Thrombosed external and internal hemorrhoids: causes, symptoms, treatment
Many people know such a disease as hemorrhoids. Although not everyone suspects that he may have a number of serious complications, leading further to the sad consequences.
If you ignore the disease, it can develop into hemorrhoidal thrombosis. You should know the symptoms and be able to recognize it in time to start treatment.
What is a disease?
Thrombosed hemorrhoids are one of the most frequent complications of the disease. It occurs because of a formed blood clot in the anal vein.
One of the very first symptoms - constant unpleasant pain in the anus. May appear unexpectedly and does not depend on the process of bowel movements. And with constipation it becomes much stronger.
Any tension that causes blood flow to the pelvic region can cause a rupture of the vessel wall and the formation of a blood clot. He begins to exert pressure on the vessel from the inside and this increases the pain so much that it becomes problematic to walk and sit.
The knot acquires a deep purple or black tint. Swelling occurs in the perianal area.
Out of the hole, mucus with a pungent and unpleasant odor may begin. Also due to damage to the site, bleeding may occur.
Now that you have learned a little more about what a hemorrhoid is, thrombosis, namely the reasons for its appearance, is the next equally important issue that will be examined by our experts in the section below.
- A detailed description of the various stages: first, second, third, fourth,
- Features of the internal course of the disease and external manifestations,
- A list of drugs, candles and ointments that are used in the treatment of this disease can be found here.
Causes of thrombosis hemorrhoids
One of the first reasons experts believe malfunction of rectal vessels. They expand due to the intense flow of arterial blood.
Veins in which blood accumulates form knots after a certain period. If the disease worsens, they tend to fall out of the rectum and thrombate.
In addition, there are a number of contributing factors:
People who suffer from chronic constipation often have to push, which loads the body the same way as when lifting weights. If a person has frequent diarrhea, the anus may be irritated and inflamed. Various formations and processes of inflammation in the pelvic area. Tumors provoke a rush of blood from which the veins can not cope, because of this there are stagnation of blood.
Inflammations provoke sphincter spasms, which causes squeezing and trauma to the veins. Hypothermia
Different degrees of thrombosis
Clinically distinguish three degrees of thrombosis in hemorrhoids in men:
- First degree At this stage, the nodules are of a small size, but they cause pain if touched.
There is itching, burning sensation of the anus. Due to the use of alcohol and a long sitting person in a sitting position, the symptoms worsen.
- Second degree There is extensive swelling of the tissues around the anus.
They begin to acquire a red tint, and spasm of the sphincter of the rectum appears. Physical exposure provokes acute pain. The third stage. The entire surface of the anus covers swelling. Visually clearly observed hemorrhoidal nodules of purple color, which protrude from the anus.
Touches are given to unbearable pain. Characterized by necrosis, fever.
The act of emptying is accompanied by even greater pain. There is the likelihood of blood poisoning.
This will lead to the transfer of a blood clot to the coronary arteries or the brain along with the bloodstream. This scenario can cause a heart attack or stroke.
Diagnosis of the disease in men
As a rule, there is no difficulty. The proctologist diagnoses the disease. He uses three methods - a survey with a visual inspection, finger scan and research using specialized tools.
First, a survey is conducted about the presence of symptoms in a patient with a visual inspection. In the case of external thrombosis, visual diagnosis will not cause any special problems.
Externally bulged veins are enlarged, they have a purple shade, fibrin is present, which is a white patina. In cases where the disease is sufficiently developed, there are blackened areas - dead walls of the veins. Bleeding is also possible.
Touches hurt, nodules sufficiently hard, fall down with any impact. In the case of internal thrombosis, blood marks are present on the glove at the end of the digital examination.
With the prolapse of the bulging veins out, it is almost impossible to conduct a full examination complex, because a person has severe pain and an anus sphincter spasm occurs.
The final stage - tooling or rectoscopy. Rectoscope is used.
Even in the case when the bulging veins are located outside, this procedure is necessary. It allows you to remove suspicions from other pathologies that also occur with similar pain:
- Tumors of the rectum of malignant nature.
- Cracked anus.
- Fallen and strangled rectus polyp.
Now that you know a little more about thrombosis hemorrhoids, treatment is the next topic that we would like to touch on in this article.
Allows you to eliminate the symptoms in about a month and a half, and then follow some of the recommendations, which are aimed at preventing relapse. It is used mainly in the first and second stages of the disease., eliminates pain and inflammation, improves blood circulation.
In the treatment of this method follow a number of rules:
- patient is prescribed bed rest,
- assigned a special diet, which is the prevention of constipation - the inclusion in the diet of vegetables, fruits, bran,
- alcohol rejection
- taking laxatives
- enema procedures,
- various compresses
- bathing in a sitting position with potassium permanganate,
- four times a day with cool water,
- cooling gadgets
- treatment of the affected area with special ointments,
- taking special drugs.
The list of drugs prescribed for the treatment of thrombosis of the site is quite extensive. Here are some of them:
- Heparin ointment - helps to dissolve blood clots, reduce inflammation and swelling. Apply a small layer on the area of concern.
Or applied to a piece of cloth and applied to problem areas. It is applied from one to three times a day.
It is used in severe cases where other methods do not give the desired effect and thrombosis has reached the third stage.
Carry out two types of operations in the case of thrombosis in hemorrhoids:
- Thrombectomy - A simple and quick way to remove a blood clot. Used for large hemorrhoidal cones under local anesthesia. The bulging knot is dissected by the surgeon, the incision reaches 5 millimeters and heals for about 4 days.
It is considered quite effective method of dealing with external thrombosis. However, it does not exclude the formation of a blood clot in the nearby nodule. To avoid this, you must follow all the requirements of a doctor.
The video below shows how thrombectomy goes:
Hemorrhoidectomy - prescribed when the frequency of exacerbation becomes very high. It removes not just a blood clot, but the entire nodule, which saves the patient from relapses.
In the video you can see how this operation goes:
With the development of technology, new methods for the treatment of thrombosis began to be applied:
- Laser thrombectomy. Used to affect the external nodes.
It is performed with local anesthesia. Pains stop after the procedure, and the anus is not subjected to deformation. Ligation Hemorrhoids are clamped by latex rings. With the help of the anoscope, the doctor gains access to the nodes, sets the rings.
After clamping, the knot loses nutrition and gradually dies off. It is used in the second and third stages. Infrared coagulation. With the help of a coagulator, the nodule is exposed to a beam of infrared rays.
They burn the mucous membrane near the nodule and form a scar. It prevents the flow of blood, and as a result, it is exhausted and disappears.
Any disease is better to prevent than to cure. First of all, it is necessary to prevent the development of hemorrhoids.
The following recommendations should be followed:
- eliminate spicy and spicy foods from the diet
- give up alcohol,
- use sour milk products and fiber,
- pay attention to the hygiene of the anus after the next act of defecation,
- move more and change positions
- eliminate hard work,
- avoid hypothermia.
And you can find out about harmful and healthy products for the male organ here.
Hemorrhoidal thrombosis is a disease that should be avoided. If you find the initial symptoms, you should immediately consult a specialist.
Do not think that it will pass itself over time - this will only aggravate the situation and will require surgical intervention. Our health often depends on ourselves.
What is thrombosed hemorrhoids?
Thrombosed hemorrhoids occur as a complication of a chronic disease. The dilated vessels overflow with blood, which stagnates due to impaired blood flow. This leads to the formation of blood clots - blood clots, which appear when vessels are damaged. Nodes swell and become inflamed, which causes a person to experience severe pain.
Thrombosed external hemorrhoids are a serious complication caused by three key factors. Consider them in detail in the table below.
In some cases, a thrombosed hemorrhoid resolves after childbirth independently. Painful sensations go away in 5-7 days, edema subsides after 1-2 months.
Symptoms of thrombosed hemorrhoids
For more information about what are the symptoms of hemorrhoids without the formation of blood clots, you can learn from the detailed article of our specialist.
Be sure to read the article of our expert, which describes the main signs of hemorrhoids in the initial and advanced stages.
We also advise you to carefully study the article by a proctologist who talks about the main signs of hemorrhoids in women.
Additionally, we recommend to see a photo of hemorrhoids, to study the features and main symptoms of the pathological process.
Acute or chronic hemorrhoids are manifested by the following symptoms:
- discomfort and anal itching. This symptom is due to the fact that inflamed hemorrhoids fall out of the rectum and transfer mucus to the skin surface. This leads to maceration - violation of integrity, redness and swelling. The situation is aggravated by the use of anal candles or ointments. Preparations of this type can lead to contact dermatitis, which is manifested by burning and severe itching,
- perianal edema. This symptom is taken by patients for wanting to empty their intestines and is often described as a feeling of heaviness. Accompanied by prolapse of nodes, bleeding, mucus secretion,
- painful sensations. In chronic course with exacerbations of the disease, patients complain of a pronounced pain syndrome, which manifests itself regardless of the defecation or position of a person.
To identify hemorrhoids on the photo will help you many pictures on thematic forums. On them you can see the external nodes and note their swelling and cyanosis.
Types of hemorrhoids
There are two types of thrombosed hemorrhoids: external and internal. In the latter case, a blood clot is formed in the vessels that are directly in the rectum. The main symptom of the disease is the feeling that there is a foreign body in the anus. The walls of the rectum swell, the mucous membrane turns red, and the nodes in severe cases fall out.
We also advise you to carefully study the article of our expert, which is devoted to internal hemorrhoids, the characteristics of its occurrence and course.
Additionally, we recommend reading the article by a proctologist on the symptoms and treatment of external hemorrhoids.
The presence of a thrombosed external hemorrhoid is indicated by inflamed hemorrhoidal lumps surrounding the anus. They are thick and dense, well visible and easy to feel. At the moment of touch, a person feels a pronounced pain. Walking, lying and sitting becomes difficult.
Conservative therapy: drugs, procedures, diet
We also advise you to read the author's article of our specialist, which is devoted to the features of the treatment of acute hemorrhoids.
Additionally, we recommend that you carefully study the information on the treatment of hemorrhoidal prolapse, presented in the article of our expert.
Conservative treatment of thrombosed hemorrhoids is carried out in cases where the thrombosis is not too extensive and is eliminated by traditional methods. Non-invasive therapy (without surgery) implies:
- heparin-based anticoagulant treatment. Anticoagulants - a group of drugs aimed at inhibiting blood clotting. Heparin is a direct acting anticoagulant. The substance inhibits the activity of thrombin - an element that is directly involved in blood clotting processes. Heparin-based anticoagulants include: Hepatrombin G, Gepazolone, Nigean, Wiatromb, Heparin-Richter,
- normalization of digestion and stool. This method includes healthy split meals, drinking enough water and proper emptying of the intestines,
- reception of phlebotonics. This is a group of drugs that stimulate venous blood outflow. They thin the blood, strengthen the blood vessels and relieve painful sensations. Available in the form of ointments, gels, tablets, dragees and capsules. Are taken orally (inwards, through the mouth) or externally. By oral medications include: Detraleks, Venarus, Antistax, Phlebodia, Glevenol. Popular local drugs: Troxevasin, Venoruton, Lioton. Also, doctors often prescribe candles: Prokto-Glevenol and Proktosedil M,
- pain sensations are eliminated by analgesics. This is a group of medicines aimed at alleviating pain. This category includes Analgin, Nimesulide, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen.
When thrombosed hemorrhoids are recommended to take warm baths. This method will help soothe the inflammation and soothe the pain.
Moderately hot baths have an anti-inflammatory effect, warm water tones the veins, and cool water improves blood flow. At elevated temperatures, baths are contraindicated.
Chamomile-based lotions are a folk remedy with anti-inflammatory and healing properties. Regular use of lotions will help to deal with the main symptoms, relieve pain, itching and burning.
Thrombectomy is a surgical operation during which the doctor excises blood clots from the blood vessels of the rectum. It is prescribed at the last stage of thrombosed hemorrhoids and is performed under local anesthesia, therefore, it is considered a painless procedure.
Thrombectomy is carried out in several stages.
- The patient is placed on the right side and asked to put their legs together and lean them against the stomach as much as possible.
- The doctor puts a local anesthetic into the affected area.
- The hemorrhoidal unit is decontaminated, after which a small incision is made for further excision of the thrombus.
- A blood clot comes out on its own through an incision made earlier. If this does not occur, the blood clot is removed using a surgical clamp.
Pain disappears within a few minutes after removal of a blood clot. The wound inflicted at the time of surgical intervention disappears completely after 3-5 days. During this period, sterile dressings should be changed regularly.
This is a radical method of treatment, which is indicated in cases where thrombectomy and other methods of treatment do not give the expected results. The operation is performed in the Trendelenburg position, during which the patient lies on his back on a special chair, and the lower limbs are placed on special legs. In order for the procedure to be successful, the patient must lie at a 45 degree angle.
The operation is a ligation or complete excision of hemorrhoids. This is done with the help of a high-frequency surgical apparatus, an electrosurgical unit or a laser. Possible postoperative complications: bleeding and narrowing of the anus.
With the running form of thrombosed hemorrhoids, it is important to provide timely treatment. If this is not done, the knots and tissues will begin to die off. The latter can lead to the loss of large amounts of blood and even death.
Another serious complication is sepsis. Pathogens in the affected area are transferred to other internal organs and cause severe infection. This is reflected in the general condition of the body, which is rapidly deteriorating.
If a person has already recognized the disease by the main symptoms, it is important to pay attention to the full treatment. Therapy should be comprehensive and include normalization of diet, lifestyle changes and regular medication prescribed by a doctor. In certain situations, the operation cannot be excluded.
Never refuse full-time consultation with a specialist. Early therapy will help to avoid many complications and significantly improve the quality of your life.
Hemorrhoidal thrombosis - a violation of blood circulation in the cavernous plexus of the rectum, accompanied by the formation of a blood clot - thrombus. The acute condition lasts for about five days, after which the thrombosed, inflamed node undergoes substitution with connective tissue, necrotizing and ulceration of the mucosa is possible. Acute hemorrhoidal thrombosis is diagnosed in approximately 27% of all patients with a verified diagnosis of hemorrhoids, and its proportion among all complications is 60%. In the absence of adequate treatment may develop severe complications that not only significantly worsen the patient's condition, but also can be fatal. The urgency of the problem lies in the temporary effect of conservative treatment methods, the high frequency of relapses and unsatisfactory long-term results after surgical intervention, and, consequently, the absence of a single concept of therapeutic tactics in proctology.
Depending on which nodes are affected, external, internal, and combined hemorrhoidal thrombosis are isolated. Thrombosis of hemorrhoids is also classified into three degrees depending on the vastness of the pathological process and the severity of the clinical picture.
Causes of Hemorrhoidal Thrombosis
Acute thrombosis of hemorrhoids develops under the influence of various factors that worsen the condition of varicose veins of the rectal plexus. In the development of this complication, a violation of the diet plays a role: excessive use of alcohol, various seasonings, salt, bitter and spicy foods. These foods are dangerous because they stimulate blood circulation in the pelvis and increase the pressure in hemorrhoids. An important factor is the change in the work of the digestive tract in the form of constipation or diarrhea, which adversely affect the blood circulation in the hemorrhoidal plexus. Constipation occurs when insufficient consumption of foods that contain a lot of plant fiber: vegetables, fruits, bran and others.
The next reason for the development of hemorrhoidal thrombosis is hypodynamia, namely, prolonged sitting, resulting in stagnation in the pelvic vessels, this leads to the formation of blood clots in the cavernous plexuses and exacerbation of the disease. Often a thrombosis occurs after birth. Thus, a hemorrhoidal thrombosis almost always develops after traumatization.
Often, acute thrombosis of internal hemorrhoids is preceded by spasm of the anal sphincter, resulting from the above reasons as a response to painful irritation. As a result of spasm in the fallen nodes, the blood circulation is significantly disturbed, there is stagnation of blood and thrombus formation, edema and intense pain syndrome develop, and usually all fallen nodes are affected. This condition develops acutely, the decisive factor is often straining. When external hemorrhoidal thrombosis, thrombosis usually occurs in one of the nodes, so the clinical picture is less bright.
Symptoms of hemorrhoidal thrombosis
The leading symptoms of hemorrhoidal thrombosis are intense pain in the perineum, as well as discomfort in the anus. The pain is constant, not associated with the act of defecation. The density of the node and its size increase, and patients can note the feeling of a foreign body in the rectum. Since inflammation is possible in this pathological condition, symptoms such as hyperthermia, general weakness, and nausea are characteristic.
The clinical manifestations of hemorrhoidal thrombosis depend on its degree. When the first degree of thrombosis is not accompanied by inflammation. In this case, an increase in hemorrhoidal nodes with an increase in their density. Touching the nodes causes them to be slightly sore. The patient is disturbed by discomfort in the anus, aggravated by bowel movements. On examination, there is a slight swelling and hyperemia in the anus.
In the second degree of severity, an inflammatory process in the nodes joins the thrombosis. At this stage, marked swelling and severe hyperemia in the perianal region. Palpation hemorrhoids are very painful.
The third stage of the process, in addition to thrombosis and inflammation in the hemorrhoidal nodes, is accompanied by the development of inflammatory infiltration in the subcutaneous tissue of the perianal area. In some cases, the pathological process extends to all pararectal fiber. Finger rectal examination and palpation of hemorrhoids cause unbearable pain. A visual inspection reveals purple and cyanotic nodes that fall out of the rectum. Of the complications of thrombosis, intense bleeding, widespread swelling in the rectal area, purulent paraproctitis, and hemorrhoid necrosis are most common.
Diagnosis of hemorrhoidal thrombosis
As a rule, to verify a hemorrhoidal thrombosis, a typical clinical picture is sufficient. An important role in the diagnosis is given to the collection of complaints, anamnesis, as well as examination of the perianal area. Examination of the first degree of severity reveals the presence of compacted and enlarged thrombosed hemorrhoids, moderately painful on palpation. In external hemorrhoidal thrombosis, one node is usually affected, in the case of internal hemorrhoids, the loss of hemorrhoids is determined.
With the progression of the pathological process and the addition of signs of inflammation, pronounced congestive hyperemia of the nodes can be detected. The third degree of severity is characterized by the presence during the inspection of a continuous inflammatory infiltrate in the perianal zone. In addition, there may be marked necrosis of individual hemorrhoids, which are bluish-purple or black.
Thrombated external hemorrhoids are visualized below the crest line, with internal thrombosis there is a groove between the prolapse node and the edematous skin of the perianal zone. Thrombosis of internal hemorrhoids in the absence of prolapse is determined by digital rectal examination: dense, sharply painful round formations are palpable, not falling down when pressed.
From the laboratory research methods, the coagulogram is informative: it reveals signs of impaired hemostasis. In general, the analysis of blood at the addition of inflammation is determined by the increase in the number of leukocytes due to the stab forms. To clarify the diagnosis, especially in cases of suspected internal thrombosis, and the exclusion of other diseases accompanied by intense pain syndrome (rectal cancer, stranded rectal prolapse, acute paraproctitis), rectoscopy is performed.
Hemorrhoidal Thrombosis Treatment
For the treatment of hemorrhoidal thrombosis, proctologists use complex therapy, which is differentiated depending on the degree of microcirculation disorder. In the first and second degree of severity, multicomponent conservative therapy is justified. Thrombolytic agents are prescribed in the form of gels, ointments or suppositories. These are drugs based on heparin, which are highly effective in eliminating thrombosis and in preventing the formation of blood clots in the future. Painkillers are also used to relieve intense pain and improve the condition of patients. If there are signs of inflammation, nonsteroidal drugs and glucocorticoids are prescribed.
Anti-inflammatory treatment is administered topically in the form of ointments, as well as orally or parenterally. With an active inflammatory process, a combination of local treatment with intramuscular or intravenous administration of anti-inflammatory drugs is possible. Also preparations with venotonic effect are used. As an additional conservative treatment, cold compresses on the perineal area are shown to patients, which allow to eliminate pain and reduce the severity of inflammation.
The third degree of hemorrhoidal thrombosis is an indication for surgical treatment. The operation can be carried out in an urgent (within the first two days) or delayed order (after 4-5 days), which is determined by the presence or absence of pinching of the nodes, the need for relief of acute inflammation. The most common operation is thrombectomy. This is a relatively small intervention, which involves opening the node and removing a blood clot from it, after which the surgeons do not suture the postoperative wound, allowing it to heal on its own. The final healing takes no more than 2-3 days. This tactic is used for external thrombosis of one or two nodes. With a more extensive lesion, hemorrhoidectomy is performed with restoration of the integrity of the mucous membrane of the anal canal. This intervention allows you to achieve optimal long-term results.
In some cases, with extensive thrombosis with severe perianal edema and severe pain syndrome, a rear dosing sphincterotomy is used. In the presence of complications, such as inflammation of adrectal tissue or necrosis of the hemorrhoid, more radical surgical interventions are performed. Paraproctitis operations include perianal fiber drainage to reduce inflammatory infiltration.
Prognosis and prevention of hemorrhoidal thrombosis
With proper treatment, the prognosis for thrombosis of the hemorrhoid is favorable. Against the background of the lack of adequate therapy, complications are possible in the form of paraproctitis, necrosis of the hemorrhoid, which significantly worsens the prognosis. For the prevention of thrombosis in patients with chronic hemorrhoids, it is necessary to follow certain recommendations to prevent injury to hemorrhoids and blood clots. In particular, it is necessary to control the work of the intestines, seeking to normalize the stool, avoiding constipation and diarrhea. To do this, follow the recommended diet with the exception of too spicy and salted foods, as well as spices and alcohol. In the daily diet should be enough vegetables and fruits containing fiber, dairy products, cereals. It is recommended to normalize physical activity.
Causes of thrombosis
In the hemorrhoidal veins sometimes there is a blood clot, which is called a thrombus, and a condition in which this occurs is called thrombosis.
The thrombus itself is not painful, however, with the passage of blood, the pressure in the veins increases. This leads to the fact that the vessels burst, the nerve endings are compressed, which causes an acute attack of pain.
Pathology develops, involving and capturing the anus and subcutaneous fat, inflames the external thrombosed hemorrhoid.
Blood clots are formed because they are influenced by various factors:
- wrong diet
- increased intra-abdominal pressure (in women this happens during childbirth,
- abdominal surgery
- smoking and alcohol abuse.
The walls of blood vessels are damaged, hence a blood clot occurs in the veins, which further leads to the occurrence of a thrombosed hemorrhoid.
Blood passes through them more slowly than through the veins in the whole body. Here are the reasons why thrombosis is formed.
What are the symptoms of thrombosed hemorrhoids? It depends on where the hemorrhoid is located, how big it is, and how much the sphincter muscles squeeze it, making it difficult for the blood circulation in the veins.
If internal hemorrhoids are diagnosed, inflammation occurs and people feel acute pain. No matter how large a blood clot in the veins is, whether it is external or internal, even a small one can provoke severe pains with inflammation, and its removal will be required.
When a node with a blood clot is located inside the body, the person begins to feel a foreign body in the anus. The walls of the rectum swell.
Over time, the knot will swell more and more, and one day it will simply fall out, causing severe pain. That is why it is necessary to immediately treat a thrombosed external hemorrhoids and at the first symptoms of the disease, go to the proctologist for an appointment.
The skin around the sphincter reddens when inflammation spreads to this area. The pain in thrombosed hemorrhoids is severe and acute. When you touch the damaged node, the pain only intensifies, becoming unbearable.
What does hemorrhoids look like? Photos of hemorrhoid stages can be viewed on the Internet. Perhaps such a picture will force a person to turn to a doctor sooner so as not to aggravate his condition.
The deterioration of the patient may be a deterioration in appetite.
And deterioration can be expressed in:
- reduced appetite
- decrease in working capacity
- temperature increase
- problems with falling asleep and sleep.
When blood clots increase the likelihood of rupture of blood vessels, which is expressed in the blood on the feces and paper. There are frequent cases of bleeding that require urgent treatment or even surgery for a thrombosed external hemorrhoids.
How to treat?
The disease can be treated in two ways:
The conservative method is suitable if there are few blood clots and the disease is still easy - the pain is not very pronounced, and the affected area is small. This form is called circular, and it is treated with drugs.
To surgery for incision of veins and removal of blood clots resorted to only in extreme cases.
The operation on incision of the veins and removal of blood clots is resorted to only in extreme cases, and even with severe circular form, when the lesions are extensive, they first try to treat the disease with medicines.
Thus, thrombosed hemorrhoids can be treated non-invasively.
The doctor prescribes the following activities:
- Normalization of digestion It does not matter if a person is concerned about constipation or intestinal upset, normalization of the digestive tract is required.
- Taking painkillers. In the appointment of such funds, the doctor takes into account the severity of the disease, the severity of pain.
- The use of anti-inflammatory drugs. A doctor to relieve inflammation can prescribe pills or ointment. Anti-inflammatory properties have drugs with hormonal ingredients - corticosteroids.
- Reception warm baths. In no case can not lie in hot water, so you can only worsen the condition. It is better to take warm baths in the morning and in the evening, adding to them a decoction of medicinal plants (chamomile, calendula).
If this does not help, surgical intervention is prescribed. In this case, the doctor injects anesthesia under the vein. The vessel is then incised and a blood clot is removed. A bandage is applied to this place with an agent that kills bacteria and stops bleeding.
A doctor can relieve inflammations for pills. For example, drugs with hormonal ingredients - corticosteroids.
Thus, the constraint is not appropriate, and you need to contact the proctologist as soon as possible if you suspect a disease.
Ointment products are a popular method of treating thrombosed blood vessels. It is not surprising that for the beginning of thrombosis on the veins are treated следующими мазями:
Для облегчения состояния доктор может назначить и противовоспалительное лекарство. Например, от тромбированного наружного геморроя хороши Индометацин при геморрое или Ибупрофен.
Тонизирует вены Флебодиа 600. Swelling with itching perfectly remove drugs containing hormones. Unfortunately, the body quickly gets used to them, and they need to be changed.
Hemorrhoids, in which blood clots occur in the veins, are considered chronic diseases. If tablets with mixtures and ointments do not help to cure the disease, the doctor will recommend surgery. For severe pains that accompany thrombosed external hemorrhoids, surgery is the only way to get rid of negative symptoms.
Causes of development
The development of pathology due to the presence of provoking factors:
- slow blood flow to facilitate clot formation,
- increase blood viscosity
- damage to the vascular walls.
The disease is caused by many reasons, but the most common are:
- Constipation, especially long-lasting, during which constant straining leads to a large amount of blood rushing to the rectal area and blood stasis, resulting in a blood clot.
- Low mobility, characterized by prolonged stagnation of blood in the pelvic area.
- Pregnancy, in which the constantly enlarging uterus exerts pressure on the peritoneal cavity, causing a violation of the outflow of blood and its stagnation.
- Childbirth and any excessive physical stress, due to which blood constantly rushes to the pelvic area, which can lead to bursting of blood vessels and, as a result, blood stagnation.
The symptomatology of the disease varies depending on the site of the site, the stage and form of the pathological process. But there is one invariable symptom - it is a pain syndrome of an acute and permanent nature, which is localized in the anus region. When the internal form of the pathology is often a concomitant symptom except pain is a sensation in the anal canal of a foreign object. If the hemorrhoids are external, then the pain is most acute, which increases when you touch the knot, while sitting and even walking or sneezing, swelling, redness or blue skin of the anus appears.
Possible additional symptoms are:
- violation of defecation on the background of severe pain,
- the secretion of mucus or blood from the anus due to a possible rupture of the vascular wall,
- itching in the anus,
- hyperthermia due to the development of the inflammatory process,
- deterioration of the general condition of the body, manifested in decreased appetite, impaired performance and sleep.
Features of treatment
There are two ways to treat a thrombosed hemorrhoid form - it is conservative and operative. The first method is used in the circular form of pathology, which is characterized by a small number of blood clots, a slight course of the disease, an insignificant area of the pathology and a weak pain syndrome. This therapy provides positive results. It is necessary to treat with the help of a surgical intervention in case of heavy circulation forms characterized by extensive areas of damage and severe pain.
Conservative therapy has the following objectives:
- easing pain
- removal of inflammation
- clot resorption,
- elimination of puffiness.
To do this, apply venotonic, analgesic, decongestants and anti-inflammatory oral agents with systemic effects, rectal suppositories and ointments, physiological procedures. Phlebodia, Diosmin, Detralex can be used as venotonics. Excellent anti-inflammatory drugs, which also have analgesic properties, are Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Indomethacin, Ketorolac, Nimesil, Meloxicam. In some cases, additional anticoagulants are prescribed, such as Curantil, Fraxiparin, Aspirin, Heparin.
Ointments are very effective and popular in the treatment of hemorrhoids of the thrombosed form, in particular, its external localization. Relief, Heparin ointment, Proktosedil, Gepatrombin G, Aurobin are considered the most effective and common ones. They are composed of anesthetics - substances that stop pain and thin the blood. Often, ointments are used for internal hemorrhoids, the introduction of which occurs with a special applicator.
In the internal form of the disease, rectal suppositories are used. Their concentration is not as great as that of ointments, but use is more convenient. The following products are distinguished by their high efficiency: Heparin, Nigepan, Hepatrombin G, Hepazolone.
If the course of the disease is not difficult, then sit in a complex with other procedures, sessile warm (in any case not hot) baths based on healing plants. The most effective of these are chamomile, calendula and sage, as well as their collection. Alternatively, you can apply and bath with a solution of potassium permanganate or compresses with medicinal plants. Such procedures are aimed at the resorption of blood clots, their duration is 10-15 minutes. If the pathological process is accompanied by hyperthermia, then thermal procedures of a local nature are not prescribed.
With the passage of conservative therapy, the patient should avoid physical exertion, and in case of fever or an acute course of the disease, he is shown bed rest. A very important condition during treatment is careful personal hygiene. This washing of the anus in the morning, evening and after each act of defecation, which prevents the development of infections.
Surgical procedures are indicated in the case of a wide spread of thrombosis, with its advanced stages, as well as after ineffective treatment with conservative methods. If you do not perform an operation in one of these cases, this can lead to the appearance of various complications, including life-threatening ones. Surgery is of two types: simple instrumental and hemorrhoidectomy.
A simple operation involves the removal of a blood clot, eliminating the removal of the hemorrhoid itself. It is performed using local anesthesia. This intervention is not very efficient, since it does not solve pathology in a radical way. So, it does not eliminate the root cause of the disease and does not provide for the exclusion of relapse.
Hemorrhoidectomy is more effective, which allows you to radically solve the problem of thrombosed hemorrhoids. During this procedure, the thrombus and the node itself are removed, and the venous network of the affected organ is strengthened. The next step is to apply a special dressing with antibacterial and hemostatic composition. Such a surgical intervention makes it possible to completely eliminate the development of relapse.
Description and stages of thrombosis
Damage to the walls of blood vessels in hemorrhoidal disease provokes protective functions, characterized by coagulation, resulting in a blood clot.
This can lead to hemorrhoidal thrombosis and inflammation. These processes relate to the development of acute hemorrhoids, affecting internal and external hemorrhoidal bumps.
The pathological process proceeds through 3 stages of development.
The manifestation of the acute phase of hemorrhoids proceeds without an inflammatory process. The patient feels a burning sensation, itching, pain while cleansing the intestines.
Irritation in the anus is increased by eating unhealthy foods: salty, spicy, fried, alcohol.
Exercise plays an important role, after which the patient's condition worsens, the symptoms of the disease increase.
Vessels in the rectum overflow with blood, hemorrhoidal bumps are palpable. The lack of proper treatment entails inflammation and thrombophlebitis.
The disease flows into the next, more severe stage.
At this stage of the pathological process there is a constant pain syndrome, aggravated by motor activity, sitting.
The process of bowel cleansing is extremely difficult because of severe pain. Bleeding from hemorrhoids opens, the body temperature rises.
The area of the anus undergoes changes: swelling appears, the vessels and veins overflow with blood, there is pain.
When inflammation of hemorrhoidal lumps is accompanied by an increase in size, swelling, sharp pain. Nodes go outside.
This stage of acute hemorrhoids is difficult, accompanied by the following symptoms:
- Painful sensations acquire a strong, tearing, intense characteristic. The patient can not sleep, eat, lead a normal life.
- The body temperature rises.
- The acts of defecation become sharply painful.
- Due to reflex spasm, urine retention occurs when urinating.
- Complications develop (paraproctitis).
- Hemorrhoids swell, thicken, the color becomes blue and purple, there is complete or partial necrosis of the tissues.
- Observed acute inflammation of the tissues around the affected area.
Patients who have marked persistent bleeding or acute grade 3 hemorrhoids require urgent hospitalization.
Risk of thrombosis
When hemorrhoids appear, you should immediately contact the proctologist for help. Home therapy or pharmacy can help relieve symptoms, but it does not guarantee complete recovery due to the inability to determine the exact diagnosis and extent of damage in the home.
An experienced doctor will conduct a full diagnosis, prescribe the correct treatment. External thrombosis hemorrhoids is characterized by abundant bleeding, which leads to serious blood loss, anemia develops.
Therefore, an acute form of hemorrhoids is subject to emergency hospitalization in the proctology or surgical department.
In addition to massive bleeding, necrosis and purulent paraproctitis, the development of sepsis is possible.
This complication is a threat to the patient's life. Therefore, it is important to start the correct treatment in time by contacting specialists.
There are certain symptoms that help identify a thrombosed hemorrhoid. They depend on the localization of hemorrhoids, its size, and the degree of compression of the sphincter muscles when venous blood circulation is impeded.
When an internal hemorrhoids develops an inflammatory process, there is an acute pain effect.
The size of blood clots, external or internal, does not matter. All of them are capable of provoking severe pain, inflammation. In this case, a mandatory removal is required.
With an internal thrombosed site, the patient feels a foreign object in the anus. Swelling of the walls of the anus.
Edemas become stronger, the nodes fall out, accompanied by severe pain. Therefore, it is important to promptly complain to the doctor, having received competent advice, and proper treatment.
When the inflammatory process spreads, the skin around the sphincter is redder. There is a strong and acute pain effect.
It is impossible to touch the affected hemorrhoidal bumps due to unbearable pain. The patient can not sit, lie down, lead a normal life.
What additional symptoms accompany the patient:
- loss of appetite,
- reduced performance
- body temperature rises
- insomnia, sleep disorders.
The presence of blood clots increases the risk of rupture of blood vessels. Scarlet traces of blood can be found in the feces, paper, towel.
Urgent treatment is required, sometimes surgery.
In the cavity of the veins with hemorrhoids sometimes appears a blood clot, called a thrombus. This condition is called thrombosis.
A blood clot does not cause pain, but with the passage of blood venous pressure increases. This process leads to rupture of blood vessels, compression of nerve endings, forming an acute paroxysmal pain syndrome.
A pathological process develops, spreading to the anus, and subcutaneous fat.
Thrombosed hemorrhoidal site is subject to inflammation. What affects the formation of blood clots:
- poor diet,
- insufficient fluid intake, dehydration,
- increased pressure in the peritoneum (observed during pregnancy),
- cold, hypothermia,
- during abdominal surgery,
- bad habits.
Blood clots are formed due to damage to the walls of blood vessels. This entails the occurrence of thrombosis of the hemorrhoid.
When hemorrhoids due to frequent high pressure in the veins of the rectum changes are observed - they stretch, the walls become thinner. Blood circulation is impaired, leading to a complication.
Medication therapy is prescribed. It includes safe and effective drugs. These include Detraleks.
It has anti-inflammatory action, strengthening the blood vessels. Additionally, multicomponent ointments are used - Heparin, Gepatrombin G, Troxevasin.
Rectal suppositories do not have the desired effect in this case.
This type of therapy is used for not too extensive and painful thrombosis. By reducing the overall symptoms of the acute form of hemorrhoids and inflammation, you can take decisive action by resorting to the help of surgeons.
The most effective and fastest method of surgery is trombectomy.
The thrombectomy procedure is performed under local anesthesia. The hemorrhoid is dissected and a thrombus is removed.
Make a cut, eliminates blood clots. Cones are reduced in size, pain passes. The operation is fast.
After surgery, the patient is allowed to go home, after consulting and giving accurate recommendations.
The resulting wound passes in a matter of days. Sometimes remove the entire node. This will prevent further recurrences.
With neglected hemorrhoids during exacerbations, a radical surgical intervention is carried out in order to prevent the recurrence of complications.
There are modern and invasive methods for the treatment of thrombosis:
- Laser therapy. Effectively removes large outdoor nodes. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia, takes about 1 hour. The advantage of the operation is bloodlessness, high efficiency. Pain passes after the operation, there is no deformation in the anus. After the procedure, the patient can lead a normal life.
- Ligation nodes. Using special latex rings, pinch hemorrhoidal nodules. The procedure is applicable at stage 2-3 pathology. The surgeon works with a special device - anoscope. With it, access to cones is detected. With the help of a ligator impose latex rings, pinching the node, blocking access to food. Necrosis gradually develops, the nodule disappears on its own.
- Infrared coagulation. With the help of a coagulator, powerful infrared rays are applied to the affected area. Mucous is burned near the nodule, a small scar is formed. It blocks blood supply to the nodule, its exhaustion occurs, it dies away.
Hemorrhoids should always be treated to avoid dangerous consequences in the form of complications.
With thrombosis hemorrhoids, all symptoms increase, the patient must seek help from doctors.
Self-treatment is ineffective and can be harmful to health.
Symptoms and signs
Thrombosis has several characteristic symptoms, the intensity of which depends on the severity of the disease:
- Intense pain in the rectum, which increases significantly during bowel movements, intense movements (walking or running) and prolonged sitting.
- A condition in which it seems that there is a foreign object in the rectum (discomfort in the anus).
- Severe itching and swelling of the anus tissue.
These symptoms manifest themselves at an early stage of hemorrhoidal thrombosis. Later, the patient may experience more severe signs of the disease, such as heavy bleeding and mucus from the anus.
Diagnosis of the disease
With thrombosis, there is a marked increase in external hemorrhoids, which acquire a bright purple or even bluish tint. Quite often a whitish bloom can be seen on their surface - this is a layer of fibrin covering the inner walls of the nodes. In severe stages of thrombosis, black spots may form on the hemorrhoidal nodes, which may increase in size over time.
This blackening of the skin appears as a result of necrosis of the hemorrhoidal tissue and is an extremely dangerous symptom. The tissues surrounding the thrombosed hemorrhoids are also inflamed and have a bright scarlet color. If there are areas with dead skin tissue on the surface of the nodes, then the patient may have heavy bleeding that can be difficult to stop.
When probing, the knots are rather dense, extremely painful, and retain their shape even with strong pressure. If the patient was diagnosed with thrombosis of the internal hemorrhoid, then after his finger examination there are always blood marks on the glove. In addition, the patient has an increased sphincter tone.
If the internal hemorrhoids affected by thrombosis fall outside, then in this case it is almost impossible to perform a qualitative study of the rectum with a finger. The implementation of this diagnostic procedure is hampered by pronounced pain and strong sphincter spasm, so in such a situation, to explore the anus with palpation is possible only after anesthesia of the inflamed areas.
Another important step in the diagnosis of hemorrhoidal thrombosis is instrumental examination. It is performed using a special tool - a rectal speculum or, as it is also called, a rectoscope. This procedure is mandatory even if the patient was diagnosed with external hemorrhoids, as it allows to exclude other pathologies of the rectum that occur with the presence of acute pain:
- Anal fissures.
- Paraproctitis (inflammation in the rectum).
- Loss or pinching of a rectal polyp.
How to treat thrombosis
Acute thrombosis of the external hemorrhoid stage I and stage II is treated with the help of various drugs. The goal of this treatment is:
- Elimination of inflammatory processes in the hemorrhoidal site.
- Removal of acute pain and reduction of soft tissue edema.
- Relieving overstress of the rectum sphincter.
- Dissolution of thrombus and prevention of its re-formation.
The treatment of acute hemorrhoids complicated by thrombosis is carried out as follows: various therapeutic ointments, such as ultraproct, proctosedil, aurobin, and also heparin and troxevasine, are applied to the hemorrhoid. For the treatment of thrombosis of internal nodes apply rectal suppositories of a similar action - anesthesol, nigepan and posterizan.
Excellent therapeutic effect is achieved thanks to alcohol-novocain blockade. With this method of treatment, a mixture of 6 ml of novocaine and 1 ml of alcohol is introduced into the area around the hemorrhoid. This procedure is carried out every 3 days, while the total course of treatment is 4 procedures.
To obtain the best effect of alcohol-novocainic blockade should be combined with the use of therapeutic ointments. In addition, to relieve pain and inflammation on hemorrhoidal nodes affected by thrombosis, you can apply dressings from various ointments, for example, levocina or levomekol. Hemorrhoidal thrombosis is often treated with laser therapy, but this requires a special device.
Ointment should be combined with the intake of venotonic preparations. These drugs help to improve blood circulation in the hemorrhoid, help reduce tissue swelling and strengthen the venous wall. The most famous drugs of this group are detralex and aescin.
The only effective way to cure grade III hemorrhoidal thrombosis is an operable intervention.
If at the given disease the patient has severe bleeding, then in this case the surgical operation is performed in emergency mode. In such a situation, only strong inflammation of the soft tissues around the hemorrhoid can serve as the only reason for the transfer of the operation for several days in advance.
Before the operation, they will try to remove it with strong anti-inflammatory drugs. The main type of surgery for this disease is thrombectomy of the hemorrhoid.
What you need to know about hemorrhoidal thrombosis
Everyone knows what hemorrhoids are. But not everyone knows that he can have serious complications. One of them is hemorrhoidal thrombosis.
According to statistics, in 82.3% of cases this condition occurs against the background of exacerbation of the chronic form of the disease. In 17.7% of patients, the process develops as acute. Of those who turned with the clinic of acute hemorrhoids, patients with thrombosis account for 38-41%.
Why does this complication occur? How does it manifest and how to treat it? Let us dwell on these issues in more detail.
How does thrombosis develop
Thrombosed hemorrhoids appear for several reasons:
- Due to the sharp increase in pressure in the abdominal cavity. It causes intense straining during prolonged constipation or heavy physical exertion. It also occurs in pregnant women, especially in the later periods.
- Against the background of tissue trauma around the anus.
- When overcooling.
The action of these factors injures the inner wall of the hemorrhoidal veins, and increases the stagnation of blood in them. In the place of injury, platelets (blood cells) stick together, and fibrin (blood protein) falls out. The result is a blood clot that fills the lumen of the site and is often accompanied by inflammation.
Note! When inflammation of the venous wall joins the thrombosis, it is no longer a thrombosis, but thrombophlebitis. And you need to treat both conditions.
In the future, there are three possible outcomes:
- The death of the tissues of the node (necrosis) and their rejection.
- Resorption of a small thrombus.
- Rupture of knot wall with bleeding.
Complications have different symptoms. Moreover, the degree of their severity depends on the severity of the disease, as well as on whether or not there is thrombophlebitis.
The division of acute hemorrhoids by severity
Clinically distinguish 3 degrees of thrombosis:
- Grade I - the node is small, has a tough-elastic consistency, painful at palpation and located under the dentate line of the rectal canal.
- Grade II - there is a significant swelling of the tissues around the anus, their redness and spasm of the rectal sphincter. When the finger study there is a sharp pain. Here it is necessary to exclude thrombophlebitis of the rectum veins.
- Grade III - redness and swelling capture the entire area around the anus. From it are visible protrusions of the walls of the veins of bluish-purple or purple color. Sometimes on the nodes you can see the whitish fibrin plaque, as well as black areas. These are ulcerations of the site with dead tissue. A frequent companion of acute hemorrhoids at this stage is thrombophlebitis of the intestinal veins.
Note! At this stage of acute hemorrhoids, the examination of the rectal walls is impossible with either a finger or instruments due to the pronounced spasm of the sphincter of the anus and sharp soreness of the walls of the veins.
A thrombosed hemorrhoid always has clinical symptoms and proceeds with certain complaints. Only in very rare cases is it possible for it to flow without any manifestation. If thrombophlebitis is associated with thrombosis, there are always symptoms.
For setting the correct diagnosis using clinical and additional instrumental methods.
Complaints of patients, examination and examination of the intestine with a finger
With different severity of the disease, the symptoms of thrombosis are the same, but differ in the degree of severity:
- Pain. It is felt in the rectum and becomes more intense after stool, as well as when walking and sitting.
- Foreign body feeling and discomfort in the same area.
- Itching and swelling in the anus.
These are early manifestations, and later mucous discharge and blood from the anus may appear.
Externally, the protrusions of the veins are enlarged, purple or bluish-purple and often covered with a layer of fibrin in the form of a whitish plaque. Sometimes you can see black areas. This is the necrosis of the walls of the veins, or necrosis of the hemorrhoid. Reddening around the thrombosed cones. And if there are areas of ulceration or necrosis on the surface of the nodes, heavy bleeding may occur.
To the touch the knots are dense, painful and do not fall down when pressed. In case of internal hemorrhoids, blood remains on the glove after a finger examination of the intestine. Also marked is the increased tone of the sphincter of the anus.
When the thrombosed internal protrusions of the veins fall out, it is almost impossible to conduct a full examination with a finger. This is hindered by a pronounced soreness and spasm of the sphincter of the anus. Therefore, the procedure is performed with anesthesia.
And the last mandatory step is an instrumental examination.
Inspection with tools
For its use using a rectal speculum or rectoscope. Even if the protrusions of the veins are located outside, a similar inspection is required.
It allows you to exclude another pathology that occurs with severe pain:
- Tumors of the rectum of malignant nature.
- Cracked anus.
- Acute inflammation of the tissues surrounding the rectum is paraproctitis.
- Fallen and strangled rectus polyp.
- Thrombophlebitis intestinal veins.
Note! In case of severe pain syndrome, instrumental examination is also performed with analgesia of the anus.
When the diagnosis is confirmed, decide where and how to treat the disease - at home or in the hospital. At the same time, the therapy of thrombosis of the external hemorrhoid is not fundamentally different from that of the internal location of the cones.
Acute hemorrhoids of I and II degrees are treated with drugs. In this case, the goal of therapy:
- To remove inflammation of the walls of the veins.
- Eliminate swelling and pain.
- Relax the rectal sphincter.
- Dissolve the thrombus and prevent the formation of a new one.
To do this, ointment is applied topically to the site - Heparin, Proctosedil, Aurobin, Ultraprokt, Troxevazine. If there is a thrombosis of the internal hemorrhoid, the therapy is performed with suppositories of the same action - Posterizan, Anestezol, Nigepan. And if thrombophlebitis also develops, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are included in the treatment regimen - for example, Nurofen, Nise, Meloxicam, and others.
Alcohol-novocaine blockades give a good effect - 6 ml of 1% novocaine + 1 ml of 70% alcohol. They are cut around the tissue around the site every 3-4 days with a course of 3-4 procedures. In this blockade combined with local application of ointments. In addition to those already listed, you can use Levomekol and Levosin in the form of bandages on the nodes. In the presence of the corresponding equipment it is allowed to treat the pathology with a laser.
Local therapy must be combined with the ingestion of venotonics. These drugs improve blood circulation in the node, reduce its swelling and increase the tone of the venous wall. These include, for example, Aescin and Detralex.
Aescin appoint 2 tablets (40 mg) 3 times a day from 5 to 14 days. After reducing the manifestations, the dose is left the same, and the frequency of administration is reduced to 2 times. Moreover, the best effect is observed in the course of treatment of 2 months or more.
The dose of Detralex for the first 4 days is 6 tablets per day - 3 in the morning and 3 in the evening. In this case, the drug is well combined with local use of ointment or suppositories Gepatrombin G. Then they go to the scheme 2 tablets 2 times and so they take the drug for 3 more days. In the future, if necessary, leave 2 tab. 2 times during the day for another week, and then - 2 tab. once a day for 2-3 months.
If the acute process and its symptoms persist, a hemorrhoidal thrombectomy is performed. The node is opened and the thrombus is removed, which quickly alleviates the condition of the patient.
Acute hemorrhoids III severity requires surgical treatment. If the thrombosis of dilated hemorrhoidal veins is also accompanied by bleeding, the operation is carried out urgently. In this case, a delay of several days is possible only when thrombophlebitis develops. And the main type of surgical treatment is Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy.
Treatment of acute thrombosis of external and internal hemorrhoids
There are both external and internal thrombosis of hemorrhoids, but most often doctors have to deal with the first option. Therapy should be started at the first manifestations of the disease so that an acute inflammatory process does not occur. It is very dangerous to self-inflame a fallen knot, because when it is injured, there is a possibility of severe bleeding, which will be difficult to stop.
Is it possible to cure thrombosis of hemorrhoids using folk remedies?
Thrombosis can cause dangerous complications, so self-treatment should not be considered, it is better to turn to the proctologist with this problem. But in the complex therapy can be used folk remedies, which, with adequate use will benefit. Below are a few recipes:
- Hirudotherapy. To get rid of the disease can be a common way with the help of leeches. They suck blood, the inflamed knot decreases, and then completely dries out. Leech can be obtained in some pharmacies, for a small site is enough one individual.
- Birch tar. It helps relieve inflammation of the external thrombated node. It is necessary to lubricate the sore spot with tar until the symptoms pass. And if the node is internal, then it is recommended to insert tampons with it into the back approach.
- Birch decoction. It is very effective, for its preparation they take birch leaves (100 g) and pour boiling water (2 l). As soon as the infusion is ready, it can be used to sit in a warm bath.
The above methods are effective in combination with medicines prescribed by a doctor and only if the disease is not very advanced, there are no signs of necrosis and life-threatening inflammation. It is necessary to treat hemorrhoidal thrombosis in a timely manner. With proper treatment, the patient quickly recovers and unpleasant symptoms no longer bother him.
Thrombosed hemorrhoid gives the patient much more suffering. Few people can tolerate severe pain, so people with this disease still go to the doctor. The sooner a person begins treatment, the higher the likelihood that they will be able to cure an illness with drugs without surgery. And if timely treat the initial manifestations of chronic hemorrhoids, then this dangerous complication can be avoided.
Hemorrhoidal thrombosis: stages, symptoms and treatment methods
Launched hemorrhoids often end with thrombosis, a blood clot forms in the inflamed nodular plexuses of the rectum, which disrupts blood circulation. Thrombosis can be both external and internal, sometimes combined, but the first option is most common. Due to hemorrhoidal thrombosis, sepsis, necrosis and purulent paraproctitis may occur. This pathology can be divided into 3 stages, we consider them in more detail:
- At this stage, the thrombosis of the external and internal hemorrhoids is accompanied by moderate symptoms. In the enlarged plexuses, blood clots form, pain syndrome appears, the skin reddens due to impaired blood circulation. Thrombosis of the external hemorrhoid can be recognized by a characteristic feature, the node is covered with a whitish bloom.
- If the thrombosed hemorrhoids were ignored, an acute inflammatory process may begin. The symptoms are more pronounced, the health of the sick person worsens, the temperature rises, the pain becomes unbearable. The inflamed nodule increases, swelling of the surrounding tissue appears. Acute hemorrhoidal thrombosis can cause a nodal infringement because the anal sphincter spasms.
- Hemorrhoidal thrombus causes a strong inflammatory process. It spreads to healthy tissue, swelling is getting stronger. Palpation of the rectal area is difficult due to severe pain. If an external node is injured, necrosis may occur. Acute inflammatory process often ends paraproctitis. At this stage, the patient simply needs urgent hospitalization.
Symptoms of a thrombosed hemorrhoid
Thrombosis of the veins always causes pronounced symptoms. Pain syndrome, as a rule, occurs suddenly. For example, if a patient had nodes during a bowel movement, and a sphincter spasm occurred, then they could no longer be corrected, as they were impaired. Because of this, blood circulation is disturbed, thrombosis occurs, the nodes increase and turn red, and severe pain appears.
Another symptom of a thrombosed external hemorrhoid is that the pain syndrome in this case is permanent, it does not depend on the act of defecation. When necrosis appears, the surface of the nodal plexuses may start to bleed because ulcers appear on it. Acute thrombosed hemorrhoids cause a lot of suffering to the patient, the inflammation is getting stronger, and the pain only increases every hour. A person cannot empty the intestines, because the pain syndrome increases, because of this there is a strong constipation, which only aggravates the situation.
According to the international classification of diseases 10 revision (ICD-10), hemorrhoids complicated by thrombosis go under the code ICD-10 - 184.7. Such a disease cannot be treated on its own; medical assistance is necessary. There are cases when the node is broken and a blood clot is leaking, but this condition is aggravated by severe bleeding, which the patient is often unable to stop. An independent resorption of a thrombated node without medication usually does not occur.
The main causes of acute inflammation of the hemorrhoid
Thrombosis is a complication of advanced hemorrhoids, many factors can cause it. Basically a clot is often formed due to hypodynamia, that is, if the patient moves a little, then stagnation occurs in the pelvic region, they contribute to an increase in the nodal plexuses.
Very often, a blood clot is formed in people who, having a hemorrhoid running, neglect the diet. If you drink alcohol, eat too salty, pickled, smoked dishes, they will irritate the intestinal mucosa and because of this, the pressure in the affected nodes increases.
Another cause of external and internal thrombosis of the hemorrhoid is constipation. They occur due to malnutrition, when there is very little fiber in the diet. Человек не может нормально опорожнить кишечник, тужится, кровь приливает к малому тазу и в результате этого возрастает давление в узловых сплетениях. К тому же твердый кал может повредить узлы и вызвать кровотечение.
At the advanced stage, the act of defecation for the patient becomes torture, because it causes him great pain. Because of this, a spasm of the anal sphincter often occurs, it can pinch the nodes that have come out and thus provoke acute thrombosis, which is often the case with strong straining. With thrombosis of the external hemorrhoid, the clinical picture is pronounced.
Pregnancy and childbirth also contribute to the development of thrombosis, especially for women who suffered from hemorrhoids before pregnancy. When carrying a fetus, this ailment is aggravated because the uterus expands and presses against the intestines. And during labor, the nodes fall out and can be pinched by the anal sphincter and thus provoke thrombosis.
Methods for the prevention of hemorrhoidal thrombosis
How quickly does a hemorrhoidal thrombosis pass? It all depends on the general condition of the patient, the severity and on whether the treatment was started on time. For the prevention of pathology, people with chronic hemorrhoids need to periodically visit the proctologist and promptly treat themselves.
The most important measure is the normalization of the chair, that is, the patient should not have constipation, it is they who most often cause pinching of external hemorrhoids, which then lead to thrombosis. It is important to follow a diet, abstain from food that can irritate the intestinal mucosa, alcohol should be abandoned. In the diet it is useful to introduce as much as possible fruits and vegetables, fermented milk products will be useful. Physical activity and the implementation of certain exercises are very important, a regular half-hour walk in the fresh air is an excellent prevention of hemorrhoids and its complications.
What serious problems does a hemorrhoidal thrombosis have and what to do?
Hemorrhoids in the early stages in most cases are treatable without much difficulty. However, many people who already have hemorrhoids, while not suffering their general condition tend to neglect medical care. As a result, develop complications of the disease, slowing its treatment. Thrombosis of the hemorrhoid, especially if this site is external, is one of the most common complications of hemorrhoids. His treatment must begin immediately, otherwise it may cause even more terrible complications, such as pulmonary embolism or cerebral circulation.
Classification of hemorrhoidal thrombosis
Acute thrombosis, the cause of which can be even ordinary constipation or lifting of severity, will instantly manifest itself as sharp pain, and the rest of the symptoms will not take long to wait. Depending on the severity of clinical manifestations, this pathology is divided into three degrees of severity, each of which has its own peculiarities of medical tactics.
Observed accumulation of venous blood in the nodes and the formation of blood clots in them - blood clots. Symptoms are mild. Nodes become more painful than usual. The skin in the perianal region reddens due to impaired microcirculation. External hemorrhoidal thrombosis is also characterized by the fact that the external node is covered with fibrin plaque, which looks whitish.
If treatment is not started immediately, thrombosis can cause an acute inflammatory process in the area of the external or internal nodes. In this case, they become even more painful, the body temperature rises. The size of the thrombated hemorrhoid increases, the area of hyperemia of the skin expands, soft tissue edema appears. Also, the anal sphincter often spasms, which can provoke the infringement of the external hemorrhoid.
Symptoms become even more pronounced, and the acute inflammatory process from the hemorrhoidal node spreads to nearby tissues, capturing the subcutaneous tissue and the crotch area. Edema increases, and the hyperemia of the skin increases. Necrosis of the hemorrhoid can also develop, especially if it is external and has been injured.