Does it hurt to take a smear from men: the peculiarity and necessity of the procedure
When collecting a scraping or smear from the urethra with a special brush, a biomaterial (mucus, discharge) is taken with a probe for subsequent examination in a microscope. If the material received from the patient is applied on a glass slide without changes, then this drug is called native.
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Sometimes it is fixed and painted; for this purpose, Gram or methylene blue is most often used. Staining facilitates visualization in the microscope of gonococci, trichomonads, leukocytes, epithelial cells.
However, the discharge of the urethra is not always applied to the glass. For the diagnosis of STDs such as genital herpes, chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, this method is not suitable.
In this case, the material is introduced into the tube, the tube is closed and delivered to the laboratory for PCR. In men with symptoms of diseases of the urinary organs, both tests are usually performed: both PCR and conventional microscopy.
1. Indications for material intake
Indications for taking scrapings and urogenital smear from the urethra in men are:
- 1 Painful urination.
- 2 Increased urination.
- 3 The presence of mucous, mucopurulent or cheesy discharge (mucus, pus, serous effusion).
- 4 Redness, swelling of the tissues around the urethra and other symptoms of urethritis.
- 5 Rash on the head and foreskin of the penis.
- 6 Edema, redness and other signs of inflammation of the glans penis and the foreskin (balanitis, balanoposthitis, post).
- 7 Edema and other signs of inflammation of the testes and their appendages, seminal vesicles.
- 8 Enlarged inguinal lymph nodes.
- 9 The absence of symptoms in men, but the presence of the above symptoms of STDs in the sexual partner. Often, men with STIs are asymptomatic, while women have pronounced symptoms.
- 10 Annual screening and clinical examination of genital infections are recommended for every young man with more than 1 partner / year, even when using condoms.
- 11 Infertility in a pair, termination of pregnancy at any time in a woman in a pair.
- 12 Preparing a woman for the upcoming pregnancy may also be an indication for the diagnosis of STDs in the future father.
Quite often in men, genital infections are asymptomatic, but they lead to the development of the disease in women.
The patient needs to understand that the accuracy of the result is affected by many conditions: proper preparation of the patient for the study, technique of taking the material and preparation of the smear, terms and conditions of transportation of the material to the laboratory.
2. Preparation for the analysis
It is important to properly prepare for taking a smear:
- 1 During the day before the procedure you should not take a shower, bath, douche.
- 2 Abolition of local antiseptics 48-72 hours before the study and all antibiotics at least two weeks in advance.
- 3 Refuse to have sex and masturbation 48 hours before visiting the doctor.
- 4 It is necessary to hand over the analysis in two-three hours after the last urination. There is a small amendment, for men with copious excretions, it is enough to abstain from going to the toilet for 1 hour.
- 5 The material taken in the morning before urination has the greatest information. Therefore, the night before the patient is better to reduce the amount of fluid intake.
- 6 How does the direction to the general smear from the urethra look, see figure 1.
Figure 1 - The direction of the microscopic examination of the discharge from the urethra in men
3. How is scraping taken from the urethra?
The procedure of preparation of the drug is the application of the discharge obtained from the mucous membrane of the urethra on a glass slide. For a more detailed examination under a microscope, a smear can be stained with special dyes.
- 1 As a rule, the material is taken for smear while standing, with lowered underwear.
- 2 Using a wipe, mucus is removed from the external opening of the urethra, a special brush is inserted into the opening, a probe for scraping the mucous membrane.
- 3 In the absence of discharge, the patient is asked to massage the urethra from the base of the penis to the head.
- 4 The brush is inserted 2 cm deep into the urethra. It is not necessary to perform rotating movements with the probe, since this manipulation is accompanied by pronounced pain sensations.
- 5 The resulting material is applied to glass slides and marked.
- 6 For the detection of mobile trichomonads, a native preparation is prepared: saline solution (37 ° C) is added to the material deposited on a glass slide. This method is applicable when a man has heavy discharge from the urethra.
- 7 For subsequent microscopy in the laboratory, the glass must be air-dried and labeled. With a delayed study, the obtained biomaterial can be fixed on the glass.
Modern laboratories offer a comprehensive study of the discharge from the urethra: a simple smear microscopy in combination with bacposal and DNA determination of the most frequent pathogens of genital infections using PCR.
4. Soreness of the procedure
Sampling of smear for microscopy and PCR is accompanied by cutting pains in the area of the urethra. After taking the material, the pain disappears within a few minutes. Rezi and burning in the urethra may appear at the beginning of urination within a few hours after the procedure.
Reception of Canephron, Cyston, Fitolysin or urological fees, drinking plenty of stewed fruit and fruit drinks will help alleviate unpleasant symptoms. It is better to refuse spices, alcohol, smoked meat for 2-3 days, then the products of metabolism in the excreted urine will not greatly irritate the damaged urethral mucosa.
5. Normal results
It should be noted that the most correct interpretation of the smear results obtained for the flora can be performed by a urologist.
Table 2 - Normal values in smear microscopy for male flora
- 1 Epithelium. Normally, in a general smear, a small amount of the urethral epithelium is determined (flat, less commonly cylindrical, the number of epithelium cells is no more than 5-10 in the field of view). Detection of transitional epithelial cells is observed in prostatitis and inflammation of the prostatic part of the urethra. Excess normal values observed in acute and chronic inflammatory process.
- 2 The level of leukocytes less than 4-5 in the field of view indicates the absence of an inflammatory process. An increase in the level of white blood cells indicates an inflammatory process in the urogenital tract and requires a more thorough examination of the patient (PCR).
- 3 Slime. A large amount of mucus in a general smear (++ or +++) is observed during inflammation.
- 4 Microflora. Most of the microorganisms that fall on the mucous membranes of the urethra, is removed with a stream of urine. Organisms that could attach to the epithelium, multiply in the surrounding environment, are the microflora of the urethra. The development of an infectious process is accompanied by an inflammatory response and an increase in the number of leukocytes in the smear. In men, the mucous membrane of the urethra can normally be determined by S. epidermidis, Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp. in a small amount. Normal microflora is very sensitive to local and general changes in the body.
- 5 Trichomonas and gonococci normally should not be detected by microscopy. Their detection indicates trichomoniasis and gonorrhea.
- 6 Normally, a small number of extracellular diplococci can be determined, their type is refined by PCR.
- 7 Candida fungi should not be detected by microscopy.
- 8 Key cells and gardnerella in a general smear are visualized in case of gardnerelle.
The diagnosis of urethritis is confirmed when 4 or more leukocytes are detected in the field of view of the microscope.
Microscopy of a smear from the urethra allows you to diagnose inflammation in the urethra, estimate the number and type of epithelial cells, as well as identify pathogenic microorganisms (gonococci and trichomonads).
If there are pathological changes and deviations from normal values, the man is assigned additional methods of laboratory diagnostics (more often PCR, less often bakposev).
The causative agents of gonorrhea are Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Neisser's gonococci), bean-shaped cocci located in pairs, with concave sides to each other.
Gonococci are detected when:
- Microscopy of a colored preparation (Gram-stained, methylene blue-stained). The result can be positive (detected) or negative (not detected).
- PCR. The result of PCR may be positive or negative.
- Bakposevo (seeding on chocolate agar). The method is used to make a diagnosis in children, regardless of the results of microscopy, in the detection of gram-negative diplococci in the smear and the absence of clinical manifestations.
Gonococcal urethritis is confirmed with the following results:
- 1 Lack / reduction of normal microflora.
- 2 Increase in the number of polymorphonuclear, not destroyed leukocytes (more than 4-5).
- 3 Identification of intracellular diplococci (located inside phagocytes).
- 4 Detection of extracellular diplococci.
The causative agent is Trichomonas vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, the simplest. For the detection of Trichomonas, it is necessary to investigate freshly collected material from the urethra.
To confirm trichomoniasis in men are used:
- 1 Microscopy (“crushed” or “hanging” drop method, staining of the preparation according to Leffler, Gram, Romanovsky-Giemsa). In the pathological material, live moving Trichomonas (pear-shaped, oval, jerky, rotational movements of the microorganism) are determined.
- 2 PCR - diagnosis.
- 3 Cultural method (sowing on a nutrient medium). In men, due to the small number of trichomonads in the discharge, it is advisable to apply the culture method.
Chlamydia trachomatis are poorly visible in a conventional microscope, so the material obtained by scraping from the urethra is examined by PCR. The information content and reliability of such an analysis, when properly prepared (see above), is very high.
In chlamydia and chlamydial urethritis, the following results are possible:
- 1 When a simple smear is examined with a microscope, an increase in the number of leukocytes is detected (4 or more in sight).
- 2 The number of epithelial cells may be increased or within the normal range.
- 3 PCR - DNA of chlamydia trachomatis detected.
7.4. Genital herpes
Research on genital herpes is carried out in a specialized laboratory. Microscopy using conventional methods of staining drugs is not applicable due to low sensitivity and specificity. The main diagnostic methods are immunoluminescent (REEF), molecular genetic (PCR) methods.
7.5. Human papillomavirus infection
In the laboratory diagnosis of HPV used exclusively molecular biological methods (PCR). Microscopy of Papanicolaou-stained preparations is characterized by low sensitivity.
Typical cytological signs of HPV: the presence of coilocytes (cells with heterogeneous hyperchromic nuclei, the lighter rim of the cytoplasm is determined by perinuclearism), the loss of nuclei. The described morphological changes of the cells must be confirmed by molecular biological methods (PCR).
8. Nonspecific urethritis
If a man according to the results of microscopy, there is an inflammatory process, but the causative agents of STIs (gonococci, chlamydia, mycoplasma, ureaplasma, trichomonas, etc.) are not detected, then they speak of non-specific urethritis.
The basis of the development of this form of urethritis are facultative and anaerobic bacteria (staphylococci, streptococci, Enterobacteriae), gardnerella, candida fungi.
The diagnosis of non-specific urethritis is the diagnosis of exclusion, which is made after negative results on sexually transmitted infections in both the patient and his sexual partner, a woman.
- 1 More than 4-5 leukocytes in the field of view of the microscope (magnification × 1000), in no less than 5 fields of view.
- 2 In chronic nonspecific urethritis, lymphocytes are predominantly determined in the smear for flora.
9. What to do after getting the results?
Often, patients with symptoms of STIs are used as the main source of information for Runet, they find paid laboratories where they can be examined without a doctor’s referral.
- 1 Consult your doctor about the results!
- 2 Examination of genital infections should pass both sexual partners!
- 3 A negative result with one of the partners is not a reason to refuse to take the second one.
- 4 If the causative agent is established, the patient and his sexual partner should be prescribed antibacterial or antiviral therapy, depending on the type of pathogen. One month after the course of treatment, the collection of smears for flora and genital infections is repeated in both partners.
- 5 The patient and his sexual partner may be assigned additional blood tests for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis (B, C).
The peculiarity of the procedure and its necessity
In many situations, men are obliged to seek help from a specialist in urology. For a full and high-quality study they need to pass a smear from the urethra. This special analysis allows the doctor to determine what types of microorganisms and in what quantities are in the urinary system of men. Through a smear, a specialist in a very short time will be able to ascertain the presence of an infectious focus in this area of the male genital organ and, accordingly, prescribe a specific course of treatment. Almost all doctors before taking the material for analysis, always consult the patient and find out the main symptoms of the problem.
Often in the male body is a hidden infection, which is very difficult to determine the usual methods of research, for example, using a blood test. A person may not guess exactly what symptoms may be in such diseases, and see a doctor only in case of severe exacerbation of the problem. Therefore, urologists often take and check a smear of men for hidden infections. The timely detection of harmful microorganisms always helps to prevent their further development and neutralizes all the negative factors that are associated with this process. The doctor may order a smear from the urethra in such cases:
- prevention analysis,
- in case of infectious diseases,
- in the presence of inflammatory processes in the male genital organs,
- to test discharge, which is characterized by an unpleasant odor,
- with severe itching,
- in order to determine the cause of discomfort in the urethra.
Disease Detection in Smearing
With this study, the urologist can determine which medications are needed to treat a particular type of infectious disease. Such analyzes make it possible to identify many negative microorganisms in the male urethra. Subsequently, experts can prevent their spread and the manifestation of various complications. Even latent infections in men, when they take a swab for testing, are amenable to research. This material is very carefully checked with a microscope and the general characteristics of the microflora in the urethra are compiled. The analysis allows the doctor to identify the following factors:
- pathogenic bacteria and microorganisms - their number and type,
- the content of erythrocytes and leukocytes,
- composition and characteristics of microflora,
- analysis of various fungi and harmful bacteria.
With the help of taking a smear in men, you can identify many different diseases, the focus of which is located in the urethra. However, there are times when a doctor cannot fully explore with a microscope, for example, hidden infections. In this situation, it is recommended to apply additional culture analysis. Its essence lies in the quantitative determination of microorganisms that live in the male urethra. Also, the method of polymerase chain reaction is used, on the basis of which many different STDs can be identified in men, that is, sexually transmitted diseases. Analysis of a smear from the urethra in men is used to identify the following diseases:
The process of taking a smear from a man
The procedure of collecting material from the urethra for its subsequent verification is carried out using special tools and lasts for 2-3 minutes. The doctor can remove the swab using a small swab or probe. These instruments are inserted into the male urethra and a scraping procedure is performed. Typically, the depth of such input does not exceed 4-5 cm. In some cases, the process of taking scrapings can be quite unpleasant and even painful.
After taking a smear, patients often complain of subsequent discomfort and a slight burning sensation in the head of the penis. This is considered a normal process, which completely goes away after a while. Practice shows that during the taking of scrapings a healthy man almost never hurts. He can feel only a little discomfort, which disappears after a short time.If the patient becomes too painful during the procedure, this usually indicates the presence of a strong inflammatory process or an infectious disease in the urethra.
In some cases, the doctor may take a scraping to determine the specific type of disease. For example, he separately examines only a smear on STDs or a smear for hidden infections. Such an analysis is required so that a specialist can determine which treatment method will be most effective if a specific problem occurs. Before the procedure of taking a smear, the doctor may massage the prostate gland or urinary canal. This is done in order to obtain a larger amount of material needed for subsequent analysis.
Preparation for the procedure
For maximum informativeness of the results of the analysis, experts recommend that men prepare in advance for the process of taking a smear from the urethra. First of all, you should stop taking antibiotics 1 week before the procedure. Be sure to abandon the use of any alcoholic beverages the day before the process of taking scrapings. In order to pass this analysis and subsequently obtain the most informative results, men are advised not to have sex 6-7 hours before the procedure begins. It is advisable not to go to the toilet for 2-3 hours before the analysis.
The process of genital hygiene should be carried out one day before the examination, for example, in the evening. It is not recommended to engage in the procedure immediately before taking a smear. Every patient to whom the doctor has prescribed the above type of analysis must necessarily take into account all these principles of proper preparation. Otherwise, it will be much more difficult for a specialist to take a swab and diagnose hidden infections or STDs in men. The method of further treatment will directly depend on the results of the analysis and it is necessary to do repeated research with insufficient information content. In such a situation, the patient may begin a course of therapy with a delay, which may lead to various complications.
After undergoing the procedure for taking a smear from the male urethra, the specialist transmits the seized material to the laboratory. Here, with the help of a microscope and, if necessary, other additional funds, the microflora will be examined and the result of the test will be formulated. If any infections were detected in the smear, the man is given an appropriate course of treatment.
But even with good results of this analysis, a latent infection may be present in the body, which is not always possible to identify from the first time. The quality of the above procedure largely depends on the human factor. If a specialist is not very attentive, it may simply not notice the presence of some microorganisms. However, in practice such cases occur very rarely.
There are situations when a doctor finds a yeast in a male smear. This fact indicates the presence of candidiasis in the patient, or thrush. This disease is mainly characteristic of the female body, but in some cases quite acutely manifested in the stronger sex.
The identified yeast in the smear is only one of the primary signs of the above problem.
With such a disease, the male can strongly redden the genitals, and on their surface appears plaque and swelling. Another contributing factor to the disease is severe headache and discomfort when urinating. After diagnosing this problem, the specialist should determine which drugs will be more effective in this disease, and prescribe a course of further treatment. To date, to eliminate the symptoms of thrush in men, there is a sufficient amount of drugs.
Some important points
The smear procedure is considered to be one of the inexpensive and sufficiently high-quality methods for studying the urethral microflora for hidden infections or STDs in men. As a rule, after undergoing this procedure, the patient should not be limited to any special recommendations only if the result of the analysis turns out to be negative.
When harmful microorganisms are found in the male urethra, the doctor first needs to find out what accompanying symptoms occur with this disease. After that, the patient is assigned the appropriate type of treatment to eliminate the problem as well as possible.
If necessary, men can take a swab several times. The doctor, as a rule, takes a repeated analysis from the patient in order to more accurately determine which microorganisms are amenable to the prescribed method of treatment. The number of examinations for taking a smear is determined by the specialist himself. It all depends on the type of disease and the duration of the period of therapy. For a healthy patient, the above procedure should not be painful. The consequence of smear may be a slight discomfort and a burning sensation in the area of the head of the penis, which themselves disappear after a while.
However, if 2-3 days after the test, the man has a purulent discharge from the urinary canal, yellow-green color, accompanied by severe pain, you should immediately contact your doctor. In this case, it is absolutely not recommended to engage in self-treatment. This can lead to negative consequences and provoke serious complications. After additional examination, the specialist himself must determine how to fix the problem.
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PCR analysis - how it is taken from men
Most often, a scraping of epithelial cells of the urethra is used as a biomaterial for diagnostics. The doctor places a special probe in the urethra of the patient, which looks like a brush, and rotates it.
Then placed in a test tube and sent to the laboratory. The procedure can be painful. After it can be a burning sensation within 1-3 days during urination. Other clinical material may be used.
- prostate secret
- strokes of the eyes, throat, anus
How to take urine for PCR in men?
Urine surrenders in the morning. Before that you can not wash. In a sterile plastic container a man releases the first portion of urine. The volume needs a small - enough 20-30 ml.
Then you need to close the lid and give it to the laboratory. Do not allow ingestion of third-party objects.
How do they take sperm for PCR in men?
A man gives sperm in a clinic. He enters a special room where you can watch a video or photo of erotic content.
Here's how to take sperm for analysis in men:
- The patient is locked with a key.
- It delivers sperm by masturbation in a disposable container.
- Then he leaves the clinical material on the table, writing down the exact ejaculation time on a special form.
Sperm is most often given for suspected testicular inflammation.
How to take a smear from a mouth for STDs in men?
This is rarely done only if there are symptoms or anamnesis data indicating possible infection of the pharynx or tonsils. A disposable probe is placed in the mouth and a scrape or smear is taken.
How do they take a smear from anus for STDs in men? This is done in a similar way: a special brush or loop is placed in the anus and clinical material is taken from the rectal wall.
How do people take a smear from an eye for STDs in men? This is required if there are signs of conjunctivitis. It can be caused by gonococci or chlamydia. The doctor conducts a special probe through the mucous membrane of the eye and places the biomaterial in a test tube.
How to take an analysis of the prostate in men
To determine the inflammatory process in the prostate gland is an analysis of prostate secretion. It is collected by a doctor. He massages the prostate with his finger through the rectum.
After this, fluid flows out of the patient's urethra. This is the secret of the prostate. He is going to a test tube.
The secret of the prostate is investigated:
- under the microscope
- PCR method
- using bacteriological seeding
Analysis of HPV as taken from men
How tests are taken in men for infections depends largely on the type of pathogen. For the diagnosis of HPV clinical material may be scraping the skin or epithelium of the urethra. But urine cannot be used. The type of papillomavirus is determined by PCR.
How to take a test for HIV in men
For the diagnosis of HIV type 1 or 2, the clinical material is blood. It surrenders from the cubital vein. The man rolls up his sleeve and puts his elbow on a hard pillow. Nurse bandaging his shoulder with a harness. The patient squeezes and unclashes the palm several times to make the vein larger. Then he clamps her into a fist, and the nurse, after sterilizing the injection site, inserts a needle into the vein and pulls the plunger of the syringe. At this time, the patient opens his fist. Having collected the required amount of blood, the nurse removes the needle from the vein and applies cotton wool.
How to take an analysis on chlamydia in men
How they take tests for chlamydia in men depends on the clinical situation. This is an intracellular parasite. Therefore, to identify it, scraping epithelial cells is needed. Most often, chlamydia is found in a scraping of the urethra. Often they affect the structure of the eye. In this case, clinical material is obtained from the conjunctiva.
Ureaplasma in men - how to take the analysis
Similarly, taking tests in men for ureaplasmosis. The most commonly used diagnostic methods are PCR or bacteriological inoculation. A smear from the urethra is used as a biomaterial. Less commonly used blood test for antibodies. In this case, blood is used from the cubital vein.
How to take the analysis of trichomoniasis in men
Analysis of trichomoniasis can take differently. The easiest way to diagnose is to detect trichomonads in a smear from the urogenital system.
The clinical material is examined under a microscope.
It identifies Trichomonas, if they are present in the urethra. But this diagnostic method is not the most sensitive. Sometimes the doctor does not see Trichomonas, because she does not get into the sample, or in the field of view of the microscope. But this does not mean that it is not in the body. Therefore, in the case when there are reasons to suspect the presence of Trichomonas in the structures of the urogenital tract, additional research is required. Most often it is PCR. Because this diagnostic method is simple, fast and highly sensitive.
Less commonly used cultural research. Trichomonas are grown on a nutrient medium, and then identified. This is a longer, time consuming and expensive method.
Smear in men: preparation
To test results were reliable, requires training. A man can not for 2 days before taking strokes from the urethra to lead an intimate life. He is forbidden to take any drugs or use local antiseptics for 1-2 weeks before diagnosis. Immediately before testing, it is not possible to urinate for 2-3 hours.
This rule is not necessary only in the case of heavy discharge from the urethra. Then it is enough not to go to the toilet for 20-30 minutes.
Where to pass the tests a man? If you need to be tested for genital infections, contact our clinic. An experienced medical staff will take swabs and blood without pain and complications. We use the author's painless method of taking a scraping from the urethra for research using PCR. Here, all rules of asepsis and antiseptics are strictly observed, therefore infection is excluded.
In our clinic, you can take all the necessary tests to identify a sexually transmitted disease. And after receiving the results, the venereologist will prescribe a treatment that will get rid of the pathology in a matter of days.
If you need to pass a smear and other tests for STDs, contact a competent venereologist.
When a smear test is prescribed for men
Smear analysis is a type of research in which a thin layer of collected biological material is placed on glass and examined under a microscope. A stroke may be native, that is, not subjected to any processing, and colored. It can be examined under a conventional light or electron microscope.
A smear can be taken, for example, from the nose or oropharynx. In women, a smear can be taken from the vagina. And for men - from the urethra. Sometimes in the list of studies it is called urethral smear.
A men urethral smear is prescribed for a urological examination, for obvious signs of a urogenital infection, for sluggish inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system, or if the infection was detected during the examination of a female partner.
The list of possible indications for the appointment of a general smear and analysis for hidden infections in men looks like this:
- urethral discharge
- pain when urinating or after,
- swelling and redness of the genitals,
- frequent urination,
- all inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system (urethritis, prostatitis, vesiculitis, etc.),
- suspicion of any infection (gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, etc.),
- preventive examination,
- identification of infection in the partner.
To hand over the analysis is better not independently, and in the direction of the doctor.
Types of infection tests
There are two main types of tests for men: a general smear on the flora and a study on genital infections. In the first case, the doctor takes the material with a special probe and actually smears the slide on the slide. After it is stained, examine under a microscope. This smear allows you to determine the number of leukocytes, the presence of various bacteria, intracellular parasites, protozoa, fungi. The smear itself does not allow to specifically determine the type of bacteria, because under a microscope, many of them look the same. For example, under the mysterious word "coccal flora" can be hiding and staphylococcus, and streptococcus, and a large number of other types of microorganisms. In order to conduct a more detailed and specific study, take the analysis for infections.
A smear on hidden infections is not a stroke in the truest sense of the word. The doctor takes the discharge of the urethra in approximately the same way, but then the resulting material is placed in a sterile nutrient medium and sent for examination.
The study carried out by the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It allows you to detect even a small amount of DNA of infectious agents in the material. If a man is an asymptomatic carrier, they will also find the infection.
Infection testing can be qualitative and quantitative. In the first case, the form will simply write a negative or positive result: that is, an infection was found or not. In the second case, the number of pathogens will also be determined.
Preparation for the collection of biomaterial
Before taking a smear from the urethra, a man needs to prepare. It is advisable to abstain from sexual intercourse for 1–2 days. On the evening before you need to take a shower. And in the morning before the test, do not urinate for at least 2–3 hours. The fact is that urine washes away microflora, pathogenic microorganisms and cells from the surface of the urethra. Within a few hours, their number increases again, and a sufficient amount of discharge is accumulated in the urethra in order to take the material for analysis.
How to take a smear from men for infection
Before taking the material, the doctor will ask for a toilet of the external genitalia. That is, using water and soap to remove from the surface of the glans penis all the "extra" microflora. After that, the penis is wiped with sterile saline and dried with a sterile cloth. Now microorganisms from the skin surface will not get into the smear for sure.
Smearing of the urethra is carried out using a special tool. It is gently inserted into the urethra at a distance of several centimeters. Several rotational motions allow collecting enough material for the probe. As indicated by some laboratories in the rules for the collection of material, the movement must be "gentle, but intense."
The probe is carefully removed, and the resulting material is applied to a clean glass slide. In this form, a smear sent to the laboratory. If the analysis is taken for genital infections, then the collected material is placed in a special sterile container with a transport medium.
Many men before the analysis are concerned about the question of whether it hurts to take a smear from the urethra. During the smear, as the patients themselves say, the sensations are not very pleasant, but tolerable. This largely depends on the qualifications of the doctor, on the instruments used and on how much inflammation in the urethra. Naturally, with urethritis it will be much more painful than with a routine checkup, since the mucous membrane is already damaged.
After taking a smear from the urethra for a couple of days, you may experience discomfort when urinating, from burning sensation and slight discomfort to severe pain. When taking material on the mucous membrane appears irritation. When urine gets into these microscopic lesions, pain occurs. Because of the pain, some try to drink less in order to go to the toilet less often. This is the wrong tactic. The more concentrated urine is formed, the more it irritates the mucous membrane.
What a smear study shows in men: interpretation of results
Finally, the worst is over, it remains only to determine the result.For a “general” smear, the study takes about 3 days. During this time, the smear is delivered to the laboratory, stained and examined under a microscope. The results usually indicate the number of epithelial cells, leukocytes, mucus, cocci, as well as any identified "foreign" cells.
The following indicators are considered normal:
- leukocytes: 0–5 in sight,
- epithelial cells: 5–10,
- mucus: moderate amount,
- microflora: a meager amount, up to 10 in sight,
- Trichomonas and gonococci: absent.
An increase in the number of leukocytes and epithelium, the appearance of erythrocytes, eosinophils, an increase in the amount of mucus indicates an inflammatory reaction. The presence of gonococci, trichomonads, yeast cells, any other bacteria or intracellular parasites are signs of the disease. But we must remember that only a doctor can diagnose and correctly interpret the result.
Research into hidden infections is faster. On average, results are prepared 1-2 working days. But if the result is positive, then the material may be delayed for control confirmatory tests.
Normally, no pathogens of hidden infections should not be. If any of the studies turned out to be positive, the doctor may advise you to take a second test, using a quantitative method. That is, to identify not just the presence of a microbe, but also to determine its quantity.
If the doctor recommends that a man donate a smear for hidden infections, the list usually looks something like this:
- herpes simplex virus,
- cytomegalovirus (CMV).
After the urological examination, the doctor may narrow down this list or, on the contrary, add other infections there.
For a man, taking a smear from the urethra is an unpleasant, but necessary part of the diagnosis of infections and urological diseases. Only a smear will help the doctor diagnose, reveal hidden infections and select a treatment. And in order to make this analysis as less painful as possible, it is enough to choose a modern laboratory and a qualified doctor.
How to choose a diagnostic laboratory center
Before you decide on the delivery of a smear, many men think about where this analysis will be done quickly, efficiently and painlessly. We asked to give our recommendations to the specialist "INVITRO":
“First, find out if all the types of research you need are conducted by the laboratory. Then do not have to take a smear twice in several places.
Secondly, pay attention to the timing of the study. With long-term storage of material and transportation to a third-party laboratory, the result can take almost a week. But the beginning of treatment depends on it. Best of all, if the medical center has its own laboratory base with modern equipment.
Sensations after taking a smear depend on the qualifications of the doctor and on how the material was collected. Naturally, after taking the material with a standard cotton swab and a thin urological probe, the sensations will be different. The instrument for taking the analysis should be sterile, ideally disposable. Pay attention to the doctor when you take it out of sterile packaging.
The doctor must take the material with very careful movements in order not to damage the tender epithelium of the urethra. No rough manipulations are allowed - this indicates either a low level of preparation of the doctor, or his “personal” attitude towards patients.
Choosing a laboratory center, go to his website. Look at the equipment, the timing of analysis. If there is an additional control of taking material, this is a separate plus. ”
P.S. You can view the list and the approximate cost of the analysis on the site www.invitro.ru.
License for medical activities LO-50-01-008046, 09/13/2016
When, how and for what is a smear taken from men?
To identify pathogenic microorganisms in the urethra, a smear is taken from the urethral men. The results of microscopic examination will tell about the inflammatory process or the presence of infections. This procedure is mandatory for each visit to the urologist.
Main indications for smear
Smear of the urethra in men - an important urological manipulation
Urogenital swab - one of the informative diagnostic methods, through which you can identify possible inflammatory processes, disorders of the urinary system.
Men usually visit a urologist only when the symptoms that appear can not be tolerated. Such symptoms may include: pain, itching, burning, frequent urination, rash on the genitals, the presence of pus or blood in the urine.
Scraping or smear from the urethra is prescribed, if any:
- Infectious diseases
- Inflammatory process in the urinary system
- Unpleasant smell
- Pain during intercourse
If a man and a woman plan to become parents, then both should be examined. When an infection is found, it is necessary to undergo treatment, and only then proceed to conceive a child. In addition, if the couple cannot become pregnant for some time, a comprehensive examination also includes a smear for an STI. Such infections can be difficult to conceive.
A smear on the flora in men allows you to identify pathogens (fungi, viruses, bacteria), the development of the inflammatory process. After the study, you can diagnose: urethritis, cystitis, prostatitis, tumors, STDs.
Do I need training?
Proper preparation - a reliable result!
A man, before you pass a smear, must prepare for the procedure. It is advisable to refrain from urinating for 2 hours before taking a smear. On the eve of the procedure, the man needs to wash the anal area, the male organ and the perineum. Wash with warm water and soap. Hygienic procedures should not be carried out before the smear is taken.
This rule does not apply if a man has heavy discharge. Then the toilet of the genital organs should be done before the visit to the doctor, but without the use of detergents for intimate hygiene.
It is necessary to abstain from sexual intercourse 2 days before the examination.
In addition, you need to stop taking medications 2 weeks before the expected date of testing. If you need to take the drug constantly, you should consult with your doctor.
If the doctor prescribed a study for hidden infections, then the preparation is slightly different. From the diet the day before the study should be excluded fatty foods, salty and spicy foods. You should also abandon the use of alcoholic beverages. Such food provokes aggravation. It is forbidden to take a hot bath, relax in the bath or in the sauna.
The result of the smear will be reliable if the man has complied with all the rules for preparation. If any of the requirements was not met, then there is a high probability of obtaining false results.
More information about the smear can be found in the video:
Does it hurt to take a smear?
Male urethral scraping is an unpleasant procedure, after which pain and discomfort can be observed. Burning and itching may occur after the procedure. This is normal and symptoms will disappear after a while.
If, after a stroke of a man, pain symptoms increase, then the doctor should be notified about it. This may indicate that there is an inflammatory process in the urogenital system and after the procedure it has worsened. Soreness may occur if the specialist has insufficient skills.
How is a smear taken from men?
Sampling procedure is quick and easy. Scrap the doctor takes with a sterile instrument. A special probe is inserted 2-3 cm deep down, slightly pressed against the wall of the channel. Next, the doctor makes several rotational movements, and then takes out.
In some cases, you may need a massage of the prostate gland. To this end, a dense bougie is inserted into the urethra at full length. As a result of this manipulation, the sensitivity of the analysis increases, which makes it possible to identify hidden infections.
The resulting biomaterial is placed in a test tube for further investigation. Part of the sample is sent for PCR examination, and the other part is applied to a glass slide, dried, and then painted. Further under the microscope examine the particles.
The procedure can be performed using a bacteriological loop or Folkmann spoon.
The material in liquid form is also examined under a microscope to identify moving particles and the simplest microorganisms.
This analysis is often used to diagnose trichomoniasis, as trichomonads can make movements unlike other pathogens.
If a smear is performed on latent infections, then pre-massage the genitals. This is necessary to increase the sensitivity to analysis.
A urogenital smear is not taken at a high temperature, an acute inflammatory process in the body that is not associated with the urogenital system. Smear sampling is not carried out with a strong pathology of the urethra: swelling, bleeding, injury to the penis, or its curvature.
Smear indicators and their interpretation
With the help of a smear, you can make the correct diagnosis!
The results of smear analysis may contain the following information:
- Leukocytes. A normal indicator is an amount not exceeding 5 units in sight. If the level of leukocytes exceeds the permissible value, then this indicates an infectious disease (urethritis, prostatitis)
- Erythrocytes. The presence of red blood cells up to 3 units in the field of view is the norm. Red blood cells may be smeared as a result of injury to the urethra during the procedure. If their concentration in the smear is greatly increased, then this indicates an inflammatory or neoplastic process.
- Epithelial cells. Their concentration should not exceed 10 units. Epithelial cells may be larger if there is an inflammatory process in the urogenital system.
- Eosinophils. The concentration of these cells above normal is a symptom of allergic inflammation.
- Slime. A moderate amount of mucus is the norm, its excessive content indicates an inflammatory process. Large amounts of mucus in combination with leukocytes indicate an acute infection.
- Cocci. A small amount of cocci in the smear is the norm. This applies to staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci. They belong to the conditionally pathogenic microflora and under the influence of certain factors, contribute to the development of diseases.
If gonococci are present in the smear, then this is a clear sign of the development of gonorrhea. Also in the smear should be missing Trichomonas. The presence in the scraping of pathogenic microorganisms in a single amount may indicate the beginning or end of the inflammatory process, and a large number of them in the acute course of the disease.
In a smear, the following infectious diseases can be found in a man:
Diagnosing any pathology requires immediate treatment. Any disease can be cured if you follow all the recommendations of the doctor.
The consequences and treatment of "bad" smear
The correct diagnosis is an effective treatment!
There are cases when pathologies of the urogenital system cause infertility. In advanced cases, when a man did not comply with all the doctor’s prescriptions for treatment or did not cure the disease at all, this negatively affects sperm quality. In the seminal fluid will be fixed sperm, and get pregnant in this case will be impossible.
In addition, a man should remember that many diseases of the genitourinary system can be asymptomatic. Many men may not realize that they are carriers of the infection to their partners.
If you ignore the results of a “bad” smear and do not take measures to eliminate the pathology, this can lead to serious consequences.
Pathogenic microorganisms contribute to the rapid development of the inflammatory-infectious process, which can become chronic. To cure the pathology in this form is very difficult.
If pathogens are detected and pathology is detected, the urologist will prescribe the necessary treatment. When diagnosing a latent infection, the venereologist will deal with the treatment.
Treatment will be administered depending on the type of microorganisms identified:
- In the presence of coccobacillary flora, antibiotics and drugs that eliminate the symptoms of inflammation are prescribed: Metronidazole, Clindamycin, Tinidazole, etc.
- When detecting gonococci in a smear using antibiotics such as Ciprofloxacin, Cefoxime, Ofloxacin. Usually gonorrhea occurs with chlamydia. A supportive treatment should also be carried out to consolidate the effects of anti-gonococcal drugs and eliminate chlamydia. For this purpose Azithromycin, Apo-Doxy and others are used.
- If the infection is chronic, then use drugs to increase immunity.
- When urethritis is detected, antibacterial therapy is carried out using macrolides, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines.
In the specific case, the doctor selects the treatment individually, taking into account the results of the smear. It should be remembered that it is impossible to interrupt the course of treatment with antibiotics, since not all bacteria can die. As a result, the inflammatory process will become chronic.
For the duration of treatment, intimate life should be prohibited. After a full course of treatment, they are re-tested. This will make sure that the treatment was successful.
Does it hurt to take a smear from men: the peculiarity and necessity of the procedure
One of the inexpensive and easily accessible forms of analysis in urology is the taking of smears in men. The essence of this procedure is the laboratory study of tissues that are removed from the urethra using a special technique.
A smear is a valuable tool that allows you to quickly identify and analyze many types of diseases. Also, with the help of this material, which is selected from the male urethra, specialists can check the composition and quality of microflora in the urinary canal.
In practice, there are cases when only lab smear analysis is required to diagnose certain diseases.
A special cotton swab is used to carry out this procedure. To successfully take a smear from the urethra, it is enough to enter into the urethra by 4-5 cm. This is due to the fact that almost all microorganisms are located on this small area of the male sexual organ.
Therefore, the urologist always takes a smear for further investigation from this part of the urethra, despite its length of 20-22 cm.
In many situations, men are obliged to seek help from a specialist in urology. For a full and high-quality study they need to pass a smear from the urethra. This special analysis allows the doctor to determine what types of microorganisms and in what quantities are in the urinary system of men.
Through a smear, a specialist in a very short time will be able to ascertain the presence of an infectious focus in this area of the male genital organ and, accordingly, prescribe a specific course of treatment.
Almost all doctors before taking the material for analysis, always consult the patient and find out the main symptoms of the problem.
Often in the male body is a hidden infection, which is very difficult to determine the usual methods of research, for example, using a blood test. A person may not guess exactly what symptoms may be in such diseases, and see a doctor only in case of severe exacerbation of the problem.
Therefore, urologists often take and check a smear of men for hidden infections. The timely detection of harmful microorganisms always helps to prevent their further development and neutralizes all the negative factors that are associated with this process.
The doctor may order a smear from the urethra in such cases:
- prevention analysis,
- in case of infectious diseases,
- in the presence of inflammatory processes in the male genital organs,
- to test discharge, which is characterized by an unpleasant odor,
- with severe itching,
- in order to determine the cause of discomfort in the urethra.
Scraping from the urethra in men - how to take an analysis of ureaplasma in men, how to pass a smear
Urological smear is one of the necessary types of research that is carried out to diagnose various diseases of the urogenital area. Scraping from the urethra in men take during urological examination.
Usually, such a study is carried out in the presence of clinical symptoms of a urogenital infection, when an infection is detected in a sexual partner, or if a man has a sluggish inflammatory pathology of the urogenital system.
We will describe how the analysis of men for ureaplasma and other latent infections is taken, as well as the results are deciphered.
Indications for bacteriological examination
Most often, a smear is taken to identify ureaplasma, a unicellular parasite, but this study is also carried out for other diseases of the urogenital area. Assign analysis for ureaplasma in men and other hidden infections may in such cases:
- the appearance of any discharge from the urethra,
- pain during urination,
- the analysis is done with the redness and swelling of the male genital organ,
- frequent urge to empty the urea,
- various organ lesions,
- any inflammatory pathology of the urogenital system (prostatitis, urethritis, vesiculitis, etc.),
- male infertility
- analysis can be prescribed in the absence of symptoms of the disease in case of detection of infection in the sexual partner,
- sometimes a smear is included in a mandatory prophylactic examination.
Important! Donating scraping only in the direction of the urologist.
What does the analysis show?
Usually, urological analysis is done for about three days. As a rule, the urologist decrypts the tests. The results of the study may contain information about the presence in the smear of leukocytes, epithelial cells, various cocci, mucus and "foreign" cells.
If a study is conducted on ureaplasma in men, the analysis is done within a couple of days. With a positive result for ureaplasmosis, analysis may be delayed in the laboratory for re-examination in order to eliminate errors.
A urologist can take tests again if a latent infectious agent is detected. In this case, a second smear is better to pass for the study of a quantitative method.
Urethral scraping can reveal the following hidden infections:
- herpes simplex virus,
Preparation for the fence and interpretation of results
Now it is the turn to tell how to take an analysis on ureaplasma in men and other hidden infections. Before the procedure, the patient is prepared:
- A couple of days before the study, a man is recommended to refrain from sexual intercourse.
- The day before the analysis in the evening is useful to take a shower.
- Before the procedure, which is usually done in the morning, it is better not to urinate for a couple of hours. This is due to the fact that urine can flush microflora, pathogenic bacteria and various cells from the surface of the urethra. Only 2-3 hours after urination, the number of cells and discharge will again be sufficient so that it can be taken for examination.
The procedure for collecting scrapings takes place in the following sequence:
- The doctor treats the organ head with a sterile solution to remove microbes that live on the surface of the skin. They may distort the results of the study.
- The doctor uses a special tool for taking material. It is inserted into the urethra a few centimeters. This is where the smear is taken.
- To collect the required amount of material with the instrument, several rotational movements are made.
- The probe is gently removed, and the material is transferred onto a glass slide.
Worth knowing: the collected material can be directly referred to the laboratory in this form. If a study is performed on latent infections by PCR, the smear is placed in a special container, inside which is the medium for transportation.
It is possible to draw conclusions about the presence or absence of the disease by comparing the results with the norm indicators:
- in the field of view should be no more than 0-5 white blood cells,
- the number of epithelial cells should not exceed 5-10 pieces,
- moderate amount of mucus is allowed,
- Normal in smears gonococci and trichomonads should not be absent,
- allowed a meager amount of natural microflora (no more than ten in sight).
Polymerase chain reaction
If various latent infections are suspected, for example, ureaplasma in men, as taken for analysis, we described above. The procedure for collecting the scraping is the same for carrying out the usual microscopic examination of the material and for evaluating the contents by PCR. The essence of the method lies in the identification of pathogenic flora in the RNA material under study.
Polymerase reaction is one of the most accurate methods for detecting hidden infections. The sensitivity of the method is 98 percent. The result can be ready at least 4 hours later.
Important! The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of determining the activity of ureaplasma. Also, in some cases, there may be false negative or false positive results.
After the analysis has been done, ureaplasma in men is considered to be detected if the amount of RNA exceeds the norm of 10,000 CFU / ml. The same norm indicator is used when conducting research using the bakposev method. Repeated analysis can be assigned if the indicator is as close as possible to the upper limit of the norm.
Deciphering smear for flora in men with normal leukocyte count
A smear from the urethra in men (smear on the flora) is unpleasant, but at the same time necessary manipulation. Such a procedure makes it possible to determine the presence of venereal or urological ailments.
A smear on the flora of men taken in the event that there were some discomfort in the pelvic area.
During a routine inspection, such a procedure is also carried out, but given that the consultation without the need for guys can not be tightened by force, tests are taken only when there is a need to evaluate the overall picture of the health status of the applicant.
How and why take a smear from men
Analysis of the urethra in men has its own characteristics, and is appointed when urgently needed. Usually, the direction is prescribed by the doctor to whom the representative of the stronger sex addressed. This may be a sex therapist, venereologist or urologist.
A smear can be assigned when the following complaints appear:
- When urinating, discharge of blood and small grains (sand) were noticed. Urination problems.
- Pain in lower abdomen.
- Pain in the groin.
- Rash for no apparent reason.
- Weak erection.
- Puffiness of the vulva.
- Redness of the penis.
- Problems with conception.
- Incomprehensible discharge from the urethra.
- The partner was diagnosed with an infectious disease.
Worth noting. Smearing is necessary to disprove or confirm a number of diseases.
On the basis of a smear from the penis, the diagnosis is made or confirmed and the necessary treatment is prescribed. A similar procedure is assigned to all complainants on the above symptoms.
Scraping helps to clarify the presence of such illnesses:
A smear on STI in men is primary, this is when they study the main indicators, as well as secondary, which allows you to specify the type of virus previously identified.
How to take a smear from the urethra?
A urethral smear is a rather specific collection of material, and many are wondering how to take it. Scraping is taken from the urethra. In order to complete the procedure, a probe is introduced into this channel to a depth of 5–20 mm, and then it is rotated to reach the desired material.
Then the resulting sample is sent to the study. It must be said that the procedure is painless, but during and after it may be a little discomfort. Some experts recommend to reduce the discomfort before starting the procedure to massage the penis.
This is worth remembering. Sometimes the pain is felt with severe inflammation, which is worth paying attention to, and be ready for it.
Interpretation of indications of the analysis
The indications during the study may be quantitative or qualitative. In the second case, there is the absence or presence of a specific type of microorganisms or some other indicators.
The first deals with the measurement of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and spermatozoa. The analysis must indicate their number, which was detected under the microscope. The form is recorded average.
Studying scraping under a microscope, determine such inclusions:
- Leukocytes (Le). These components protect the body from bacteria and viruses. If there is inflammation in the body, their number increases.
- Erythrocytes (Er). Thanks to the red blood cells, oxygen is transported through the blood, which is necessary for nourishing tissues and cells. These components should be in the blood, but not in the semen and urine. The presence of no more than three red blood cells is allowed, which may indicate injury to the microvessel during material collection. Otherwise, you can talk about the presence of ulcers or injury.
- The presence of mucus. Mucus must be present in the smear, but in acceptable values. About the disease indicates the absence of this component or an excessive amount.
- Eoinophils. These components help to learn about allergic inflammation of the urethra. Their number should normally be within 10% of the total number of cells.
- Urethral and flat epithelium. The analysis is necessarily present. In normal condition, no more than 20 cells are present in the visual field. When inflammation of them more. If a cylindrical epithelium was found, then it may indicate the reincarnation of a benign tumor into a malignant one. In the cells of the epithelium may also be specific cells that "speak" of cardiovascular urethritis.
- Staphylococcus. Normally, kokov should be no more than 5, if they are present in abundance, this may indicate a course of purulent processes or venereal diseases.
Leukocytes in a smear in large numbers of men or red blood cells can confirm the presence of a problem.
For information. Smear examination is performed under a microscope.
If a man complains about the impossibility of conceiving a child, then during the analysis some indicators are determined, making it possible to understand whether it is a question of infertility or not. Examine lipid grains and sperm.
Lipid grains present in a male urethral smear make it clear that the patient has a prostate gland. Often, there are no sperm in the secreted secretion. For completeness, a man’s card may be sent to a spirogram.
If it is possible to visualize sperm cells in a smear, this indicates spermatorrhea, when the seed is released spontaneously while weakening the muscles of the vas deferens.
Secondary smear analysis for men for infection
If microbes are detected in a smear, then the analysis is given again, but in this case, the probe is replaced with a cotton swab.
The purpose of the study is to detect bacteria of different types of staphylococci.
With the help of planting, despite the change in the composition of the microflora, pathogens can be identified:
- Candida fungi.
- Cocci bacteria.
How to take an analysis of STDs in men?
The material for the study and the rules for its collection depend on the type of pathogen, as well as research methods.
In men, there are several main types of material sampling for laboratory diagnosis, these include:
A. A urethral smear for microscopy, bacteriological culture or PCR (polymerase chain reaction).
B. Blood from a finger or vein to identify specific antibodies that are produced in response to the development of an infectious process.
The sampling of each material for laboratory research has certain features.
How to take a smear
in men tells
Lieutenant Colonel of the Medical Service
Doctor Lenkin Sergey G.
The content of this article has been verified and verified as being medical
standards doctor dermatologist, urologist, Ph.D.
Lenkin Sergey Gennadievich
How to take a smear test in men?
To diagnose genital infections in men, a smear is taken from the urethral mucosa.
The procedure is performed only by a medical professional in a manipulation room.
Corresponding to the rules of asepsis (measures aimed at preventing infection of tissues and mucous membranes during medical manipulations).
Smearing is carried out using a special sterile probe.
Which is gently inserted into the external opening of the urethra.
Then the probe is placed in a special sterile tube, sealed and sent to the laboratory for research.
Analysis of sowing in men - how to take?
For analysis on sowing (culture study, in which the sowing of the material under investigation is carried out on a special nutrient medium with the subsequent growth of pathogen colonies on it), taking material for research is carried out in a similar way.
The sampling material for any study may have small differences.
Depending on the type of pathogen identified.
More information about how how to take tests for chlamydia in men, trichomoniasis, ureaplasmosis, mycoplasmosis and other infections can be obtained from your doctor during the initial admission.
Interpretation of PCR Assays in Men
It is easy to decipher PCR analyzes:
- The result is positive - the infection is present in the body.
- The result is negative - you do not have an STI
Interpret the tests should your doctor.
There are cases when the analysis of PCR in men has a false-negative result.
False positive results can be obtained when:
- Improper storage of samples
- Poor biomaterial intake
- The use of low-quality reagents
The task of the venereologist is to correctly take a smear for analysis by the method of polymerase chain reaction, and, in obtaining the results, interpret it and prescribe an effective treatment.
Analysis of PCR in men: where to take
Before you pass the analysis, a man should contact a venereologist or urologist.
The doctor will direct to the performance of certain tests.
It is possible to take the analysis by the polymerase chain reaction at any clinic where there is a laboratory equipped with the necessary equipment for research.
It is best to take tests in a proven clinic.
In the skin and venereal dispensary on Kropotkinskaya venereologists work with 15 years of experience.
The material is taken as painlessly as possible.
Anonymity and confidentiality of the results - guaranteed.
Analysis of PCR in men: after taking antibiotics
Do not take repeated tests for the discovery of STIs by PCR as soon as the course of treatment has ended.
The prescribed treatment regimen for sexually transmitted diseases includes antibiotics.
Control analysis of PCR should be taken a month after the course of treatment.
Only then, the doctor will be able to ascertain the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the treatment.
Important! If the PCR analysis, after taking antibiotics, will be carried out earlier than in a month, you can get a false negative result.
Analysis of PCR in men: price
Before getting a referral for tests, a man should consult a venereologist or urologist.
Primary reception in Moscow will cost 1500-3500 rubles.
The cost of PCR analysis varies from 500-1500 rubles.
If you need to perform an examination, contact our clinic.
The cost of admission specialist is only 900 rubles.
PCR per 1 indicator will cost 300 rubles.
The minimum period for obtaining the results of the analysis is 20 minutes, the maximum is 24 hours.
Most often, the results of the analysis will be ready on the same day.
If you need a painless comfortable fence any analysis of the urethra, contact the author of this article - venereologist, urologist in Moscow with 15 years of experience.
Smear in men from the urethra: appointment
A urethral smear is an effective diagnosis of urinary canal microflora in men.
Before analyzing the smear process, preparation for it and whether it hurts, it is important to get acquainted with this procedure in more detail. It is no secret that in a considerable number of situations related to problems in the urinary system, men turn to urologists.
It is almost always necessary to take a smear from the urethra to clarify the full picture of the patient who is disturbing the disease.
Thanks to the analysis of this area, specialists with the help of laboratory studies can find out:
- the composition of the microflora of the urethra, how normal it is
- Is there any development or course of any infectious disease of a sexual nature?
- what the patient needs to do to fix their problem
Of course, just a smear is not appointed. Before assigning an analysis, any specialist will carefully study the problem of each patient individually and draw the appropriate conclusions: whether an analysis is necessary or not.
Due to the unique microflora of the urethra and the male genital as a whole, it is the taking of a smear that helps to reveal any hidden infections.
The appearance of such in the human body - not uncommon. Often, it is very difficult and not always possible to detect the presence of a hidden infection with a standard set of tests (blood, urine, etc.). In such cases, a smear from the urethra is the best option. It is important to understand that it is timely to identify and start getting rid of microorganisms adversely affecting the body, which is important in the treatment of any disease.
The urologist prescribes a smear from the urethra in such cases as:
- preventive measures due to cause for concern
- presence of infectious diseases
- at the beginning of any inflammatory process in the male genital organ
- in order to test unpleasant smelling discharge from the penis
- in case of itching in the genital area
- in order to find out the cause of pain or other discomfort in the urethra
In addition to the above situations, when it is just necessary to do a smear procedure, there are other problems that require such an analysis. Naturally, the appointment of a smear from the urethra is the exclusive privilege of the doctor.
Important! Taking a smear from the urethra is very important in some situations, so if you are interested in being healthy, you should not ignore this procedure.
Preparation and procedure
Proper preparation for smear - the key to a reliable result
People more or less familiar with the procedure for taking any tests are familiar with the fact that it is important to properly prepare for this. A smear from the urethra in men is no exception. Ignoring the basic preparatory recommendations, the patient risks getting an inaccurate, little objective result.
Preparation is not so difficult and does not require any serious harm. Before taking a smear, you must:
- To refuse sexual intimacy for at least 2 days (ideally, 5-7 days).
- Discard ingestion of any medication a week before the analysis.
- Carefully carry out hygiene, especially in the area of the penis. But less than 6 hours before taking a smear to take a shower is not desirable.
- Refrain from “going to the toilet” at least 3 hours before the procedure.
Important! If proper preparation is not followed, smear-taking will be a useless procedure, so be sure to take care of the above recommendations.
The process of collecting material for analysis from the urethra is quite simple. Through the use of special means (tampon, probe, etc.), the urologist will take a smear from the urethra. This procedure will last 2-3 minutes.
Specifically, the process itself is as follows: a special instrument is introduced into the canal of the penis to a depth of no more than 4-5 cm. The material taken from the urethra is applied to a glass medical slide. Later, the product of analysis is studied in the laboratory, where the composition of microflora and the presence of hidden or actively developing infections are detected.
Does it hurt to take a smear?
The most common question among men or guys who have been assigned to take a smear from the urethra is how painful it is. Let's see. Of course, it should be understood that the impact on such an erogenous zone can not be pleasant. The degree of pain in each person is individual, it all depends on the degree of sensitivity of this zone.
During the introduction of a special instrument, the pain is quite tolerable, but with the occurrence of any inflammatory processes it can be quite strong. But it is worth suffering, because health is more important.
After taking a stroke, men almost always complain about the appearance of some discomfort or burning sensation in the head of the penis, which is a completely normal process.
Within a short period of time, the pain disappears and everything becomes as before.
Sometimes before the procedure, the urologist performs a massage in some areas of the intimate area. This practice is aimed at alleviating the pain of the procedure and obtaining more material for analysis.
Important! In general, pain when taking a smear is not significant and is quite tolerant in a healthy man, so you should not be afraid of the procedure.
Decoding: the rate of smear indicators
Smear on the flora of the urethra in men
Decrypt the results of the analysis only specialists. Properly done decoding of the material obtained with a smear, can guarantee the detection of infections and a correct diagnosis, and then treatment.
Key indicators smear:
- Leukocytes. The microflora of the urethra does not allow the presence of more than 5 leukocytes in a smear. In the case when decoding shows that the level of leukocytes is above the norm, this means the presence of a certain pathological process in the urogenital system. Basically, the more leukocytes in a smear, the more serious the infection or other adverse processes.
- Epithelium. Its number is determined by counting desquamated cells from the mucous membrane of the urethra. Under normal performance, they may be present in the material, but not more than 10 pieces. Their greater presence symbolizes the inflammatory processes or other pathologies occurring in the urogenital system. In conjunction with counting the number of leukocytes, the epithelium determines many diseases.
- Slime. The smear material contains mucus in any case, but if there is a lot of it, it is not good. An increase in the amount of mucus secreted symbolizes the appearance of pathogenic flora (diplococci, candida, other cocci, etc.). If, in addition to the two previous components of the smear, the level of mucus is also elevated, then it is likely that the inflammatory process or some other pathology is acute or actively developed.
- Microflora. This component is considered in great detail and in a wide range. During the examination of the smear microflora, the specialist takes into account many of its components and determines whether each of them is normal. As such, the microflora norms are known only to professionals, so only they can determine something from them.
Important! Regardless of whether you know the norms of indicators of components of a smear or not, only the urologist himself can prescribe you a treatment, which, by the way, will be the only correct one.
By means of a smear from an urethra it is possible to reveal various infectious and inflammatory diseases.
Having an idea of the importance of a smear, the procedure for its taking and decoding the analysis, one can pay attention to diseases that can be diagnosed in a patient.
Together with the examination and direct conversation with the man, the results of the analysis help the urologist to choose the most optimal drugs for the treatment of any pathogenic and infectious processes. Sometimes a smear helps to identify some hidden infections that in the long term would give a person a huge amount of problems.
In addition to the analysis of the urethra may need some others. But specifically the smear itself helps to identify such diseases as:
- some sexually transmitted diseases
- inflammatory processes
It is worth noting that it may take several re-delivery of the analysis, as one is not always able to fully clarify the picture of the problem.
Useful video - Urethritis in men:
In conclusion, it would not be superfluous to note the advantages of taking a smear from the urethra over other procedures. And so, they are as follows:
- availability, smear is not an expensive procedure
- efficiency, determines about 90% of all possible ailments
- simplicity and speed of analysis
- has no contraindications
Having learned it in more detail, we hope that now you are not so scared to go for taking a smear from the urethra. In general, the procedure is not very painful and has no negative side effects. It is better to endure a couple of minutes than to suffer in the fight against any disease.