Diet and nutritional therapy for iron deficiency anemia
With food a person receives a large amount of nutrients. However, some of them are not completely absorbed. As a result, this leads to a deficiency of a certain component. For example, from food a person receives only 20% of iron from the total. With a shortage of this element, the development of such a disease as iron deficiency anemia is observed. Of course, the diet in this case does not save from the disease, but allows you to make therapy more effective. Nutrition for anemia of iron deficiency is of particular importance.
Little about diet
In order for the treatment to be effective, the diet should be properly formulated For example, nutrition for adults with anemia should include:
- Protein - 130 grams.
- Fat - 90 grams.
- Carbohydrates - 350 grams.
- Iron - 40 milligrams.
- Copper - 5 milligrams.
- Manganese - 7 milligrams.
- Zinc - 15 milligrams.
- Cobalt - 15 mcg.
- Methionine - 2 grams.
- Choline - 4 grams.
- Vitamins of group B and C.
What should be iron
When choosing food products, one should focus not on the total iron content in them, but on what form this component is in. Only in this case, diet food for anemia will produce results. Experts recommend eating food, where iron is in the form of heme. Most of this component in this form is contained in meat.
What meat to choose
Of course, not all meat products are as beneficial as possible for anemia. For example, parenchymal organs, kidneys, liver, and fish contain a lot of iron. However, they are rarely recommended for diets, as an important component in them is in a form that is difficult to assimilate. To be more precise, iron in such products is present in the form of hemosiderin and ferritin.
This component is best absorbed from eggs, corn, rice, spinach, fruits, legumes, veal and other meats.
How much iron is absorbed
Food for anemia in children and adults in any case should be balanced. Many people think that this component is present only in meat products. This is not true. Iron is found in vegetables, and in fruits, and even in herbs. When a person is dieting, he receives 2.5 milligrams of this substance per day. At the same time, up to 15% of iron is absorbed from meat products, and from plant products - up to 5%.
The diet for this disease is very important. Its observance will speed up the healing process. Food for anemia should include the use of such products as honey, fruit juices, apples, prunes, raisins, apricots, peaches, greens, eggs, chocolate, cocoa, legumes, oatmeal and buckwheat, white mushrooms, beef, chicken, meat turkey and rabbit, beef tongue and, of course, hematogen.
Some fruits should be included in the diet, among which should be apples, peaches and apricots. Do not give up juices and fruit drinks that are rich in succinic, malic and ascorbic acids. After all, such substances only improve the absorption of iron.
Types of anemia
In life, we may encounter a type of anemia:
- Iron deficiency.
- Vitamin B12 deficiency.
- Lack of folic acid.
- Anemia in chronic diseases.
Each of the types has practically no similar symptoms, although it belongs to the general group of anemia. The first step towards treatment is diagnosis with blood tests.
What foods improve iron absorption
To get rid of the disease, the patient must eat foods that contain not only iron, but also trace elements that help normalize blood formation and ensure the activity of enzymes that normalize metabolism. They are not so much.
The substances that improve the metabolism, as well as the absorption and absorption of iron, include manganese, zinc, copper, cobalt and others. There is a list of products that contain these trace elements.
So, cobalt is most of all in beets, pears, cherries, apricots, raspberries, black currants, gooseberries, cereals, legumes, milk, kidneys, and liver. The daily adult need for this substance is from 0.05 to 0.2 milligram.
Products that are rich in copper include beef and liver, horseradish, watermelon, black currant, strawberries, mushrooms, legumes, and various cereals. The daily human need for this component is from 2 to 3 milligrams.
Zinc is most commonly found in eggs, mushrooms, legumes, cheese, beef, lungs, kidneys, liver, and yeast. The daily human need for this substance ranges from 10 to 15 milligrams.
As for manganese, it is found in black currants, raspberries, pumpkin, beets, spinach, dill, parsley, beans and cereals. Daily need - from 5 to 7 milligrams.
Food for anemia should be made taking into account all the nuances. In addition to iron-containing products, a person should use those that contain components that contribute to better absorption of iron.
Causes of anemia
Iron deficiency is the main cause of anemia. Iron is responsible for the synthesis of hemoglobin, which in turn is a carrier of oxygen into the cells of organs and their tissues. Nutrition for anemia has a significant effect on the healing process. Moreover, this disease can cause the development of other diseases.
The causes of pathological iron deficiency in the body include such provoking factors:
- dysfunctional chronic bleeding (uterine, heavy and prolonged menstruation),
- low protein diets reduce not only protein, but also iron,
- uncontrolled intake of drugs from the group of antibiotics, the result is a deficiency of vitamins B and C,
- pregnancy. In the last trimester, the need for additional intake of vitamins B and C may increase.
- Chronic infections cause vitamin B12 deficiency.
- Intoxication. Long-term use of antibacterial agents.
- Inflammatory processes in the walls of the stomach.
- Intestinal inflammation.
The iron that enters our bodies can be absorbed by only 10-15%. We can get this valuable component from animal (25%) and vegetable (3-5%) food. Diagnosed iron deficiency anemia is subject to therapeutic treatment in the form of medication (depending on the extent of the disease, intramuscular administration may be prescribed), which can only be prescribed by the attending physician, as well as diet therapy. A balanced diet of therapeutic nutrition is aimed at renewing the level of iron and the components that form hemoglobin and red blood cells in the blood.
Heme iron and non-heme
Anemia can be caused by a deficiency in the heme or non-heme type of iron. Heme species, connected with protein and is part of hemoglobin. Its main function is the formation of heme, a binder of oxygen in the lungs for its subsequent transportation into the cells of organs. The formation of heme is produced with the help of bivalent iron, which is absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. Food sources of heme iron include:
The absorption of non-heme iron is significantly lower. This process is fully subordinated to the level of iron in the body: with iron deficiency, absorption takes place at an optimal level, an excess (hemochromotocosis) contributes to poor absorption. In addition, assimilate non-heme iron, pre-split in the intestine. This, in large measure, affects the ingredients from the diet. This type of iron is part of a large number of products.
Principles of diet
Nutrition for iron deficiency anemia should be directed to a balanced intake of vitamins, trace elements and substances required by the body:
- an increase in the daily rate of consumed proteins, it is necessary for optimal absorption of iron in the intestine, protein is also a material for building red blood cells and helps to restore the ability to enter dissociating compounds with oxygen,
- iron-rich foods
- products that contain a large amount of vitamins B and C.
Fat consumption should be reduced as much as possible. they disrupt the process by which mature blood cells are formed. Carbohydrates do not matter and the number of their use can remain unchanged usual diet. For losing weight, easily digestible carbohydrates is better to replace complex, for example, instead of white sugar, you can add honey, which contains many valuable vitamins.
Iron passes a cleavage stage in the intestines, helps this process to use natural fruit juices or freshly prepared fresh juices.
Particular attention in your diet should be given to cereals and legumes, they contain large amounts of iron, but for their productive absorption will require a lot of vitamin C.
Allowed foods for iron deficiency anemia
Compiled table will help to make the necessary diet for a balanced diet, as well as help to understand what is with anemia and what foods are rich in iron.
Control of gastric acidity plays a big role in the diet with anemia: a low level provokes a disturbance of the digestive process, and accordingly, the absorption of the necessary elements of the body. Before resorting to diet therapy, it is first necessary to regulate the level of acid in the stomach.
Meals should be built from the largest to the smallest, i.e. in the morning or lunch ration, foods with the highest (more than 3 mg) iron content should prevail, and at dinner - with the lowest.
What is anemia and why does a person need hemoglobin?
There are several types of anemia:
Deficiency anemia, which is characterized by a lack of vitamins and nutrients in the body. And most often the person suffers from iron deficiency. The process of blood formation is disturbed, anemia develops.
Hemolytic anemia, characterized by the death of red blood cells. The reasons for the launch of this pathological process can be very diverse, ranging from poisoning with toxic substances and ending with genetic mutations.
Sickle cell anemia, which develops due to the mutation of red blood cells. As a result, their shape changes, red blood cells become unable to perform their functions. This anemia is inherited.
Aplastic and hypoplastic anemia. These are severe pathologies that develop due to bone marrow failure.
Acute or chronic post-hemorrhagic anemia. This anemia develops on the background of bleeding.
It is iron deficiency anemia that occurs in medical practice more often than other pathological conditions. To determine this violation, you will need to perform a clinical blood test.
Hemoglobin is a protein that contains iron. He is responsible for supplying oxygen to all internal organs. When hemoglobin levels fall, the cells of the body begin to experience oxygen starvation, which affects the functioning of all organs and systems.
Normally, the hemoglobin level for women should remain at around 120-140 g / l, and for men at 130-160 g / l.
As for children, the normal hemoglobin values vary depending on their age:
Immediately after birth, hemoglobin levels will normally remain at around 145-225 g / l.
When the child reaches the age of 3 months and up to six months, hemoglobin values will be equal to 95-135 g / l.
After a year and up to the age of 18, the hemoglobin level gradually rises and equates to that of an adult.
For pregnant women, hemoglobin values rise to 110-140 g / l. This jump is due to the fact that the fruit is growing. Iron and folic acid reserves from the depot of the future mother's body are consumed for its needs.
Why does anemia develop and how does it manifest?
There are various reasons that lead to the development of anemia, among them:
Bleeding, which may be the result of surgeries, or develop on the background of getting injured. To the blood loss in the female body lead menstruation, which differ in duration and abundant secretions. Inflamed hemorrhoids can lead to bleeding, and ulcerative lesions of the stomach and intestines are also the cause of chronic blood loss.
Diseases of a neurological nature and mental disorders can be the impetus for the manifestation of anemia, since their background reduces immunity.
Hypodynamia, as well as enhanced training, can lead to anemia.
Pathology of the urinary system, gastrointestinal organs can become the main for the formation of anemia.
Worm invasions lead to the fact that parasites take over some of the nutrients, depleting the human diet.
Transmitted infections and cancers pose a serious threat to human health and life. Very often, these diseases are accompanied by anemia.
Errors in nutrition, in particular, inadequate consumption of animal products, cause anemia.
When one or more reasons affect the human body, it develops anemia.
This condition is characterized by the following symptoms:
Unexplained muscle weakness.
Dizziness that occurs at regular intervals.
Dryness of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity.
Pallor of the skin, poor condition of hair and nails.
Healthy foods for anemia
- 1 meat, cream, butter - contain amino acids, proteins,
- 2 beets, carrots, beans, peas, lentils, corn, tomatoes, fish, liver, oatmeal, apricots, brewer's and baker's yeast - contain trace elements necessary for blood formation,
- 3 green vegetables, salads and greens, breakfast cereals - contains a sufficient amount of folic acid,
- 4 water from mineral springs with low-mineralized iron-sulfate-hydrocarbonate-magnesium composition of water, which contributes to the absorption of iron in the ionized form by the body (for example: mineral springs of the city of Uzhgorod),
- 5 food supplements enriched with iron (confectionery, bread, baby food, etc.),
- 6 honey - promotes iron absorption,
- 7 plum juice - contains up to 3 mg of iron in one glass.
Besides, recommended use strawberries, raspberries, grapes, bananas, nuts, onions, garlic, apple juice, pineapple, quince, apricot, cherry, viburnum, birch. Squashes, squash, lettuce, tomatoes, juice from them in combination with carrot juice, potatoes contain elements necessary for the treatment of anemia.
To dishes containing vitamin C, and promoting the body's absorption of iron: potatoes with meat, spaghetti in tomato sauce with meat, white chicken meat with tomatoes, broccoli, sweet peppers, cereals with dietary supplements of iron and fresh fruit and raisins. It is recommended to drink the iron-containing food with the sour juice of orange, grapefruit, lemon, pomegranate, apple, cranberry juice, as iron is well absorbed in an acidic environment.
For the prevention and treatment of anemia, walks in parks, coniferous forests, physical education, traveling to the mountains, optimization of mental and physical labor are also useful.
Traditional medicine for the treatment of anemia:
double nettle infusion (twice a day for 0.5 cups), a series of triple, an infusion of fruits and leaves of wild strawberries (one cup of infusion per day), rosehips (half a glass three times a day), leaves of spinach garden, medicinal medunitsy, dandelion.
To stop bleeding use these recipes from herbs:
- shepherd's bag infusion (half a cup three times a day),
- decoction of rhizomes of the burnet (one tablespoon three times a day),
- decoction of horsetail (one tablespoon three times a day),
- the infusion of the leaves of the barberry Amur (within two to three weeks, 30 drops three times a day) - to stop anatomical uterine bleeding,
- infusion of water pepper (one tablespoon 2-4 times a day) - helps to stop uterine and hemorrhoidal bleeding.
Dangerous and harmful products for anemia
It should limit the consumption of fats, milk, flour rich products, tea, coffee, Coca-Cola (they contain caffeine, which interferes with the absorption of iron by the body).
Exclude from the diet of foods that contain brine and vinegar (they have a destructive effect on the blood), products containing calcium (combined with foods containing iron, prevents its digestibility).
Dangerous to health and life is the use of alcohol for anemia (especially strong drinks and surrogate substitutes). Alcoholic beverages contribute to pathological processes in the course of anemia, the occurrence of complications in the form of a bleeding disorder syndrome.
The basic rules of clinical nutrition with low hemoglobin
The goal pursued by therapeutic nutrition for anemia is to provide the body with all the nutrients, vitamins and trace elements, in particular, iron, which is necessary to increase hemoglobin levels. Данная диета повышает защитные силы организма, восстанавливает его функции и улучшает качество жизни пациента.
Диета при железодефицитной анемии является физиологически полноценной, ее калорийность высока, а содержание белков, микроэлементов и витаминов увеличено. Carbohydrates remain at the standard level, and the fat content is slightly reduced.
According to the Pevsner classification, diet with iron deficiency anemia is the medical table number 11. According to the order №330 of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation in medical institutions, nutrition for this disease corresponds to a high protein diet (IAP).
Daily content of nutrients, vitamins and trace elements:
- proteins - 120g, of which not less than 60% of animal proteins,
- fats - 80-90g, of which 30% vegetable fats,
- carbohydrates - 300-350g,
- Vitamin A - 1 mg,
- carotene - 8.5 mg,
- Vitamin B1 - 2 mg,
- Vitamin B6 - 4 mg,
- nicotinic acid - 30 mg,
- Vitamin C - 200mg,
- sodium - 4g,
- Calcium - 1.4g,
- magnesium - 0.6g,
- phosphorus - 2.2 g,
- iron - 0,055g.
The energy value of the diet is 3000-3500 kilocalories per day.
Meals should be fractional: 4 to 6 times a day. Frequent food intake in small amounts excites the patient's appetite (and, as a rule, it is weakened with anemia), allows for maximum absorption of nutrients, vitamins and microelements, and also normalizes the digestive tract, which is important if the patient has concomitant diseases. Fractional nutrition allows the body to better perceive the food and foods that are high in calories.
- treatment of the underlying disease,
The main principle of treatment is the identification of disorders in the body that led to anemia, and their correction. As you know, iron deficiency anemia is not an independent disease, but only one of the symptoms of any pathology. Therefore, compliance with the diet will be ineffective without treating the underlying disease.
- food temperature
Food temperature should be standard, as in other diets (15-60 degrees Celsius). Too cold or hot food irritates the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, which negatively affects digestion and, in particular, iron absorption.
- culinary processing
Any culinary treatment of products (stewing, steaming, boiling or baking) is allowed, except frying. When frying, a large amount of fat is used, which is contraindicated in anemia, the products of their oxidation are formed, which adversely affect the human body as a whole, and especially the digestive tract.
- food design and serving,
In order to stimulate the appetite of a patient with iron deficiency anemia, it is important to set the table beautifully and prepare tasty and tasty meals.
Alcohol intake in clinical nutrition with iron deficiency anemia is excluded. Ethyl alcohol violates the absorption of iron and other trace elements and negatively affects liver function, where hemoglobin is destroyed and bilirubin is synthesized. And since during anemia the body also suffers from a shortage of hemoglobin, in the presence of the underlying disease it can lead to jaundice.
- salt and liquid
The use of free fluid in anemia is within the physiological norm (2-2.5 liters). A decrease in the drinking standard leads to thickening of the blood, which aggravates the hypoxic processes that occur during anemia. Table salt is used in a normal amount - 8-12g, and with reduced gastric secretion for the synthesis of hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride consumption increases to 15g.
Honey - a source of health
For a long time this product has been used to treat various ailments, not only in folk, but also in traditional medicine. Honey has in its composition from 40 to 60% fructose. But it is this component that improves the intestinal absorption of iron. In addition, this product is rich in biologically active substances and trace elements. For those who develop anemia, experts recommend using exactly dark honey varieties, since they contain more iron 4 times, copper 2 times, and manganese 14 times more than light ones.
Most patients with anemia have a decrease in the acid-forming function of the stomach. This occurs as a result of sideropenic syndrome. In this situation, you should use honey only before eating. In some patients, the acid-forming function, by contrast, is increased. In this case, honey should be consumed approximately two hours before meals. If there are no contraindications, then the patient can eat this product three times a day, up to 100 grams.
Healing herbs and diet
Food for anemia in the elderly and children can consist not only of products, but also of herbal drinks. With this disease, experts recommend to use herbal teas, which include fruits rich in iron. These include black currants, elder and wild rose. It should be noted that the composition of these fruits has ascorbic acid, which, as is well known, increases the absorption of iron.
Also, when anemia is recommended, a collection consisting of nettle leaves, a string, strawberries and black currants.
What should be excluded from the diet
Dietary nutrition for anemia should be made correctly. After all, some substances impair the absorption of iron. So, it is necessary to distinguish the intake of drugs from anemia and dairy products. Calcium can significantly reduce the absorption of iron.
In addition, you should not eat foods that contain oxalates, glycine-conglycin, lectins, pectins, phosphates, tanates, phytates. Similar ingredients are found in corn, rice, bran, baked goods, and cereals. It is also worth refusing nuts, sorrel, spinach, rhubarb, asparagus, cabbage and beets.
What foods to eat for anemia?
Food for anemia should be rich in iron. Therefore, it is recommended to enrich your diet with the following products: meat and fish, cream and butter, liver, tongue and kidneys of animals.
Plant food can also become a source of iron, but it will not be absorbed in such volumes as from animal products. Nevertheless, it is useful to eat cereals (legumes and buckwheat), vegetables (tomatoes, beets, potatoes, bell peppers, carrots), fruits (pears, apples, plums, pomegranates, apricots, quince, persimmons), berries (currants, strawberries, strawberries, blueberries), and also mushrooms.
The source of iron for the body is not only food, but also drinks: plum, apple, grape, tomato, beet and carrot juice. It is also useful to drink tea with honey and lemon.
Products needed to replenish iron reserves in the body are presented in the table:
Iron content in 100 g in mg
To clarify what you can eat with anemia you need at your doctor. However, one healthy diet is not enough to get rid of anemia, you will need medication. However, diet plays a huge role. Products entering the body must be rich not only in iron, but also in other useful substances, vitamins and microelements.
A day in the human body should receive about 20 mg of iron. It will be absorbed better if you combine it with vitamin C. For example, it is useful to eat buckwheat porridge and drink it with pomegranate juice, or meat with plum juice.
Anemia in a child: how to raise hemoglobin?
Anemia is a dangerous disorder in childhood, so it must be dealt with correctly. Thus, oxygen starvation of the internal organs of the child will lead to a delay in its development, both mental and physical. The kid becomes whiny, aggressive, lethargic.
If you find these symptoms, you must contact your pediatrician and pass a blood test. Often it is anemia that causes these symptoms. If a nursing mother leads a correct lifestyle and eats healthy food, then in the age of up to six months anemia in children does not develop often. After all, iron from breast milk is absorbed by the body very well. Therefore, if anemia develops in a breastfed baby, then the mother’s diet should be changed. With the introduction of complementary foods should follow the basic rules, making the child's menu healthy and diverse. On the table should be present such products as: beets, meat, apples, buckwheat, juices (apple and pomegranate).
When the child grows up, the problem of anemia will be solved by itself, but only on condition that the baby eats properly. By 3 years, the preschooler's diet is significantly expanding. It includes a wide variety of products that do not cause allergies.
Anemia during pregnancy and lactation: how to raise hemoglobin?
A woman carrying a fetus should eat right. This will cover the needs of not only her body, but also the needs of the child growing in it. Iron deficiency will lead to the development of anemia in both the most pregnant woman and the child. This is very dangerous, as it causes intrauterine growth retardation and development.
Therefore, the expectant mother should adhere to the following recommendations:
You need to drink green tea, it allows the gland to be better absorbed. From the consumption of black tea is best to give up.
Pomegranate juice needs to be consumed in small amounts, since its overabundance can provoke a stool delay.
Products containing iron will help maintain a normal level of hemoglobin in the blood of the most pregnant woman and baby.
If you experience frequent diarrhea or vomiting, you should consult a doctor. This problem can not be ignored.
Anemia and Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus leads to a malfunction of the kidneys, which are responsible for the production of a hormone called erythropoietin. It is necessary for the red bone marrow to make red blood cells. Diabetes provokes the death of cells responsible for the production of erythropoietin, which leads to the development of renal failure and anemia.
It is possible to get rid of anemia, which develops on the background of diabetes mellitus, only with the help of drugs that contain erythropoietin. However, this does not negate compliance with the principles of proper nutrition.
The diet of such patients should be strict, enriched with iron and folic acid. Therefore, the menu should include pomegranates, persimmons, legumes, vegetables, buckwheat, juices.
Food for anemia: recipes
To increase the level of hemoglobin in the blood, you need to use the following recipes:
Vitamin mixture. For its preparation will require 0.5 kg of prunes, walnuts, raisins and dried apricots. All these products are minced and mixed with honey (0.35 kg). The mixture is stored in the refrigerator under the closed lid in a glass jar. Take it to 2 tablespoons before meals, 3 times a day.
Juice with beets and carrots. Mix 50 g of beet juice, 100 g of carrot juice and a tablespoon of honey. All components need to connect and drink before dinner.
Cranberry and apple juice. To make a drink, mix half a glass of cranberry juice and an apple, add a tablespoon of beetroot juice. Drink this drink should be 4-5 times a week.
Delicious flour to increase hemoglobin. Walnuts and buckwheat (in a glass) are ground into a powder grinder on a coffee grinder. 100 g of honey are added to the powder mixture. Take the medicine inside a tablespoon 3 times a day a few minutes before meals.
Vitamin cocktail. To make it you need to mix the juice of pomegranate, carrot, apple, beet and grapes. To sweeten the drink, you can add honey to it.
What can not eat with anemia?
There are products that help reduce the absorption of iron in the body. Therefore, they should be excluded from the menu.
All fatty foods.
Baking and flour products.
Drinks with gases.
Alcoholic drinks. If a person drinks a surrogate, then with anemia it can be deadly.
Foods that contain a lot of calcium.
How to increase the absorbability of iron?
To make iron better absorbed by the body, you need to use the following recommendations:
Meat and liver should be eaten with vegetables, beets and carrots are especially useful.
Ascorbic acid helps the gland to be better absorbed, so it is useful to wash down cereals, fish and meat dishes with orange juice.
The use of 50-70 g of honey per day will allow the gland to be better absorbed in the body. Also, honey is useful for improving immunity.
Patients with anemia, experts recommend eating pears, which increase the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood.
It is enough to adhere to these simple recommendations so that anemia recedes or does not appear at all.
Anemia arise against the background of various etiological factors, the main of which are iron deficiency, folic acid or vitamin b12. In clinical practice, the proportion of anemia due to a deficiency in the body of iron (IDA), accounts for almost 85% of cases from the totality of anemia.
Iron-deficiency anemia is secondary and develops against the background of various pathological and physiological states. It is based on a violation of the synthesis processes hemoglobin with a simultaneous decrease in the total volume red blood cellscaused by a long-term deficiency of the trace element iron (Fe).
The main reasons for the development of IDA include:
- chronic blood loss from various organs and tissues (menstrual and gastrointestinal blood loss),
- alimentary deficiency (more often in newborns and younger age), as well as in adults with unbalanced nutrition with protein restriction - mono-diets, vegetarianism,
- increased body's need for iron (intensive growth, pregnancy and the period of breastfeeding),
- violation of iron absorption in the intestines.
The level of iron content in the blood plasma is determined by the ratio of the processes of synthesis and decomposition of red blood cells. On average, the human body's iron content in bound form varies from 3 to 5 g. In the process of blood formation, the body uses iron from food, and when it is deficient, the stores from the depot (liver, spleen, bone marrow) are activated. The natural way to replenish the body with iron is food. Clinical symptoms of iron deficiency anemia occur in cases where the intake of iron from food (2 mg / day) is less than the level of its loss. However, even when the diet is enriched with foods high in iron, its absorbability does not exceed 2.5 mg per day, since the digestibility of iron from food is less than 20%.
There are two forms of iron: heme and non-heme. It is heme iron that is part of hemoglobin and is relatively well absorbed (by 20-30%), while other components of food have practically no effect on the process of its absorption. Contains heme iron only in products of animal origin (meat, fish, offal).
Non-haem iron has extremely low bioavailability - its digestibility is at the level of 3-5%. Contained mainly in products of plant origin (cereals, legumes, fruits, berries) and its digestibility is influenced by many factors. Thus, it is almost impossible to provide the daily need through the food (for men 10 mg / day with a loss level of 1 mg / day and for women 18mg / day with a loss level of up to 2 mg / day).
However, despite the inability to fully compensate for iron deficiency in the body with food, the diet for anemia is a major component of the complex treatment of patients with IDA. At the same time, it is important to take into account not so much the iron content in food as the form in which iron is contained in food.
Diet for iron deficiency anemia
The basis of clinical nutrition - diet Table number 11 (diet with high protein content). The diet provides the physiological need for macro- and micronutrients, the caloric content is about 3500 Kcal (120-130 g of proteins, 70-80 g of fats and 450 g of carbohydrates). Free liquid - 2.0 liters, the content of sodium chloride - 10-12 g
The diet is enriched with foods rich in iron - red meat, meat by-products, fish, seafood, canned fish, butter, vegetable oil, eggs, vegetables, honey, fruits, various cereals, beverages. In the diet, products of animal origin that contain iron in the form of heme (veal, beef tongue, rabbit meat, beef) are of particular value, and the diet should be enriched with them. The inclusion of by-products, in particular, the liver, is of no particular value, since the digestibility of iron in the form ferritin and transferrinin which iron is found in the liver is significantly lower than in meat.
The diet also includes foods containing non-heme iron - cereals, fruits, legumes, vegetables. A feature of the absorption of iron in non-heme form is the dependence of the process on the content in the diet of substances that potentiate or inhibit iron absorption. The factors that enhance the absorption of iron from bread, eggs, croup is, above all, vitamin Ctherefore, such foods as dogrose broth, fruit drinks, citrus juice, fruits and berries, as well as compotes with the addition of 25-50 mg of citric / ascorbic acid should be present in the diet.
Potentiates the absorption of iron and copper. Copper-containing products include dried figs, green vegetables, cherries, apricots, sea kale, brown algae. To increase the absorption of iron, it is recommended to add ferrous sulphate and ferrous sulfate to food products, gluconate and iron glycerophosphate.
Замедляют процесс всасывания железа продукты, в состав которых входят фосфат, фитат, оксалат, таннат, лектины, пектины. Эти вещества содержатся преимущественно в отрубях, хлебных злаках, различных зернах, хлебе, кукурузе, рисе.Coffee and red wine are subject to restrictions (contain polyphenolates), tea (tannin), hydrocarbonate and sulphate mineral waters, as well as milk, which includes calcium. Considering the negative effect of such products, their consumption should be limited or consumed separately from other products (in a separate meal). Fatty foods are also restricted, as fats inhibit the absorption of iron. Iron deficiency anemia does not imply any restriction in the culinary treatment of products, except for frying, because this process uses a lot of fat and oxidation products are formed that negatively affect the body.
Nutrition for anemia in the elderly
The most common causes of development of IDA in older people is alimentary insufficiency due to dental problems, low socio-economic status of life, acquired malabsorption syndrome (with diseases of the stomach, liver, intestines, pancreas), long-term medication.
Symptoms and treatment, nutrition of this category of patients are not fundamentally different, however, the diet is adjusted to the age needs and lifestyle of the patient. In the presence of dental problems products containing heme iron, it is recommended to use in the shabby form. As a rule, level hemoglobin in adults it normalizes after 2-2.5 months, however, it is recommended to stay on the diet and continue taking iron supplements for at least 3 months until complete replenishment in the body of iron reserves and level ferritin up to 30 ng / l.
Nutrition in the elderly
A health problem may appear in old age. In this case, it is more a symptom of the underlying disease, which significantly reduces the quality of life, requires timely correction by official and alternative methods. Among the main causes of pathology, doctors distinguish alimentary insufficiency, which is provoked by dental diseases, low socio-economic status of life, long-term medication, acquired malabsorption syndrome.
With age, the body is increasingly difficult to produce hemoglobin, so changes in the daily menu only help restore balance. Medical diet can slow down the metabolism, which in the elderly body is so broken. Therefore, before taking any measures in case of iron deficiency anemia, it is necessary to first consult with a knowledgeable specialist, to exclude self-treatment. Here are valuable tips on the daily menu of an older person:
- It is important to determine the chronic diseases of the body, to ensure a long period of remission.
- Eating is often required, but gradually (fractional feeding is encouraged), carefully controlling the body's water regime.
- Products should be ingested in a crushed and softened form, for example, in the form of boiled puree.
- At dinner and before bedtime, the body should receive low-fat dairy products, be sure to cottage cheese for a better night digestion.
- Of the cereals, it is desirable to prepare a crumbly porridge, and eggs should be consumed no more than 2 times a week. Due to the lack of intestinal enzymes, it is important to limit the consumption of beets, legumes and cabbage in old age.
Diet for anemia is not required if a balanced diet prevails, and sufficient amounts of vitamins and minerals are supplied to the body. Since the woman prefers not to eat for the purpose of a diet, the health problem may soon become global. Among the factors provoking anemia in this case, you can highlight the features of the menstrual cycle, the internal state of health. It is important to completely eliminate starvation and strict methods for losing weight from your life so that subsequent violations do not lead to a lack of hemoglobin in the blood circulation:
- The daily rate of calories should vary between 2500-3000 kcal for an adult, and you can not starve.
- Meals should be fractional, but frequent, while it is desirable to eat at the same time (work out for yourself the daily regimen).
- It is possible to speed up the process of assimilation of iron from the intestine in a medicamental way or with the participation of individual food ingredients.
Iron-rich foods for anemia
If a health problem already exists, it needs to be addressed, and in a timely manner. It is necessary to include in the daily diet foods with iron for anemia, while making sure that these are absorbed by the body in full. The results will be obvious in a few days if you perform repeated laboratory blood tests. Below is a list of foods that will help solve the actual problem that is with anemia.
beef, chicken, turkey, rabbit
legumes, buckwheat, oatmeal, muesli, millet
potatoes, cabbage, eggplants, beets
apple, plum, pear, lemon, avocado, apricot, persimmon
currants, blueberries, strawberries, strawberries, blueberries
lean varieties, preferably red
kidneys, heart, liver, beef tongue, brains
cottage cheese, kefir, butter, cream
raisins, dates, dried apricots, walnuts
Herbs for anemia of iron deficiency
Such a health problem often occurs with heavy blood loss, so treatment should be prompt. In addition to pills and nutrition correction, doctors recommend using alternative medicine methods. This is an element of adjuvant therapy, which is also capable of increasing the hemoglobin index in the blood in the shortest possible time. Thus, the body must be enriched with herbs as a natural antioxidant (parsley, dill, lettuce), and already the folk remedies with recipes are presented below:
- Yarrow decoction. Raw materials required to grind, in the amount of 1 tbsp. l steamed in 1 tbsp. boiling water. Insist, strain, take chilled 1 tbsp. l three times a day, regardless of the meal.
- Nettle decoction. The specified type of medicinal herb can be prepared according to the same recipe, taken as a decoction in the morning and in the evening with 0.5 tbsp. preferably on an empty stomach until the complete disappearance of unpleasant symptoms.
When anemia requires not only to eat (eat), but also to maintain the body's water balance. To maintain and increase the level of hemoglobin in the blood, it is advisable to use freshly squeezed juices, always in the morning during breakfast. This is pomegranate, tomato, grape, carrot, potato or beet fresh. The recommended dose is not more than 1 tbsp. during the first meal and you can even before bedtime. In diabetes, the use of grape juice is required to be abandoned in order not to provoke a relapse of the underlying disease.
How to feed a child
If anemia develops during childhood, one correction of nutrition can finally eliminate such a health problem (without the additional participation of medicines). If the baby is breastfed, it is recommended that the additional administration of iron-containing protein in the form of lactoferrin. As you grow older, you need to competently introduce complementary foods, taking into account such recommendations of pediatricians:
- include in the daily menu unadapted dairy products in the form of skimmed yogurt and milk,
- Starting from 6 months and older, the baby can be introduced to instant porridges, fruit and vegetable purees, fruit juices,
- You can add small portions of meat mainly in boiled and pre-ground form.
How to eat pregnant
With such an unpleasant problem, as iron deficiency anemia, women more often face during pregnancy. during gestation, the double blood flow loses the permissible concentration of hemoglobin, and it is necessary to eat to replenish it in time. It is important not just to eat more, but to learn how to eat right, while not forgetting the benefits of vitamins and microelements from individual food ingredients. The following are general recommendations of gynecologists:
- With anemia, you can eat the products of diet table No. 11, which includes the total caloric content of meals per day not more than 3,500 Cal, where 120 - 130 g of proteins, 70 - 80 g of fat and 450 g of carbohydrates.
- The recommended volume of fluid is at least 2 liters, but the consumption of salt in the kitchen will have to be reduced to 10 g in order to completely eliminate stagnation in the pregnant body.
- It is recommended to eat foods fortified with iron. These include red meat, chicken eggs, meat by-products, cereals, fish, and seafood. Non-haem iron, also beneficial to health, is found in cereals, fruits, legumes, green vegetables and root vegetables.
In case of anemia, the need for vitamins, micro and macro elements is rapidly growing, but their use will be useless unless timely adjustments are made to the daily menu. It is important to know prohibited foods for anemia, so that during pregnancy and not only to exclude them from the daily menu, not to slow down the natural healing process. Here's what is better not to have for iron deficiency anemia:
- fat soups,
- cream pastries
- mayonnaise, hot sauces, ketchup,
- puff pastry,
- butter and ghee,
- ice cream,
- fatty meats, lard,
- all canned, smoked meats,
- chocolate and alcohol.
Being in a state of iron deficiency anemia, in addition to healthy foods, attention must be paid to vitamins, which the weakened body needs most urgently. In this case, we are talking not only about the composition of food ingredients with natural vitamin complexes, but also about pharmacy products of different pricing policies. This is especially true for pregnant women who, when carrying a fetus, suffer from progressive hypovitaminosis. These vitamins are essential for organic life:
- Vitamin C (acetylsalicylic acid). Contained in cabbage, all types of citrus, Bulgarian pepper, black currant. It is a natural antioxidant, promotes the absorption of iron for better absorption of valuable trace elements (iron).
- Vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin). An indispensable ingredient not only for future moms, but also for all age categories. To rule out the development of anemia, it is necessary in 1st. warm milk put 1 tsp. brewer's yeast and honey. Drink this drink in the morning on an empty stomach.
- Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). Contained in nuts, fish, meat, legumes. Able to stimulate and stimulate metabolic processes, contributes to the process of protein digestion, production of hemoglobin and red blood cells. Additionally take Erythropoietin.
- Vitamin B9 (folic acid). Predominantly in nuts, citrus, beef and chicken liver, honey, lettuce. It is an effective prevention of anemia, such food ingredients can be eaten in moderate portions.
- Iron and copper contribute to the intensive production of hemoglobin, so the concentration of such important trace elements is required to be increased daily, and for this purpose there are apples, beef liver, and other products.
In addition to natural sources, you can use the pharmacy products represented by multifunctional multivitamin complexes. If we are talking about pregnant women, such pharmacological appointment should be previously agreed with your doctor, superficial self-treatment is strictly prohibited. Here are some medical products in question:
- Elevit (especially for pregnant women),
Recommendations on the preparation of the diet
Daily nutrition for anemia should be fractional, but balanced. It is required to speed up the metabolism, while replenishing the chemical composition of the blood with vital hemoglobin. In addition, it may be necessary to take additional multivitamin complexes such a nuance is desirable to discuss with your doctor even before buying and starting a health course. If you competently make a medical menu, after a few days the health problem will be completely resolved. The following are valuable and especially relevant recommendations of specialists:
- It is necessary to choose the correspondence of BJU in the daily ration, where there will be 120 g of protein, 40 g of fat and 450 g of carbohydrates with a total caloric content of dishes of 2 500 Kcal (per day).
- The recommended water intake is 2 liters, in addition it is recommended to drink fresh juices, berry fruit drinks, green tea, herbal teas. What you can eat, prompt nutritionist, therapist.
- Mandatory food ingredient for anemia - boiled liver (chicken or beef), which is required to eat daily in the amount of 100 g
- Sweets and confectionery remain prohibited, it is dangerous to use chocolate, alcoholic and carbonated drinks. From such ingredients blood hemoglobin falls.
- If problems with digestion prevail, there is a tendency to chronic constipation, the food must be steamed or extinguished.
- Dark honey is 60% fructose, so it is necessary for people with iron deficiency anemia daily.
- Regular drinking of low-mineralized iron-sulphate-hydrocarbonate-magnesium water helps to quickly absorb iron.
The attending physician, after a detailed diagnosis, provides the patient with a list of permitted and prohibited foods, approximately the menu of a therapeutic diet. If it is strictly adhered to, a second blood test can be done in a week, and there will be a positive trend. Otherwise, it is necessary to resort to the help of drug therapy, vitamin therapy.
Day menu for patient with anemia
Hemoglobin is closely related to bone marrow cells, so its abnormal decrease in blood can provoke irreversible pathological processes, internal diseases. The patient needs to respond to the alarming symptoms in a timely manner, and after a blood test, it is already up to the person to decide whether this will be an individual nutritional correction, popular treatment or conservative therapy during a full course. It’s worth starting an action with a medical diet, below is a sample menu for one day that will help increase your hemoglobin index in your blood:
Recommended foods you can eat for anemia