bleeding gums, digestive problems, anemia, general lethargy and weakness. The greatest amount of K is contained in green cabbage and pork liver. Slightly less than it in broccoli and spinach, as well as in some types of meat - lamb and veal. Cod will be useful for consumption.