Rash photo with explanations
The skin reacts to the manifestation of the disease quickly and clearly. So the body gives the alarm to the person that he paid attention to their health. A rash is a symptom, including dangerous infectious and venereal diseases. Visiting a dermatologist, each patient will study the instructions. Rash on the body in an adult photo with explanations. To eliminate the suspicion of venereal or infectious diseases, a blood test must be taken. It should be noted that it is much easier to pass tests for sexually transmitted diseases than to be examined for the presence of hidden infections or parasites.
Syphilitic rash photo in men and symptoms
The insidiousness of syphilis is that often the disease does not appear immediately. However, treatment of syphilis is possible only in the early stages, when the rash is the first symptom.
The doctor will help you recognize the dangerous disease, a blood test and a checklist - Syphilitic rash photo in men and symptoms. Without a blood test in the clinic to determine the disease is impossible. For any rash, you must pass tests for syphilis.
In the first stage of the disease Rash on the body in an adult photo with explanations men have ulcers in the mouth, on the nasal mucosa, in the groin.
There may be a chancre - seal.
Characteristically, the sores do not hurt and soon leave themselves. Thirty days later, syphilis appears again, but already with a reddish-brown rash, hair loss, ulcers.
The rash may be in the form of pink spots or papules. At the same time there is no painful sensations. Within a month or nine, the secondary symptoms disappear. At the last stage of the disease, the skin may become covered with ulcers unhealed, the joints become deformed, the internal organs and nerve cells are destroyed, and the brain is affected.
Syphilitic rash photo in women and symptoms
In the female body, syphilis is even more secretive. Apparently this is the reason for the frequent case of detection of diseases only in the third stage, when it is almost impossible to save the patient. A rash on the body of a woman appears at the second stage, when a lot of time is lost for treatment. Syphilitic rash in women symptoms it is important to know to give yourself a chance for recovery.
Noticing rash on the body in an adult photo with explanations, spots or papules on the neck, around the mouth, arms, legs, feet, and palms should immediately go to the clinic to see a venereologist. Syphilis rash is different in that it is unpleasant in appearance, but it does not hurt and does not itch. However, it can stay for several months or disappear in one month. The skin looks unhealthy, so you can say that the appearance of a woman is disfigured.
In addition, the rash can be located under the mammary glands, on the inside of the thighs, around and inside the vagina. Rashes on the body alternate with ulcerations or appear together. Purulent ulcers can not disappear for a long time, but the pain is not felt.
Allergic body rash in an adult treated
The effects of stress and the abundance of household chemicals, harmful additives in food do not pass without a trace for a person. May suddenly appear Rash on the body in an adult photo with explanations it will not help, it is allergic, which indicates a malfunction in the body. The rash may be temporary or permanently aggravated, taking more and more menacing outlines. So individual papules can be combined into foci.
Having seen a rash on the body, it is necessary, among other things, to visit the allergist's doctor for examination and examination, as well as for studying the brochure: allergic rash on the body in an adult treated.
The first thing for allergies is to cleanse the body of toxins and allergens.
Any sorbent will do, but natural minerals are best. For example, the sorbent "Litovit" is able to reduce the eosinophils in the blood by 90% in one month, which indicates the cleansing of the body at the intercellular level.
Observing diet with food allergies is the most important condition for successful treatment. After the samples show what foods are allergic, you need to eat foods that the doctor will allow.
Before obtaining the result of the sample, the following products should be excluded from the food - provokers
- smoked meat and fish,
- hot spices
- red vegetables and fruits
- as well as alcohol.
Rash on the body in an adult photo with explanations food allergies:
If you are allergic to household chemicals, you can not wash dishes without rubber gloves. Wash should be in the washing machine. It is better to use safe plant-based products, such as from Amway, in everyday life. In case of an allergy to household chemicals, the skin of the patient’s hands and face becomes covered with red spots and then a solid crust.
At the same time, the sensations are painful, and damaged skin tends to crack. Infection can occur in open wounds. Allergy without treatment leads to psoriasis and quite often.
Red rash on adult body and itching
The cause of the rash can be infections or autoimmune diseases. If a Rash on the body in an adult photo with explanations itches, then this symptom suggests that all is not lost and measures must be taken to treat it. Worse can only be a rash that does not bother and is characteristic of syphilis.
Scabies rash first appears on the abdomen and palms.
Externally, it looks like a group of small red papules filled with liquid with a dot in the center. I must say that the point indicates the course that left the itch mite in the skin layer.
Comes red rash on adult body and itching also for allergies, lichen planus, psoriasis.
Psoriasis Rash on the body in an adult photo with explanations:
It is impossible to cure the rash, because it is necessary to treat the cause, not the effect. Such systemic diseases affect the body on the basis of continuing stress, medication, alcohol poisoning, or may be a complication after an infection. In all cases, the disease is preceded by a weakened immune system.
A rash on an adult’s body and it doesn’t itch
Lack of itching and pain during rashes in adults can be not only in venereal diseases, but in other cases. In order not to self-medicate and diagnose on the Internet, you should visit the hospital. A rash on an adult’s body and it doesn’t itch A dermatologist and venereologist will explain.
If a molluscum contagiosum has invaded the body, then soon pink or red nodules will appear on the skin, similar to folds with white liquid inside. Such nodules do not hurt and do not itch. If you put pressure on the nodule, then the liquid that is contagious to a person will appear outside.
Rashes can be a consequence of weakening the immune system of the skin and when they take firming preparations go away without a trace and do not appear. In this case, the most difficult to establish the cause, since studying Rash on the body in an adult photo with explanations don't get the result. Analyzes will not show infection or parasites in the blood, allergens or other pathologies. But at the same time the skin will suffer. It is necessary to eat and take dietary supplements based on natural ingredients, especially in industrial cities, in order to maintain immunity at the proper level.
Photo precancerous skin diseases, photo skin diseases
There are several diseases that must be carefully monitored. Consider photo precancerous skin diseases and how they look. Contents: 1. Paget's disease of the nipple photo (morbus Pageti mammilaris) 2. Cutaneous horn on ...
In the rubric "Photo Rash with Explanations" we will describe various changes in the skin integuments. Photos with explanations will show how to distinguish the symptoms of disease.
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Types of rash and its causes
A rash is a visual change in the structure and color of the skin; it is characterized by redness, itching, peeling, and even pain. Aloe rash, in spite of external integrity, consists of separate elements, which include:
- ulcers (defects on the surface of the epidermis, caused by slowing down of the regenerative processes in the upper layers of the skin),
- erosion (surface epithelium defect without scar formation)
- papule (tight nodule located above the skin surface),
- vesicle (liquid-filled capsule located in the upper layers of the epidermis),
- pustule (cavity formation on the surface of the skin, filled with pus),
- blister (an element on the skin surface caused by inflammation and swelling of the papillary dermis),
- nodes (tight, painless skin nodules),
- hemorrhages (subcutaneous hemorrhages caused by high permeability of vascular walls),
- petechiae (dotted subcutaneous hemorrhages caused by capillary trauma),
- ulcers (deep-seated formations filled with pus).
Depending on the location of the skin rash, you can determine the source of the problem. In particular:
- Allergic reactions cause a rash on the hands and face,
- For infections, rashes on the body (stomach, back),
- STIs are localized on the genitals, the inner surface of the thighs and the skin around the anus,
- Stress weakens the immune system, so the rash is localized throughout the body (but, unlike allergies or rashes on the basis of infections, the reaction to allergens and immunoglobulin will be negative)%,
- Problems of the digestive tract organs are expressed as serious skin abnormalities (with ulcerative colitis - nodular erythema (inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue and vessels in the form of nodes), with problems with the pancreas - atopic dermatitis, intestinal infections provoke pyoderma - ulcers on the skin)
- Rash with problems with blood or vessels occurs on the abdomen, and then spreads throughout the body. It is characterized by the absence of itching.
What type of rash is characteristic of allergies?
Allergy skin rashes are not caused by the immune response of the blood to allergy elements. All because of the haptens - simple chemical compounds that do not have immunogenicity. But they tend to bind to a carrier protein. Attaching to the macromolecule, the newly formed complex synthesizes immunoglobulins. By the body, it is perceived as foreign, provoking an increase in the level of white blood cells. As a result, the skin is covered with red spots of different sizes and different localization.
Allergic rash has the following characteristics:
- It does not always cause itching and fever,
- Accompanied by edema of the face, eyelid, runny nose,
- The area of the rash corresponds to the contact points of the skin in the allergen (if you are allergic to jewelry - on the wrist or fingers, on deodorant - in the armpits, on cosmetics - on the eyelids or around the mouth),
- A blood test shows an increase in the number of eosinophils,
- Biochemical analysis of blood remains unchanged.
The most common form of allergy rash is urticaria. In appearance, it resembles pink spots that appear on the skin after contact with nettle. Urticaria is a reaction to pollen, cosmetics, dust. Often localized on the crook of the elbows, knees, and wrists. Accompanied by severe itching and peeling of the skin.
Depending on the allergen, the rash has the following types:
- Food allergy. It is an erythematous rash in the form of rough spots, towering above the surface of the epidermis. A characteristic feature of food allergies is severe itching.
- Cold allergy. Occurs on contact of exposed skin with cold (air, water). Although the cold itself does not provoke an allergic reaction, it is a trigger for an allergic reaction to the abnormal functioning of the thyroid gland, spleen, etc. Cold allergy is accompanied by tearing, nasal discharge, and the appearance of whitish and pink, scratch-like spots on the skin, which disappear by themselves after some time. If a person has a cold allergy at least once, he needs to consult a doctor to find out the true cause of a malfunction in the body.
- Allergy (atopic dermatitis) to animal dust / hair. It is often diagnosed in children. Manifested in the form of an itchy rash, accompanied by increased dryness of the skin. In some cases, there are moist ulcers. The easiest test to identify atopic dermatitis: take an ordinary school line and press on the rash area for 20 seconds. If a white band remains on the skin after a few minutes, this is atopic dermatitis. If the skin has restored the old shade - it is a rash of another nature.
- Allergy to alcohol. Alcohol has a vasodilating effect. Accordingly, more substances are absorbed into the blood, including toxic ones. the more components in the composition of the alcoholic beverage, the stronger the allergy to it. The most "dangerous" drink is absinthe, which consists of wormwood, anise, fennel, coriander, lemon balm. The skin is covered with red spots, as from burns. In chronic alcoholics who daily consume cheap wine, red, as if a weathered face is the result of constant alcohol intoxication of the body. If such a reaction occurs in an ordinary person, he needs to find out the source of the allergy and consult a doctor. The greatest danger is Quincke edema, when the lungs are swollen and the person dies within a few minutes.
Allergic rash can be of 4 types: food, contact, respiratory and respiratory. The biggest allergies are children. It should be remembered that not all products consumed by adults are suitable for children.
You can not leave a child's rash without attention. The most dangerous is a rash caused by meningococcal infection. Externally, it resembles food allergies, but it increases the body temperature. It is better to be safe, and for any rash in the baby, you should consult a doctor.
Infectious rash: characteristic features and difference from allergic rashes
Distinctive features of an allergic rash are vesicles (capsules with liquid inside), papules (granular seals) and pustules (vesicles with pus). Infectious rashes have these symptoms.
Various infections and viruses, getting into the body, damage, first of all, the mucous membrane, as well as the skin. Unlike an allergic rash, an infectious rash is always accompanied by an increase in body temperature.
Also characteristic signs of infection:
- intoxication, vomiting, headache
- fast fatiguability
- phasing, rash spreading to other parts of the body with each new day
- swollen lymph nodes
- rashes look like papules, vesicles and pustules
- skin dries and exfoliates.
An eruption during an infection does not cause itching, but touching it causes pain. The causes of rashes are the following diseases:
- Herpes: depending on the type of virus, the skin of the face (lips) or genitals (penis head, labia) is affected. The rash has the appearance of vesicles, which gradually open up, and ulcers form in their place. Upon completion, a crust is formed that cannot be touched,
- Scabies: The causative agent is a microscopic mite, which leaves subtle moves under the skin. There is intolerable itching,
- Chickenpox: a rash resembles a mosquito bite, filled with serous fluid. Vesicles spread throughout the body, including the scalp. Soles and palms remain intact,
- Scarlet fever: The rash appears to be a roseol - pink dotted spots of various shapes. After a few days, the rash turns pale and brownish. After normalization of temperature, the skin flakes and exfoliates. A characteristic feature is redness of the tongue and an increase in papillae,
- Measles: The rash has the appearance of papules, which are localized on the inside of the cheeks, gums. The rash extends from the neck down the back, the last to go to the limbs. The mucous membrane of the eyes is inflamed,
- Rubella: the skin is covered with red spots localized in the thighs and buttocks, there is malaise,
- Infectious mononucleosis: lymph nodes increase, adenoids swell. A rash occurs throughout the body, including the palate,
- Meningococcal infection: This is an extremely dangerous infection that leads to the death or disability of the child. It is by the appearance of the rash that the symptoms of the disease can be noticed on the first day of infection. The rash of meningococcal infection is a consequence of the effects of toxins caused by the activity of meningococcus, which increase vascular permeability. The rash has a hemorrhagic nature, that is, it has the appearance of small hemorrhages. Mainly localized on the buttocks, limbs.
There is an effective test to distinguish meningococcal rash from other rashes. It is necessary to take a glass, turn it over, press down on the rash site and turn it around a bit until the skin around turns white.If the skin turns pale and at the site of the rash, then it is not a meningococcal infection. If the same rash color persists, call an ambulance immediately.
Rash caused by diseases of the blood and blood vessels
A rash in diseases of the blood or blood vessels is caused by damage to the walls of the capillaries, with the result that petechiae appear on the skin surface - small bright red dots. Unlike conventional hemorrhages, a rash in blood diseases does not change color when pressed. Other signs indicate the disease:
- joints (knees, ankles) hurt,
- black stools, diarrhea, sharp pain in the abdomen as if poisoning,
- rash covers the whole body.
Diseases that cause hemorrhagic rashes include:
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (Verlgof's disease) is a blood disorder in which small arteries and capillaries overlap with blood clots. Mostly found in children, especially newborns. The disease has autoimmune causes of unclear etymology. Those. own immune cells perceive platelets as a foreign body and attack them. The rash is painless, occurs as a reaction to the introduction of any medication, is localized at the injection site.
Hemoblastosis. This is a malignant tumor that occurs very often in childhood. The rash has several types:
- hemispheres of red-brown color, covered with a crust,
- bubbles with serous fluid inside,
- bruise-like rashes of both large size and in the form of bloody dots that appear without any reason.
In all cases, the rash causes severe itching. Blood tests for hemoblastosis show a significant increase in the number of leukocytes due to lower immunity. Hemoglobin falls, lymph nodes increase. Platelet counts fall, the child gets tired quickly. The main cause of the rash in diseases of the blood or blood vessels is a decrease in the number of platelets and a violation of the protein synthesis involved in thrombus formation. This rash occurs when taking medications that promote blood thinning (Aspirin, Warfarin, Heparin).
Diabetic angiopathy. This is a violation of the throughput of the vessels of the lower extremities, provoked by type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Due to the disease, the walls of the blood vessels become thinner and brittle. This causes dystrophy of the skin. Ulcers and erosion appear on the skin.
Rash caused by problems with the digestive organs
The condition of the skin depends on the work of the internal organs. Using the rash map on the face, you can determine which organs have problems.
- pimples on the forehead indicate intestinal problems,
- a hair growth rash is a problem with the gallbladder,
- acne on the nose - liver problems,
- ulcers on the temples - problems with the spleen,
- rash over the lip - a violation of the bowels,
- pimples on the nose - heart disease or endocrine disorders,
- chin rash - gynecological problems.
Rash at liver diseases
In the early stages of the liver disease almost does not manifest itself. The earliest symptom is a specific skin rash. They are caused by an increase in the amount of bile acid in the blood, which causes a general intoxication of the body. The skin gets a yellowish tint.
When cholestasis (blockage of the biliary tract) rash is localized on the feet and palms, it looks like traces of a burn. With cirrhosis, liver cells die, the whole body is covered with spots. Parasitic liver diseases cause rashes, resembling a rash. They are localized in the lumbar region and abdomen.
Also characterized by a combination of rash and vascular stars, which cause severe itching, which increases at night. Taking antihistamines (anti-allergy drugs) does not cause relief. Increased bilirubin gives the skin a yellowish tint.
Rash at intestinal diseases
If the intestinal contents are poorly removed from the body, some of the toxins will begin to enter the blood. The body begins to get rid of poisons through the system of secretion. Because of this, the skin condition worsens, it becomes characteristic:
- high fat content
- dull complexion
- acne, and not only on the face, but also on the back, abdomen, chest
- visible "black dots", similar to the craters of the volcano
- skin becomes dry, dehydrated
- after acne healing, scars remain.
After the New Year holidays, many people notice a deterioration of the skin condition, they observe in themselves minor rashes, which pass by themselves. They are associated with the pollution of the body with toxins caused by the ingestion of large quantities of heavy food.
Rash in diseases of the pancreas
The pancreas regulates the secretory functions, so a disruption in the functioning of the organ affects the condition of the skin. When exacerbation of pancreatitis around the navel localized hemorrhoidal (similar to bruises) rash, the skin itself becomes a marble shade. Urticaria is located all over the body in strips; red “drops” on the skin are also visible - vascular aneurysms. The more red protruding spots on the body, the more intense the disease goes.
Stress, nervous strain often cause skin rashes. Under the influence of a stressful situation, immunity is inhibited. The body spends its resources on maintaining the normal state of the internal organs. For this reason, previously hidden diseases are exacerbated. Also, the weakening of the immune system provokes a nettle rash - a small rash, similar to the reaction of the epidermis to a nettle touch. In another way, this pathology is called nervous eczema. It, in contrast to the usual allergic reaction, is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- severe itching that is not relieved by antihistamines
- the pulse quickens, the hand tremor is felt
- restless sleep, night sweats
- panic attacks, anxiety and danger
- swelling of the face and limbs.
Nervous eczema usually occurs after a traumatic situation or severe stress. Treatment of skin rashes with creams or drugs does not help. Improvement occurs only after the normalization of the life situation. Itching urticaria on the nervous soil soothes baths with sea salt, which also have a good effect on the nervous system.
Skin rash for gynecological problems
The condition of the reproductive organs in women is closely dependent on hormonal levels. Many diseases (uterine fibroids, ovarian cyst, endometriosis) are caused by hormonal imbalances, in particular, the ratio of androgens (male sex hormones) and female sex hormones, which a particular rash on the skin will signal first. Androgens, particularly testosterone and DHT (dihydrotestosterone), are produced in women by the adrenal glands and testes. The cells lining the sebaceous glands of the skin have androgen receptors. When the amount of hormones increases, the receptors react, and the skin secretes more fat, creating a nourishing base for bacteria. Moreover, DHT begins to be produced by the adrenal glands even before puberty, therefore, in adolescents, especially girls, the rash has been observed for 10-12 years.
In case of polycystic ovary, the amount of female hormones estrogen and progesterone drops in a woman and the level of androgens increases dramatically. A woman with a violation of the menstrual cycle appear strong "teenage" acne on the face and chest. Darkening of the skin is noticeable in the groin, armpits and around the neck. Also, the woman notes the increased hairiness of the legs, arms, above the lip. All this is due to hormonal imbalance.
Increasing the level of female hormones also affects the condition of the skin. In addition to acne on the face and body, an overabundance of estrogen makes the skin dull and dull. She seems to lose her tone. There is also a decrease in blood sugar and an increase in the number of platelets.
The increase in progesterone also does not pass without a trace. The skin has progesterone receptors that respond to hormone growth with an increase in sebum production until oily seborrhea appears. The hairy part of the head is covered with crusts, pink spots appear on the face and body, the skin on which flakes and peels off. In adolescents, the face becomes covered with hillocks, which, when pressed, secrete a liquid greasy secret.
Babies also have a hormonal rash that can frighten a young mom a lot. This is the so-called neonatal cephalic pustules. It occurs because the baby begins to live separately from the body of the mother, and for him this is a serious hormonal shock. The secretion of the sebaceous glands increases, the ducts are blocked, which creates favorable conditions for the activity of microbes.
Also, the body of the newborn gets rid of the hormones that his mother supplied to him during pregnancy. In addition to the rash on the skin, girls swell breasts, there are vaginal discharge. Boys have a scrotum and penis swelling. All these symptoms disappear after a few days. Mom needs to make sure that the baby does not sweat, that the bacteria do not multiply on the skin.
So what is a skin rash?
It is generally accepted that changes in the skin and (or) mucous membranes are a rash. Changes may primarily include discoloration, surface textures of the skin, desquamation, itching in the area of redness and pain.
Localized rashes can occur in completely different places on the body, for different types of rashes there are typical places of appearance, for example, on the hands and face, rashes most often manifest themselves due to allergic reactions, manifestations on the surface of the body are often associated with infectious diseases.
Remember, combing rashes is unacceptable in any case, it will lead to even more skin irritation and the possible formation of ulcers.
Primary - occur in areas of healthy skin or mucous membranes due to pathological processes in the body.
Secondary - arise on the spot primary for certain reasons (for example, no treatment)
Certainly the most favorable in terms of diagnostic capabilities and subsequent successful therapy are the primary protrusions. All protrusions differ in appearance, such as size, shape, content, degree of color, grouping, and so on.
Analyze the main types of performances
Spot - It is manifested by a change in shade or redness of the skin. It occurs in diseases such as syphilitic roseola, vitiligo, dermatitis, and this kind of manifestations include birthmarks, freckles.
Bubble - Located in the thickness of the skin, inside filled with hemorrhagic fluid, ranging in size from 2 to 6 mm, usually occurs when eczema, herpes, allergic dermatitis.
Blister - Swollen redness with smooth edges, is correct and irregular forms, common causes of appearance: urticaria, insect bites, toksidermii, usually does not require special treatment.
Abscess - pus-filled formation in the layers of the epidermis, divided by type into superficial, and deeply located. Accompany such diseases as acne, impetigo, furunculosis, pyoderma ulcers.
Bubble - the bubble which is strongly increased in sizes, can reach the size of 100 mm.
Nodule - can be in all layers of the skin, looks like a change in the surface of the epidermis with redness and density difference from the surrounding tissues, usually from 1 to 10 mm in size. Typical manifestations of the nodule cause: psoriasis, several types of herpes, eczema, papillomas, various warts.
Rash with allergies
The cause of persistent pruritus and visible lesions on the skin is often allergy, it is quite common in our time, about 70 percent of people are somehow affected or have experienced allergic reactions.
What is allergy? This is a heightened reaction of a person’s immune system to an allergen that has entered the body, while in the process of getting rid of the presence of an allergen in humans, the vessels are dilated, histamine is produced in large quantities, redness, inflammation, swelling and itching are almost always added to the above symptoms.
Attention! In the event of an acute allergic reaction with the formation of edema, an ambulance team must be called in immediately to the patient!
Also, allergic dermatitis often manifests itself - when exposed to an allergen at the site of contact, a rash appears, for example when reacting to clothes - rashes in the waist, back and places on the body where clothes fit most closely to the skin, or when reacting to perfume or deodorant - in the area of greatest penetration of the substance (often under the arms)
In the mild form of an allergic reaction, the symptoms resemble the symptoms of a cold: a runny nose, possibly increased saliva and watery eyes. If you have symptoms such as dizziness, tachycardia, seizures, and nausea, then this can be a sign of a severe allergic reaction that causes the risk of anaphylactic shock, you should consult a doctor immediately.
Causes of allergies can be:
- Pet hair
- Pollen of plants in the summer or autumn period of the year
- Food (chocolate, milk, citrus and others)
- Various nutritional supplements
- Substances contained in perfumes or household chemicals
- Substances that make up wardrobe items (fabrics, metals, dyes)
Rash in infectious diseases
Rashes in infectious diseases often have a phased appearance, first it manifests itself in one place, then in another, and each infection has typical places of rash, specific shape and size, it is important to remember all the details and to inform the doctor about all this information.
Below we consider a rash in various infectious diseases:
Rubella - in the initial period of the disease, a small rash appears on the face and neck, then within 2 to 6 hours the rash spreads throughout the body. Usually it looks like round or oval reddenings in size from 2 to 10 mm. On the skin remains up to 72 hours, then disappears without visible traces. If you find yourself having a similar rash, consultation and examination of a doctor is necessary as similar rashes are symptoms of many infectious diseases. We also remind that rubella is a particular danger for pregnant women, as in the case of maternal disease, the infection can harm the fetus.
Measles - measles disease usually manifests itself with catarrhal manifestations. Rash appears after 2 -7 days. The primary sites of protrusions are on the skin of the nose and behind the auricles, then within 24 hours it spreads to the skin of the chest, face, then the arms and neck also become covered with rashes. After 72 hours, the rash also covers the legs, the rash is most often saturated, coalescing. After the active phase of the disease, the rash changing color, forms a semblance of pigment spots.
Chickenpox - with the onset of the disease manifests itself as red spots, then bubbles appear with a red ring and liquid inside, which look like dewdrops. After two days, the outer surface of the bubble collapses and becomes less elastic. Subsequently, the bubbles become coarse, crusty and disappear without visible traces within seven days.
Scarlet fever - Rash with scarlet fever appears 24 hours after infection, areas of active manifestations are back, groin, elbow and knee bends, and underarm skin. Then inflammation appears on the skin, sometimes there is a slight blue in the areas of roseol formation. A person with scarlet fever is usually not affected by a rash.
Features of children's skin
The skin of children is not similar to the skin of adults. Babies are born with very thin skin - the dermis of newborns is about two times thinner than the middle skin layer of adults. The outer layer - the epidermis, compacted gradually, as the crumbs mature.
In the first month of life, the skin can be red and purple. This is due to the fact that the blood vessels in babies are located close to the surface, and the subcutaneous tissue is not enough, because of this, the skin may look "transparent." This is especially noticeable when a newborn is cold - a marbled spider veins appears on the skin.
The skin of babies loses moisture faster, it is more vulnerable to bacteria, viruses, fungi and mechanical effects. It begins to thicken only in 2-3 years and this process lasts up to 7 years. The skin of younger schoolchildren are already beginning to resemble, in terms of their characteristics and functionality, the skin of adults. But after 10 years, baby skin is waiting for a new test - this time during puberty.
It is not surprising that thin skin of a child reacts to any external influence or internal processes with rashes of various caliber, color and structure. And not every child's rash can be considered harmless.
It is important to understand that there is no causeless rash in children, any pimple or a change in pigmentation has a basis, sometimes pathological.
What is a rash?
A rash with medicine is considered to be a variety of skin eruptions that somehow change the appearance of the skin by color or texture. Для родителей вся сыпь примерно одинакова, но медики всегда выделяют первичные высыпания, которые образовали первыми, и вторичные – те, которые образовались потом, на месте первичных или рядом.
Для разных детских болезней свойственны разные сочетания первичных и вторичных элементов.
То, как волдырь переходит на вторичную стадию, и что с ним при этом происходит, играет решающую роль в определении правильного диагноза.
Rash on baby skin occurs much more frequently and is easier than on the skin of adults. It is always caused either by external effects on the skin (sun, temperature, humidity, toxins, chemicals, etc.) or by internal processes (diseases and conditions).
A rash can be physiological and completely natural, envisioned by nature, in response to natural processes within the body. Quite often, parents have to deal with a pathological rash, which is caused by abnormalities in the body, diseases, parasites, exposure to chemicals and toxins, and other external and internal factors.
Primary rash may be different. A lot depends on how quickly parents can navigate and determine what formations appeared on the child’s skin:
Lumpy rash. Each element of this rash is located deep in the dermis, that is, the rash is not superficial. There is no cavity, there is only a slight protrusion of the skin on the tubercle, it is possible to change its color (redness, violet).
Blisters. Blisters in the people call almost any education on the skin. But it’s right to consider as a blister a rounded education without a cavity, which is pink in color and has no content. True blisters are short-lived, they exist from several minutes to several hours, after which they disappear, leaving no traces. A good example is the nettle footprint.
Papular It is also called a nodular, since each papule looks very similar to nodules, which are different in color from normal skin. They can be both superficial and deep. Papules also tend to pass without leaving a trace.
- Vesicular. Vesicles are bubbles on the skin. They can be filled with serous colorless liquid or serous-bloody contents. Bubbles can be single, and can merge and create multi-chamber formations. After opening the vesicles on the skin always remains erosion, the area is comparable to the area of the bottom of the bubble.
Bullous This is a kind of rash with bubbles, only from bulla vesicles differ in size - each bubble has impressive dimensions of 0.5 centimeters in diameter. Filling of such bubbles can be similar to vesicular - serous fluid or serous fluid with blood impurities.
- Pustular. Pustules in medicine are called pustules. They can be located both superficially and rather deeply in the middle layers of the skin. Superficial pustules after opening do not leave marks. Ugly scars and scars can remain after the opening of medium and coarse pustules (furuncles, carbuncles).
Spotted. The rash does not appear on the skin and is manifested only by a change in the color of individual fragments of the integument. It can be vascular, petechial.
Roseola. By this name is meant a rash that is characteristic of many infectious diseases. Each element of roseola has a pink or moderately reddish color. The structure of roseola closer to the spots. If the skin is stretched or pressed on it, roseola will fade and temporarily disappear.
Hemorrhagic. These are red blood points that form at the site of a burst vessel. If the skin is stretched, hemorrhages do not disappear.
Secondary manifestations of the rash can be varied. These are scabs, in which the elements of the rash, about which we spoke above (more often bubbly or purulent), turn into a crust after opening. No less common are such secondary manifestations as cracks, erosion, flaking of epithelium flakes, abrasions, scars and ulcers.
For the root cause, a rash can be:
In newborns and children up to a year
In newborns and babies of the first year of life, a rash is quite often physiological, which should not cause any particular concern from adults. The skin of the baby adapts to its new habitat - anhydrous, and this process is often given to the baby with great difficulty. Therefore, any adverse effects can cause a rash all over the body.
The most common rash at this age is acne hormone in which white or yellow pimples may appear on the face and neck. In this phenomenon, the parent hormones estrogen, which went to the child in the last months of the mother’s pregnancy, are “guilty”. Gradually, their effect on the body decreases, hormones leave the child’s body. By half a year from such pimples there is no trace.
Infants very often react allergic rash for unsuitable for themselves food, substances, medicines and even household chemicals, which mother uses to wash clothes and bedding and to wash floors and dishes.
Another common cause of a rash in infancy is diaper rash and prickly heat. A rash on the body, head, hands and feet at an early age also appears in infectious diseases, as well as due to violation of hygiene rules.
Too dry air in the room where the baby lives, heat, excessive diligent washing of the skin with soap and other detergents provoke drying of the skin, which only contributes to the development of different types of rash.
A slight dryness of the skin in the first 3-4 weeks after birth is a variant of the physiological norm.
The skin of a baby from birth is covered with a lipid "mantle", so called fat protective layer. "The mantle" is gradually washed off and washed off. With proper care, this temporary natural dryness is easily compensated by the children's body - the sebaceous glands gradually begin to produce the right amount of protective lubricant.
In children older than 1 year
There are not so many physiological reasons for the appearance of a rash after a year. In rare cases, hormonal imbalances caused by maternal sex hormones remain. All other cases for the most part have pathological causes. In the preschool years, children increase the incidence of viral infections, which are characterized by rash. These are chicken pox, measles, scarlet fever and other childhood diseases.
A one year old child who have not yet started attending kindergarten and organized children's groups, the risks of contracting herpes or another viral infection are lower than in children aged 3 to 7 years. Local immunity at this age begins to work better than in infants, for this reason, many bacterial skin ailments can be successfully avoided.
Preschoolers more than other children are prone to parasitic diseases, in which the rash appears as a result of the effect on the body of internal parasites (helminths) or external parasites - lice, scabby itching, skin mite.
Up to 3 years Allergens are still strongly affected by a child’s body, and therefore the appearance of rashes on different parts of the body - on the face, head, abdomen, elbows, and even on the eyelids and ears - is quite a common phenomenon after eating an allergen-containing product drug exposure, contact with pollen, animal hair, household chemicals.
But acne in the preschool years is rare. And even if it takes place, then it is most likely a metabolic disorder, a lack of vitamins, minerals, and diseases of the internal secretion organs.
Any person, sometimes not even realizing it himself, encounters various types of rash in his life. And this is not necessarily the body's response to any disease, since there are about several hundred types of ailments that may cause a rash.
And only a few dozen really dangerous cases, when the rash is a symptom of serious health problems. Therefore, with such a phenomenon as a rash, you need to be, as they say, "alert." Truth and mosquito bite or contact with nettle also leave marks on the human body.
We think that for everyone it would not be superfluous to be able to distinguish between types of rash, and most importantly, know its causes. This is especially true of parents. After all, sometimes it is on the rash you can learn in time that the child is sick, and therefore help him and prevent the development of complications.
Skin rashes. Types, causes and localization
Let's start a conversation about rashes on the human body with the definition. Rash - these are pathological changes.mucous membranesorskin integument, which are elements of different colors, shapes and textures, sharply different from the normal state of the skin or mucous membranes.
Skin eruptions in children, as well as in adults, appear under the influence of various factors and can be triggered by both disease and allergic reaction organism, for example, on medication, food, or insect bite. It is worth noting that there is indeed a considerable number of adults and childhood diseases with skin rashes, which can be both harmless and really dangerous for life and health.
There areprimary rashi.e. a rash that first appeared on healthy skin and secondaryi.e. rash, which is localized at the site of the primary. According to experts, the appearance of a rash can be caused by many ailments, for example, infectious diseases in children and adults, problems with vascular and circulatory system, allergic reactions and dermatological diseases.
However, there are such cases in which the change in the skin may or may not be, although they are characteristic of the disease. This is important to remember, because at times, expecting from the childhood diseases with skin rashes the first characteristic symptoms, i.e. rashes, parents lose sight of other important signs of their child’s poor health, such as bad appetite or lethargy.
In itself, a rash is not a disease, but a symptom of indisposition. This means that the treatment of lesions on the body depends directly on the cause of their occurrence. In addition, other symptoms accompanying the rash, such as the presence of temperatures or itch, as well as the location of the eruptions of their frequency and intensity.
The rash can certainly be attributed to the causes of body itching. However, it often happens that the whole body itches and there is no rash. At its core, such a phenomenon as itch - it is a signal of the nerve endings of the skin that react to external (insect bite) or internal (release histamine with allergies) irritants.
Itching of the whole body without rash is characteristic of a number of serious ailments, for example, such as:
Therefore, you should immediately consult a doctor and in cases when a rash on the body itches and if there is a strong itch without a rash on the skin. It is worth noting that in some cases, for example, in old age or during of pregnancy There is no need for medical treatment of itching all over the body without a rash, as this may be a variant of the norm.
With age, the skin may suffer from dryness and require more moisture. The same can be characteristic of the skin of a pregnant woman due to hormonal changes occurring in her body during the period of gestation. In addition, there is such a thing as psychogenic itching.
This condition is most common in people who have crossed the forty-year threshold. In such cases, there is no rash, and severe itching is the result of extreme stress. Nervous situation, lack of full physical and psychological rest, crazy work schedule and other life circumstances of a modern person can bring him to a breakdown and depression.
Types of rash, description and photo
So, to summarize and denote the main causes of rashes on the skin and mucous membranes:
- infectious diseases, eg, rubella, measles, chicken pox, herpes, scarlet fever, erythema, mononucleosis, for which in addition to the rash on the body are characterized by other symptoms (fever, diarrhea, cough, headaches, runny noseand so on),
- allergic reaction on food, drugs, chemicals, animals and so on,
- blood diseasesorvascular system often accompanied by a rash on the body, if impaired vascular permeability or reduced quantity platelet countwho are involved in the process blood clotting.
Signs of rash are considered to be a rash on the human body. blistering bubblesor bubbles larger size knotsornodules, stains, andulcers. When identifying the cause of the rash, the doctor analyzes not only the appearance of the rash, but also their localization, as well as other symptoms present in the patient.
In medicine, the following primary morphological elements ortypes of rash (i.e., those that first appeared on previously healthy human skin):
Tubercle is an element without a cavity, deeply lying in the subcutaneous layers, with a diameter of up to one centimeter, leaves a scar after healing, without appropriate treatment can be reborn into ulcers.
Blister - this is a type of rash without a cavity, the color of which can be from whitish to pink, occurs due to swelling of the papillary layer of the skin, it is characteristic of itching, does not leave marks during healing. As a rule, such rashes appear at toksidermii (inflammation of the skin due to an allergen that enters the body), hives or bites insects.
Papular rash, photo
Papule (papular rash) - it is also a non-volatile type of rash, which can be caused by both inflammatory processes and other factors, depending on the depth in the subcutaneous layers is divided into epidermal, epidermodermalanddermal nodules, papules can be three centimeters in diameter. Cause papular rash diseases such as lichen, psoriasis orhuman papillomavirus (abbreviated HPV).
Spotty-papular rash, photo
Subspecies of papular rash: erythematous-papular (lupus erythematosus, syphilis, diathesis, vasculitis, rosacea, dermatitis, Crosti-Janotta syndrome, scabies, allergies, trichinosis), maculo-papular (rubella, measles, adenoviruses, sudden exanthema, helminthropycidrops, syphilis);andmaculopapular rash (urticaria, mononucleosis, rubella, taxidermy drug, measles, rickettsiosis).
Bubble - This is a type of rash, which has a bottom, cavity and tire; such a rash is filled with serous-hemorrhagic or serous contents. The size of this rash does not exceed, as a rule, 0.5 centimeters in diameter. This type of rash usually occurs whenallergic dermatitis,atherpes or eczema.
Bubble (bubble), photo
Bubble - This is a larger bubble with a diameter greater than 0.5 centimeters.
Pustula (abscess), photo
Pustuleorabscess - This is a type of rash, which is located in the deep (carbuncle) or superficial follicular as well as superficial non-follicular (flicky look like pimples) or deep non-follicular (ecthymesorpurulent ulcers) layers of the dermis and is filled with purulent contents. The healing field of pustules forms a scar.
Spot- a type of rash, is a local discoloration of the skin in the form of a spot. This type is typical for dermatitis, leucoderma, vitiligo (violation of skin pigmentation) orroseola(an infectious disease in children caused byherpes virus 6 or 7 type). It is noteworthy that the harmless freckles, as well as moles - is an example of a rash in the form of pigmented spots.
The appearance of red spots on the body of a child is a signal to parents for action. Of course, the causes of such rashes on the back, on the head, on the abdomen, as well as on the arms and legs can be allergic reaction or for example prickly heatchildren in the first year of life.
Types of red spots
However, if red spots appear on the child’s body and there are other symptoms (fever, cough, runny nose, loss of appetite, severe itching), then, most likely, it’s not a matter of individual intolerance or non-compliance with temperature conditions and overheating.
The rapid spread of the rash throughout the body speaks of infectious diseases (measles, chickenpox, scarlet fever, rubella other). Red spots on a child’s face may also be triggered by either allergieseither infectious, and parasiticorbacterial diseases.
A red spot on a child’s cheek can be a consequence of insect bites or diathesis. In any case, when any changes occur on the skin of the baby, you should immediately call a doctor.
Red rashes on the body, as well as on the face and neck in adults, in addition to the above reasons, may occur due to cardiovascular diseases, improper nutrition and bad habits, as well as due to a decrease immunity. In addition, stressful situations often have a negative effect on the skin and provoke the appearance of rashes.
Autoimmune Pathologies (psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus) anddermatological diseasesproceed with the formation of a rash. It is noteworthy that red spots may appear on the palate in the mouth as well as in the throat. Such a phenomenon says, as a rule, mucosal infection (vesicles in the throat are characteristic ofscarlet feverand red spots are for sore throats), an allergic reaction or a violation of the circulatory and vascular systems.
Roseola - This is a type of spot rash.It looks like specks of red or pale pink color, the diameter of which, as a rule, does not exceed five millimeters, when pressed, the rash disappears, usually has a round, oval or irregular shape with blurred or sharp edges. Roseola is believed to be a sure sign typhoid fever.
Knotornodular rash - This is a type of rash that is deep in the subcutaneous layers, has no cavity and can reach ten centimeters in diameter, after healing a scar is formed.
Erythema - is a type of rash, which is characterized by a change in a limited area of the skin caused by the expansion of blood capillaries. As a rule, such a strong redness of the skin is an allergic reaction to food, ultraviolet light or drugs.
However, there is also erythema infectionin children ("fifth disease" or parvovirus) - this is a disease, the first symptoms and mechanism of spreading of which are similar to ARVIthat is, it is transmitted by airborne droplets and is accompanied at the initial stage by an increasetemperaturesbodies, headaches, cough or sore throat, runny noseand common weakness.
Hemorrhage - this is a rash, characteristic of vascular lesions of the skin in the form of points or spots, which can be of various shapes and sizes, do not disappear when the skin is stretched.
Purpura - it is a rash that is a sign of system failure hemostasis (blood clotting) organism. It is a hemorrhage in the mucous membranes or under the skin and looks like small spots of dark red hue.
Point outpourings are calledpetechiaeorpetechial rash,band-shaped -Vibex, large spotty - bruises, and small spotty -ecchymosis. Purple is characteristic in case of deficiency or damage. platelet count in the blood, with violations hemocoagulation, with blood stasis, with syndrome disseminated intravascular coagulation (abbreviated as DIC), as well as vasculitis.
Secondary morphological elements may appear on the site of the above indicated types of rash, such as:
- secondary skin atrophy - these are irreversible changes in the skin, namely, the loss of their former qualities (elasticity, volume, color, and so on) in areas previously affected by diseases (syphilis, leprosy, systemic lupus erythematosus, tuberculosis),
- hyperpigmentation, depigmentationordyschromiai.e. discoloration of areas of skin on which rashes were present,
- vegetation or growth of the skin, towering above healthy skin,
- lichenification - this is a change in the skin, namely, pigmentation, pattern and thickness,
- scar - this education, which is a plot of dense connective tissue, which remains visible in the place of healing of the skin,
- excoriation (simply, abrasion) is a violation of the integrity of the skin, prone to infection,
- scab or"crust" - it is a protective formation that represents coagulated blood, dried pus or dead tissue that prevents harmful microorganisms from entering the open wound,
- education in the form scales (loosened skin) yellow, gray or brown,
- tearsorskin cracksdue to loss of elasticity resulting from inflammatory processes or damage to the upper layers epidermis, after healing can leave behind scars
- skin erosion - it is a defect of epithelial tissue located on the surface of the dermis, which occurs during mechanical injuries (eg, abrasion), as well as during inflammatory and dystrophic processes,
- ulcers - This is a defect caused by inflammation, usually caused by the development of infection in the human body, as well as by chemical, mechanical or radiation effects on the skin.
The rash is also divided into monomorphic view and polymorphic. The first type includes only primary elements of the rash. This means that with a disease on the body only one type of rash appears, for example, with rubella - roseolaatvasculitis - petechial rashorpetechiaeat smallpoxorhives - bubbles and so on.
Purpura and petechial rash (photos of polymorphic rashes)
Polymorphic A rash is a combination of several primary or primary and secondary elements. That is, the disease may be accompanied by several types of rash at once and may be further complicated by serious consequences, for example, the formation of ulcers or a violation of skin pigmentation.
Localization of the rash plays an important role in diagnosis, i.e. its location on a specific part of the body or mucous membranes. In addition, it is necessary to take into account not only the type of lesions, but also their appearance, namely what the lesion looks like - asymmetrically, symmetrically, whether it is located along the neurovascular passages or not, whether the lesions merge with each other, are isolated or are arranged in groups , form geometric shapes, and so on.
It is very important to analyze all these points in time to find the right and effective treatment. Therefore, if an adult has a small rash on the body, or there is a rash of any other kind, not accompanied by itching, but there are other symptoms characteristic of the disease (fever, lethargy, loss of appetite and so on), it is better to immediately consult a doctor.
This is especially true for parents whose child complains of a rash and itching of the body, the causes of which can be serious infectious diseases. It is not necessary to self-medicate and, moreover, to resort to "proven" grandmother's means. This all can end up very badly for the baby. We talked about how the rash may look like, now it was the turn to deal in more detail with places of its localization.
Rash in the newborn on the body
As we said earlier, any type of rash deserves immediate attention, this is especially true for children. However, there is quite a safe rash, which, by the way, is most often characteristic of children in their first year of life. For example, a small baby rash on a baby’s face or cheeks in a newborn without other symptoms of the disease may be caused by a nursing mother’s diet.
Allergic rash in infants, photo
In addition, such irritation often occurs due to excessive salivation during teething. The caustic composition of the secret, which helps the appearance of teeth, irritates the skin, as a result, a rash appears on the face of the infant, on the neck or on the handles, which the baby constantly pulls into his mouth.
Failure to comply with the temperature regime is another cause of the rash that can spread throughout the body of a newborn. When a child is too warmly dressed, he suffers no less than when he is cold.
Excessive perspiration due to warm clothes or excessively high temperatures in the room or outside combined with slow evaporation of sweat provokes the spread of a rash. This irritation is called heal
Most often, prickly heat affects the back, back of the neck, abdomen, the area around the navel, and the limbs of the baby. In addition, small red nodules are localized on the priest of the infant, in skin folds, in the armpits or in the folds of the extremities.
With prickly heat, a rash on the face and head of a newborn quite often appears. Moreover, with a weakened immunity, this seemingly harmless irritation can develop into a serious complication in the form of a pustular pustular disease. By itself, prickly heat does not require any specialized treatment, it is enough just to eliminate the cause of overheating of the baby.
First of all, you should deal with clothes. It should not be too hot, the child should be dressed for the weather. It is not worth much to wrap up the newborn, even after a fever or a cold. Particular attention should be paid to the material from which the child’s clothing is sewn. It is better to give preference to natural fabrics and avoid synthetics.
Air baths are useful for all infants so that the pores of the skin do not become blocked. After water procedures do not rush to immediately dress the child, let him stay naked. If the air in the room is too dry, you need to use the help of humidifiers, and also ventilate the children's room as often as possible.
Toxic erythema- This is another common phenomenon among newborns, accompanied by skin rashes. With this ailment, a white-yellow pustular or papular rash appears, with a diameter of about one or two millimeters, surrounded by a clear red rim.
It is noteworthy that the causes of these lesions are not known for certain. Rash erythema toxic can manifest itself as scattered elements or cover the entire surface of the baby’s body with the exception of the feet, as well as the palms. It passes by itself after a while. Most often, the rash is localized on the sternum, in the area of the buttocks, on the bends of the limbs, as well as on the scalp of the infant.
It is important to emphasize that when erythema toxic The general condition of the infant does not change. That is why this disease does not require any specific treatment, you just need to more carefully take care of the skin of the child. However, if in addition to rashes, the baby has other symptoms, for example, fever, itching, loss of appetite and so on, you should not hesitate and postpone the call of the doctor.
Acne newborns- This is a malaise that faces about 20% of newborns. In this condition, a rash appears on the skin of the face, less often on the neck and hairy part of the baby’s head. pustulaandpapules. The cause of this phenomenon is the process of activating the sebaceous glands of the child.
Also as in the case of toxic erythema, neonatal acneconsidered a variant of the norm and does not require any special treatment, in addition to the usual procedures for the care of an infant. Unlike teen acne This type of acne passes gradually by itself, leaving no scars or stains.
Insect bites can also provoke rash in babies. This is primarily due to the body's response to toxins, which release some species of insects into the subcutaneous layers. In addition, a mechanical injury of the skin occurs, and scratching the bite site can lead to infectious diseases, carriers of which may well be insects.
Therefore, it is worth a more careful approach to the safety of the child when he is in nature. Currently, there are many insect repellents. The effects of bites can be really serious, for example, in the presence of allergic reaction on poison. However, in most cases, all costs a minor annoyance in the form of itching and rashes.
It is important to be able to distinguish a rash from an insect bite from something more dangerous to the health of the baby. This applies primarily infectious diseaseswhich can develop either asymptomatically or their characteristic signs are not pronounced. In the pictures below you can see the appearance of the bites of the most common insects.
In the place of the mosquito bite, a blister of red color appears, which is then transformed into papula (dense structure, lasts from several hours to several days), and can also form bubble or reddened edema. Mosquitoes are carriers of infectious diseases such as malaria, encephalitis, yellow fever and dengue fever.
In places bites bugs appear papuleswhich strongly itch in the late afternoon or at night (this is related to the life cycle of insect parasites). In the center of the rash a small bruise forms.
Bite wasp, bee, hornet, bumblebee
In the place of a bite of wasps, hornets, bumblebees or bees immediately formededema and there is redness, there are pronounced pain. Bite bees leave their sting in the upper layer of the dermis, it must be removed. In some cases, a bite may form.bubble with a clear liquid inside. It is important to remember that the bites of bees and wasps very often provoke the development of severe allergic reaction with Quincke's edema and urticaria.
The appearance of tick bites depends primarily on the genus of insects. For example, a disease like scabiesprovoke scabies mites, penetrating into the subcutaneous layers of the dermis and “digging” there scabies moves, which are characterized by a small red rash in the form ofpapulesand itching. Usually, in scabies, the lesions are localized on the flexor surfaces of the limbs, on the hands, as well as in the interdigital area, under the mammary glands and in the inguinal zone. The itch that a person feels after being infected with scabies intensifies towards evening.
Field tick bite
If you are bitten by a field or forest mite, you can see another picture. Firstly, the insect's body remains at the site of the bite, as the tick bites and partially penetrates into the upper layer of the skin. Secondly, if the insect is infected, then the person risks getting infected. tick-borne encephalitisor Lyme diseasecharacterized by primary symptoms similar to development ARVI. Withborreliosis to the above signs joined spotted erythemawhich manifests itself at the site of the bite.
On the ground louse bite appear small red rash, which many confuse with an allergic reaction. With a disease like pediculosis, traces of lice are commonly sought on the scalp (crown, nape, temples). However, these insects can parasitize on other parts of the body.
For example, people who do not take care of their hygiene and rarely change their clothes may have lodges that bite over all parts of the body hidden under their clothes. With ftiriaze or pubic pediculosis lice live in the groin area and can quickly spread to other parts of the body.
Lice toleratetyphus and relapsing feverand these are very dangerous diseases that require specialized treatment in order to avoid serious complications and even death. In addition, these insects can infect Volyn fever andtularemia.
Rash on the skin of the hands and feet (photo with description)
In continuation of the topic of localization of the rash turn to the consideration of lesions on the hands and feet. In many diseases, a skin rash initially appears on the limbs and only then spreads to other parts of the body. In some cases, it is rashes on the hands or feet that are the first signs of ailments.
Experts say that any form of skin rash on the limbs should not be overlooked. Because this indicates a malfunction in the normal functioning of the body, the causes of which can be both diseases and other factors, such as an insect bite or an allergic reaction.
Rash on hands
The causes of rashes on the skin of the hands can be as infectious diseases, and non-compliance with the simple instilled hygiene, as well as problems withdigestion, allergic reactions or ordinarycold. The body of each person is individual, and it is not surprising that some may experience irritation on the skin of the hands.
A rash on the hands of a child is also a frequent occurrence, which can indicate both the development of serious diseases and the presence of allergies. Therefore, in any case, when a rash is detected, you should immediately consult a doctor, especially if the rash on the hands itches and thus gives the person a lot of unpleasant sensations.
A rash on the hands in the form of red dots may be due to the body’s response to allergen. Quite often, this type of rash occurs due to hypothermia in winter or, conversely, due to exposure to ultraviolet rays in the summer. So uncomplicated dermatitis It is easy to cure with the help of nutritious winter creams or sunscreen cosmetics.
In addition, the appearance allergic rashon the hands can be provoked by the use of certain cosmetics or household chemicals, food, animal hair and plant pollen, as well as medical supplies.
The following skin diseases can also cause a rash on the skin of the hands.
- Psoriasis - This is a chronic disease in which a small red rash spreads on the skin of the hands, on the head or on the knees, malaise causes a lot of inconvenience, because the rash itches badly and the skin peels off.
- Eczema - It is a skin disease, which is characterized by an acute form of flow and heredity. With this disease on the hands, as well as on the knees and less often on the skin of the face appear rashes in the form of bubbles. In places where small bubbles burst, wounds that require immediate treatment are formed, in order to avoid infection in the body.
- Scabies - a skin disease that occurs due to the harmful effects on the human body of scabies mites. If the body has visible scabies (lines of a whitish-gray hue),papules-vesicular rash on the hands, and by the evening the itch is greatly enhanced, then the person most likely became infected with scabies, which is transmitted from the wearer by direct contact (skin to skin) or by sharing personal hygiene items. Due to severe itching and scratching of the rash, the disease is often complicated by pustular formations.
- Vasculitis - This is a disease caused by inflammation in the blood vessels. The disease is characterized by the appearance of a rash in the form of pustulesorpapuleson the face, in the gluteal region, on the feet and palms, as well as on other parts of the arms and legs.
- Syphilis - This is a disease that belongs to the venereal and is sexually transmitted. The first sign of this disease is a rash in the form of small pimples dark color, which are localized on the hands. Further, the rash spread throughout the body.
It is worth noting that a rash on the skin of the hands may be a reaction of the body to a lack of of vitamins or other essential compounds. Also, rash is often due to non-compliance with simple rules of personal hygiene. A rash on the palms of a child under one year of age may be associated with heal.
Since the skin of the monthly baby has not yet adapted to the environment that is new for the whole child’s body, rashes may appear due to excessively warm clothing, or high temperature in the room, and also due to the dryness of the air. In addition, a rash on the palms may be due to an allergic reaction or improper hygiene.
It is important to be able to distinguish relatively harmless skin rashes from really dangerous diseases, in which a rash appears on the palms. It is about, for example,measles, meningococcal infection, varicellaor rubella.If the rash appeared not only on the palms, but also between the fingers, and also on the wrists, then most likely you are dealing with a parasitic lesion of the skin (scabies).
Rash on legs
Rash on the skin of the lower extremities due to the same reasons as in the case of a rash on his hands. In addition, there are a number of diseases that mainly affect the skin of the legs, for example, ringworm fungal diseases (trichophytosis) orcontact dermatitis. Of course, only a specialist will be able to correctly diagnose if there is a rash on the skin of the legs or under the knees.
However, in its appearance it can be concluded that the disease develops in the human body. For example, when prurigo (itchy dermatitis) or after an insect bite on the skin remains rash in the form of bubblesthat itch a lot and the rash is nodulesorplaques talks about ichthyosisorpsoriasis.
So, we list the main causes of rash on children and adults:
- allergic reactionexpressed contact dermatitis - This is one of the most common causes of rash on the limbs (usually appearpimples on the legs or arms). This malaise often disturbs children, the skin on the legs, pens and other parts of the body which are still too sensitive to various external factors. Therefore, special cosmetic and detergents are provided for children, which do not contain aggressive allergens in their chemical composition. It is not necessary to bathe the child with the use of "adults" even if well-tested means (shampoos, gels, bath foams, soap, and so on), they can harm,
- atopic dermatitisorneurodermatitis - this disease is typical, as a rule, for young children. With this malaise, itching appears very intense in the evening, and the child’s scaly rash on the legs and less often on the hands as bubbles with liquid inside. Except directly eczema with neurodermatitismay developbronchial asthmaandallergic rhinitis,
- infectious diseases(measles, chicken pox, rubella, scarlet fever) Is a whole group of viruses in which, in addition to other symptoms, a rash of a different type appears on the human body, for example, a red rash on the legs and arms that quickly covers the whole body,
- bacterial infections - these are diseases whose pathogens are bacteria, for example, streptococcalpathogens that provoke a rash on the body,
- fungal diseases (keratomycosis, lichen, actinomycosis, favus, trichophytosis, candidiasis)- This is a type of skin diseases caused by pathogenic fungi that affect the skin (most often, eruptions are localized on the feet, on the palms, in the groin area), nail plates or hair. With fungal diseases, skin rash may appear in the form of pimples, plaquesorrough spots on the body of an adult or child.
Rash on the buttocks of a child
A rash on a child's priest is a fairly common problem for the first year of a baby’s life. This is primarily due to the very delicate skin of the buttocks, which reacts sharply to many external factors, such as diapers, clothes or cosmetics. Quite often, rashes are caused by heali.e. failure to comply with the temperature regime, which leads to clogging of skin pores and excessive sweating.
Photo of a red rash on a child's priest
As a result, the child suffers from irritation, which does not allow him to live normally due to a banal itch. The opposite cause of rashes on the buttocks is hypothermia. Allergy along with prickly pear, it is considered one of the most frequently recorded causes of rashes on the buttocks.
If a child has a rash not only on the pope, but also on the legs, arms, stomach, and other parts of the body, this indicates the infectious nature of the rash. In this case, you should immediately call a doctor for a correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Adults also quite often encounter rashes in the buttocks, which, in addition to infectious diseases, prickly heatorallergieslead:
- reinforcedkeratinizationi.e. the process of cleaning the skin surface from dead cells, in which due to non-compliance with the rules of hygiene may appearacne on the buttocks,
- sedentary work,
- hormonal imbalance,
- bad habits and poor nutrition,
- underwear made from unnatural fabrics or the wrong size.
Rash on the belly
Rash on the abdomen in an adult or child can be caused by the following reasons:
- allergy for drugs, cosmetics or food, as well as for clothes or bedding,
- hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating) in an adult or prickly heat in an infant, they can provoke a rash on the abdomen and back, in the groin area, as well as on the extremities,
- dermatological ailmentsfor example such as psoriasis, scabordermatitis in which skin rashes are the main symptoms of the disease,
- venereal diseases may also cause rashes, such as small red pimpleson an adult's body, which are primarily located on the arms, shoulders or thighs, and then gradually spread to all parts of the body, can signal development syphilis,
- viral diseasesfor example a virus herpes may provoke a rash in the form of bubbleson the stomach, as well as in the hip area in adults, and diseases such as chicken pox, scarlet feverormeasles may begin with a small rash on the child’s belly,
- violation hormonal levels, As a rule, it is typical for pregnant women who may develop a rash on the abdomen, which passes by itself after childbirth.
It is worth noting that when a rash appears, especially a rash on the belly of a baby, you should immediately consult a doctor for advice. After all, only a specialist will be able to recognize the signs of a disease in rashes. Even if it turns out that a rash is justprickly heat, which occurs in almost every second infant, it is better to eliminate all the more serious ailments with the help of a pediatrician.
Rash on back and chest
A rash on the chest, on the back, on the shoulders and forearms is characteristic of most diseases caused by an infectionor viruses. The fact of the matter is that localized initially on a specific area, the rash quickly spreads throughout the body, including the surface of the back.
In a child or an adult, a rash on the back or chest may also appear in response to an individual intolerance to any food, cosmetic or drug product.
In addition, a rash can form after talking to pets or after walking through a park where, for example, poplars grow or some flowers are blooming, the pollen of which is a strong allergen.
Acne also affects the back area. The problem of acne and acne on the body and on the face is most often faced by adolescents due to the “hormonal explosion”, which is quite normal for their transitional age.
Almost everyone can get rid of teen acne, although some do have to fight for clean skin. However, older people may suffer from the same trouble, if the hormonal background does not settle down over time.
Rash on the neck
Photo of a rash on his neck
The causes of a neck rash in an adult, like a child, can be:
- allergic reaction,
- poor hygiene
- inappropriate clothing (synthetic material) or accessories (for example, made of metal, to which a person has an allergy).
It is important to emphasize that in the case when a rash on the neck itches and thus causes inconvenience, the causes of rash can be:
- violationhormonal balance in the body,
- endocrine system diseases
- gastrointestinal diseases(ulcer, pancreatitis, colitis),
- infectious diseasesin which rashes surround the neck (rubella, lichen, scarlet fever, cytomegalovirus, human papillomavirus),
- intoxication of the body,
- parasitic or invasive lesions(scabies, tick-borne fever, demodicosis),
- disruption of workthe liver.
It should be noted that in addition to itching, skin rashes in the above cases are accompanied by other symptoms, for example, increased body temperature and other characteristic signs forARVI(chills, general weakness, photosensitivityand others), sometimes the patient has painful sensations during palpation or hyperemia. In addition, the rash quickly spreads throughout the body.
Causes of a rash on the face of a child or adult can be:
- malfunction of certain organs for example cardiovascular or endocrine system, kidney, intestine or liver,
- hormonal changes,which provoke the development of skin diseases such as acne, acne or teen acne. This type of rash is localized, as a rule, in the areas of the face with the most oily skin, i.e. on the forehead, on the chin, and also on the nose,
Many parents often ask themselves the question: “What are the red cheeks of a child, the norm or symptom of some disease?”. For a start, we note that reddening can be caused by absolutely harmless factors, for example, a walk outside in cold weather or the fact that the baby was sleeping on one cheek while sleeping.
It is not uncommon for cheeks to turn red due to heat when raising temperatures body when teething. However, if the child has reddened not only the face, but also rashes on other parts of the body, then it is worth to consult a doctor, because in this case there is a high probability allergic reactionordiathesis.
If a child has pimples on the body, not only on the face, then this is a signal for immediate action, especially when the rash is accompanied by severe itching. When the baby itches, the reasons may be different, for example, allergyorinfectious diseaseswhich, firstly, require the fastest treatment, and secondly, they are infectious and can harm all family members.
Allergic skin rash
Individual intoleranceorallergyIt is considered one of the main causes of itchy rashes on the skin. Researchers believe that allergies are the modern scourge of humanity. Since every year an increasing number of people, and especially children, suffer from this immunopathological processin which there is a hypersensitive reaction immune system on the effects of some allergen.
Photo allergic skin rashes
An allergic rash is the body’s primary reaction to a stimulus. It can be located on different parts of the body, but most often it appears on the abdomen, on the face or on the neck, as well as on the extremities. In addition to the rash of allergies in children and adults, other symptoms may be present, such as runny nose and nasal congestion, cough, feeling of sand ateyes, seizuresasthmaand bronchospasm, headachesandhearing loss.
In difficult cases, a person may develop acute coronary syndrome (angina pectoris and myocardial infarction), and anaphylaxis. This condition is extremely dangerous for a person and according to statistics in 20% of cases it ends in death. Usually, anaphylactic shock characteristic of the individual intolerance of certain types of drugs.
Allergies to the body can manifest as urticaria, eczema (allergic spots), and contact dermatitis. For the treatment of allergic rashes on the skin in adults and children, it is important to determine the type of allergen to which the body reacts so sharply. Among the most common causes of allergic reactions are:
- household dust and dust mites living in it,
- plant pollen,
- food (honey, nuts, seafood, dairy products, citrus fruits, cereals and legumes, eggs, sesame seed),
- protein found in some vaccines and donated blood
- medicinal preparations containing anesthetics, penicillin, salicylates, sulfonamides and some other compounds
- insect bites, usually wasps or bees,
- animals or insects (dog or cat hair, mites and cockroaches),
- cosmetics and decorative cosmetics.
Treatment of an allergic rash on the body in an adult, like in a child, begins with a diagnosis, which consists of carrying out skin tests. In this procedure, a small number of different allergens that are administered intradermally, i.e., are used to identify the cause of allergy. under the skin of man.
How does an allergy in a child's feet
If, after 30 minutes or less, the patient has a reaction to this or that sample on the skin, then it can be concluded that the interaction with this allergen will cause the person to become hypersensitive.
It is important to emphasize that allergies cannot be completely cured. Unfortunately, currently there are medicines that can alleviate the symptoms of individual intolerance, but there are no drugs that once and for all help to cure a person from allergies.
Allergy sufferers will have to avoid allergens throughout their lives in order not to feel bad. And if allergy symptoms do appear, then you should have antihistamine medicines on hand, which will help reduce the severity of hypersensitivity symptoms and allow you to “win” time if a person needs medical help.
Skin diseases in children, photos and description
Having specified the general points, it is possible to proceed to the consideration of specific diseases in which rashes of various kinds appear on the child’s body. So, for the beginning we will make a single list of the most widespread ailments for which the rash is typical:
- meningococcal sepsis,
- scarlet fever,
- infectious mononucleosis,
- sudden rash,
- vesicular enteroviral stomatitis,
- erythema infectious,
- toxic erythema,
- diaper rash
- prickly heat,
- diaper dermatitis,
- acne newborns,
- contagious mollusc,
- atopic dermatitis,
- infectious exanthema,
- disorders of the circulatory and vascular systems,
- insect bites (bugs, fleas, wasps, bees, mosquitoes, flies).
Infectious children's skin diseases
It is worth noting that in medicine there is a conditional list of the six most common infectious diseases occurring in children and accompanied by a rash. Among them measles, scarlet fever, rubella, chicken pox, infectious and sudden erythema. In addition, such ailments are often found, such as meningococcal infectious mononucleosisandimpetigo.
It is about these diseases that will be discussed further. We will take a closer look at the symptoms of these diseases, give them a brief description and present a photo of the rashes with which they are accompanied with explanations. Of course, this is only a reference, since the pediatrician must deal with the treatment of the child. However, it will be useful for all parents to know at least a minimum of information about the most common children's infectious diseases.
It is an infectious disease, the causative agent of which is RNA virusincluded in the group paramyxoviruseswhich also include, for example, parotitis (mumps) and parainfluenza. The disease has a high degree of susceptibility. This means that in the overwhelming majority of cases, a person will still not be able to avoid the disease and sooner or later he will have measles.
Korevaya viral rash, photo
The disease is transmitted by airborne droplets, the source of infection is a sick person, i.e. carrier of the virus. The patient is considered non-infectious only from the fifth day of the rash.
At risk - children from two to five years.It is important to note that newborn babies are practically not affected by this disease, unlike children at 2 years old, because their body has innate immunitytransmitted from the mother.
After the illness, a sufficiently stable immunity to the virus is formed, which, as a rule, excludes re-infection. However, it is not uncommon for people who have had measles before to become ill again. Adults are suffering measles worse than young children and often the disease occurs with the development of complications. The main and most effective way to prevent and combat the disease is vaccination.
Although a vaccinated person can also get measles, in this case the disease will pass in a milder form. The incubation period of the disease is 8-14 days. It is noteworthy that a single drug for the treatment of this ailment does not exist. Doctors use symptomatic treatment, i.e. for different symptoms of the disease use certain drugs. Measles can give complications in the form of croup, laryngitis, otitis, pneumonia, encephalitis, lymphadenitis,and hepatitis A.
Symptoms of measles in order of their occurrence:
- sharp temperature jump (38-40 С),
- dry cough,
- runny nose and sneezing
- measles enanthema
- measles rash
One of the main signs of the disease ismeasles viral rashin children and adults as well enanthema. The first term in medicine is called a rash on the skin, and the second term is a rash on the mucous membranes. The peak of the disease falls on the appearance of a rash, which initially affects the mucous membranes in the mouth (red spots on the soft and hard palate and whitish spots on the mucous cheeks with a red border).
Then maculopapular rashes become noticeable along the hairline on the head and behind the ears. A day later, small red dots appear on the face and gradually cover the whole body of a person who has been infected with measles.
The sequence of measles eruptions is as follows:
- first day: mucous membranes of the oral cavity, as well as the head area and behind the ears,
- second day: face,
- third day: body,
- fourth day: limbs.
In the process of healing of measles eruptions, pigment spots remain, which, by the way, disappear by themselves after some time. With this disease, mild itching may occur.
Chickenpox (better known in common as chickenpox) - This is a viral disease that is transmitted by airborne droplets through direct contact with an infected person. For this disease is characteristic feverish stateand availability papulovesicular rashwhich is localized usually on all parts of the body.
It is noteworthy that the virusVaricella Zoster (varicella-zost)that causes chickenpox, as a rule, in children in adults provokes the development of no less serious illness -shinglesor herpes zoster.
The risk group for chickenpox is children from six months to seven years. The incubation period for chickenpox usually does not exceed three weeks, according to statistics, on average, after 14 days the disease enters the acute phase.
First, a sick person has a feverish state, and after a maximum of two days, rashes appear. It is believed that children tolerate the symptoms of the disease much better than adults.
This is primarily due to the fact that in adults in most cases the disease proceeds in a complicated form. Usually the period of fever lasts no more than five days, and in especially serious cases it can reach ten days. The rash usually heals for 6-7 days.
Overwhelminglychickenpox passes without complications. However, there are exceptions when the disease is more severe (gangrenous, bullousorhemorrhagic form), then complications in the form oflymphadenitis, encephalitis, pyodermaormyocardium.
Since there is no single drug for fighting chickenpox, the disease is treated symptomatically; facilitate the patient's condition while his body fights the virus. In a febrile state, patients are shown bed rest, if there is severe itching, it is relieved with antihistamines.
For faster healing of lesions, they can be treated with a solution of Castellani, brilliant green ("green") or use ultraviolet radiation, which will "dry" the rash and accelerate the formation of crusts. Currently, there is a vaccine that helps develop your own immunity against the disease.
With chicken pox initially appears rash watery blister in the form roseol. Within a few hours after the appearance of the rash, they change their appearance and are transformed into papules, some of which will grow into vesiclessurrounded by a halo hyperemia. On the third day, the rash dries up and a dark red crust forms on its surface, which disappears by itself on the second or third week of the disease.
It is noteworthy that with chickenpox the nature of the rash is polymorphic, because on the same area of the skin can be observed as a rash in the form of stainsso and vesicles, papules and secondary elements, i.e. crusts. With this disease can occurenanthema on the mucous membranes in the form of bubbles, which turn into ulcers and heal within a few days.
Rash accompanied by severe itching. If the rash is not combed, then it will pass without a trace, because does not affect the growth layer of the dermis. However, if this layer is damaged (due to the constant violation of the integrity of the skin surface), atrophic scars may remain at the site of the rash due to severe itching.
The occurrence of this disease provokes a harmful effect on the human body parvovirus B19. Erythema transmitted by airborne droplets, in addition, the risk of infection with this disease is high when organ transplants from an infected donor or blood transfusion.
It is worth noting that erythema infectionbelongs to the group of little-studied diseases. It is believed that people who are prone toallergies.
In addition, erythema often occurs on the background of diseases such as tuberculosis, rheumatism or tularemia. There are several main forms of the disease:
- sudden rashchild roseola or the “sixth” disease is considered the mildest form of erythema, the cause of which is herpes virushuman
- Chimera erythema, a disease for which, in addition to rashes on the face, is characterized by swelling of the joints,
- Erythema Rosenberg characterized by an acute onset with fever and symptoms of general intoxication of the body, as with flu virus, eg. With this form of the disease appears abundant maculopapular rashmainly on the limbs (extensor surfaces of the arms and legs), on the buttocks, as well as in the area of large joints,
- erythema nodosum - is a type of disease that accompaniestuberculosisorrheumatism, the rash with it is localized on the forearms, on the legs, slightly less often on the feet and thighs,
- exudative erythema accompanied by the appearance papules, stainsas well as blistering rash with a clear liquid inside on the extremities and trunk. After the rash subsides, abrasions form in their place, and then crusts. When complicated exudative erythema (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) in addition to skin eruptions on the genitals and in the anus, in the nasopharynx, in the mouth and tongue erosive ulcers develop.
Incubation period at erythema infection may last up to two weeks. The first symptoms of common intoxication organism. A sick person may complain cough, diarrhea, headachesandnausea, and runny nose and pain in the throat. Usually rises temperaturebodies and maybe fever.
It is noteworthy that this condition can last long enough, because the incubation period erythema infection may reach several weeks. Therefore, this disease is often confused with ARVI ora cold. When conventional methods of treatment do not bring the desired relief, and besides, a rash appeared on the body, this indicates that the development of the disease is of a completely different kind than acute respiratory viral diseases.
How to treat erythema viral, it is better to ask the doctor. Although it is known that there is no specific drug for this disease. Specialists use symptomatic treatment. Initially at erythema infectionrashes are localized on the face, namely on the cheeks and resemble in shape the butterfly. After a maximum of five days, the rash will cover the surface of the arms, legs, entire body and buttocks.
Usually, rashes do not form on the hands and feet. First, on the skin, separate nodules and red spots are formed, which gradually merge with each other. Over time, the rash acquires a rounded shape, with a lighter middle and distinct edges.
Infectious mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus)
This disease belongs to the group of acute viral diseases, which among other things are characterized by changes in the composition of the blood and damagesplenic lymph nodesandthe liver. Get infected mononucleosiscan be from a sick person, as well as from the so-called virus carrier, i.e. a person in whose body the virus "slumbers", but he himself is not sick yet.
Photo rash with mononucleosis
Often this ailment is called “kissing disease”. This indicates the mode of distribution.mononucleosis- airborne.
Most often, the virus is transmitted with saliva when kissing or when sharing bed linen, dishes or personal hygiene items with an infected person.
Children and young people usually get sick with mononucleosis.
There are acuteand chronicailment form. For the diagnosis of mononucleosis, a blood test is used, in which antibodies to the virus or atypical mononuclear cells.
As a rule, the incubation period of the disease does not exceed 21 days, on average, the first signs mononucleosismanifest a week after infection.
The main symptoms of the virus include:
- general weakness of the body
- catarrhal tracheitis,
- muscle aches,
- increased body temperature
- lymph node inflammation,
- an increase in the size of the spleen and liver,
- skin rash(eg,herpesfirst type).
A rash with mononucleosis usually appears with the first signs of the disease and looks like small red spots. In some cases, in addition to spots on the skin, there may be roseolus eruptions. With mononucleosis rashes, as a rule, do not itch. After healing, the rash disappears without a trace. In addition to skin rashes with infectious mononucleosiswhite spots may appear on the larynx.
Meningococcal infection- This is a disease caused by the harmful effects of bacteria on the human body.meningococcus. The disease can be asymptomatic, or it can be expressed in nasopharyngitis (inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nasopharynx) or purulent meningitis. In addition, there is a danger of damage to various internal organs, as a result ofmeningococcemia or meningoencephalitis.
Photo of meningitis rash
The causative agent of the disease is Gram-negative meningococcus species Neisseria meningitides,which is transmitted by airborne droplets from an infected person.
Infection penetrates the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. This means that the person simply inhales meningococcus nose and automatically becomes the carrier of the disease.
It is noteworthy that with a high degree of immune protection, no changes may occur, the body itself will defeat the infection. However, young children, whose immune system, however, like the whole body as a whole is still too weak or elderly people can immediately feel the signsnasopharyngitis.
If bacteriameningococcusIf it is possible to penetrate the bloodstream, the more serious consequences of the disease are inevitable. In such cases, may developmeningococcal sepsis. In addition, bacteria are carried through the bloodstream and enter the kidneysandadrenal glandsand also affect the lungs and skin. Meningococcuswithout proper treatment is able to penetrate blood-brain barrier and destroy brain.
Symptoms of this form meningococcus as nasopharyngitis similar to the beginning of the flow ARVI. A sick person rises sharplytemperature body he suffers from strong headaches, sore throat, nose stuffy, pain is also present when swallowing. Against the background of general intoxication in the throat appears hyperemia.
Meningococcal sepsis It starts with a sharp jump in temperature up to 41 C. At the same time, a person feels extremely unwell, there are symptoms of generalintoxication organism. Small children can vomit, and babies are observedconvulsions.Roseolous papularor roseola rash appears about the second day.
When pressed, the rash disappears. After a few hours, the hemorrhagic elements of the rash (bluish purple-red), rising above the surface of the skin, appear. Localized rash on the buttocks, on the hips, as well as on the legs and heels. If the rash appears in the first hours of the disease not at the bottom, but at the upper part of the body and on the face, then this signals a possible unfavorable prognosis of the course of the disease (gangrene ears, fingers, hands).
With lightning or hypertoxic form meningococcal sepsis against the backdrop of the rapid development of the disease appears hemorrhagic rash, which right before our eyes merges into extensive formations, resembling in appearance dead spots. Without surgical treatment, this form of the disease leads to infectious-toxic shockwhich is not compatible with life.
With meningitis body temperature also rises sharply, chills are felt. The patient is tormented by severe headaches, which are aggravated by any movement of the head, he does not tolerate sound or light stimuli. For this disease is characteristic vomiting, and young children develop seizures. In addition, children can take when meninging a specific posture of the "gun dog" when the child is lying on its side, his head is strongly thrown back, his legs are bent, and his arms are brought to the body.
A rash in meningitis (red-violet or red) appears, as a rule, already on the first day of the acute phase of the disease. Localized rash on the extremities, as well as on the sides. It is believed that the larger the area of distribution of rashes and the brighter their color, the more serious the patient's condition.
The cause of this pustular disease are streptococcus (hemolytic streptococcus)andStaphylococcus (Staphylococcus aureus), as well as their combinations. Impetigo pathogens penetrate the hair follicles, causing the formation of a pustular rash, in the place of which ulcers appear.
Children, people who often visit common areas, as well as those who have recently suffered severe illness are usually affected by this disease. dermatologicalorinfectious diseases.
Malicious microorganisms penetrate the human body through micro cracks in the skin, as well as through abrasions and through insect bites. With impetigo rashes are localized on the face, namely near the mouth, in the nasolabial triangle or on the chin.
The following forms of the disease are distinguished:
- streptodermaorstrep impetigo, eg, lichenin which dry spots appear on the skin with a red rim or diaper rash,
- ring-shaped impetigo affects the legs, hands, and feet,
- bullous impetigoin which fluid bubbles appear on the skin (with traces of blood),
- ostiofolliculitis- This is a type of disease caused byStaphylococcus aureus, rashes with this impetigo are located in the hips, neck, forearms and face,
- slit impetigo Is a disease in which linear cracks can form at the corners of the mouth, at the wings of the nose, and also at the palpebral fissures,
- herpetiformis Impetigo is characterized by a rash in the armpits, under the breasts, as well as in the groin area.
Impetigo treatment depends primarily on the type of disease. If the disease is caused by harmful bacteria, then antibiotics are prescribed. A sick person must have personal hygiene products so as not to infect others. Rashes can be processed brilliant green or biomycin ointment.
It is important to remember that the presence of any rash on the body of a person, and this is especially true of children, is a reason for going to a doctor. When the rash covers the entire surface of the body in a matter of hours,feverish state, but temperaturerises above 39 C, with symptoms such as severe headache, vomiting and confusion, difficulty breathing, swellingthen you should call an ambulance immediately.
In order to avoid more serious complications do not injure parts of the body with rashes, such as opening bubbles or combing the rash. As many experts, including the well-known pediatrician Dr. Komarovsky, warn, you should not self-medicate and, moreover, postpone the doctor's call in order to check the effectiveness of folk treatment methods.