Laryngitis is a swelling of the mucous membrane of the larynx, which can be triggered by overstrain, overheating or hypothermia, infection. The disease is most often diagnosed in children, which is caused by differences in the structure of the respiratory tract of children and adults. Next, consider the symptoms and treatment of laryngitis in children. Grudnichkov definitely need to show the doctor, self-treatment is unacceptable, all therapeutic measures should be carried out in the hospital.
Laryngitis in infants and older children is in most cases caused by viral infections. According to the well-known pediatrician and TV host, Dr. Komarovsky, in 99.9% of cases the source of the disease is a viral pathogen. Laryngitis is associated with influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, parakrippozny virus. All of these diseases have similar causes and symptoms. Treatment of laryngitis in infants is usually carried out in the hospital if the disease has first occurred or is severe, with complications. In other cases, home treatment is possible.
The highest incidence is observed at the age of six months to two years. At this age, the disease is diagnosed in a third of children with acute respiratory illness. The reasons are the imperfection of the respiratory system of babies, the inability to deal with harmful external factors and infections. The provoking factors are inhalation of dusty air, weak immunity, abrupt climate change, laryngeal mucosal injuries, an allergic reaction, overcooling of the body, passive smoking, genetically narrow airways, difficult childbirth or birth injuries.
Forms of laryngitis
The disease is classified according to the form of flow. Catarrhal form is the simplest and most common. There are symptoms that are characteristic of most infectious diseases in children, namely dry cough, hoarseness and a slight increase in temperature. In this form, laryngitis also requires skilled medical care, since the consequences can be a temporary loss of voice and the development of respiratory failure.
Stenonizing form is accompanied by a decrease in the lumen of the larynx. Most often the disease in this case causes breathing problems. The help of a qualified pediatrician is required. The hypertrophic form of laryngitis develops both independently and as a complication of catarrhal. It is characterized by a likely loss of voice and a strong change in its timbre, hoarseness. Atrophic laryngitis is more commonly diagnosed in adults. Differs from other forms of thinning of the laryngeal mucosa.
Hemorrhagic laryngitis develops with individual pathologies of the blood-forming organs or toxic flu. First, a dry cough appears, when passing into a wet sputum, clots or streaks of blood are found. The diphtheria form develops clearly from the tonsils to the larynx. Visually on the mucous membranes there is a white patina, which, exfoliating, can cause airway blockage. Symptoms of the disease in this case resemble streptococcal infections. Phlegm (purulent) form is rare. Develops from catarrhal and is characterized by a significant increase in all symptoms.
The onset of the disease
The most common symptoms in the offseason are laryngitis in infants. Recommendations to parents for prevention are based on strengthening the child’s immunity during this period. The development of respiratory infections, against which a disease occurs, is promoted by fluctuations in humidity and temperature changes. Viruses are also activated during the period of heat, namely in the early spring and autumn. In winter, children get sick less often. Very rapidly appear symptoms of laryngitis in infants. Treatment and forms of the disease will be discussed further in more detail. In the acute period, the disease can reach the fourth degree of severity.
Symptoms of mild laryngitis are usually mild. In this case, the disease manifests itself only in periods of anxiety or physical activity. Breathing quickens, becomes noisy, shortness of breath occurs when inhaling. Due to shortness of breath in the blood there is no excess carbon dioxide, so that the body can independently maintain the normal composition of the blood. This condition in children lasts up to two days.
Further symptoms of laryngitis in infants. Treatment started in a timely manner, will help to quickly stop the disease. Breathing in the second stage becomes noisy, shortness of breath occurs in a calm state, and during inhalation becomes constant. The work of the respiratory muscles is increased, which compensates for the lack of oxygen. In the area of the chest, soft tissue can be drawn in, which increases with tension.
At the same time, children behave restlessly, sleep badly and may refuse food. The skin becomes pale, and the area around the mouth - bluish. Heartbeat quickens. This stage lasts up to three to five days. Laryngitis is manifested by attacks or is always present. Treatment for this degree is already carried out in the hospital.
As already understood, the symptoms of the disease and severity are interrelated. Signs of laryngitis in infants at this stage are already clearly expressed. The child’s breathing becomes more frequent, the respiratory system becomes more active, breathing becomes irregular, the metabolism is disturbed, and the blood circulation deteriorates. The condition of the child becomes difficult. The crumb becomes drowsy and inhibited, then behaves restlessly and irritably. The voice becomes quiet and hoarse.
Dyspnea is present not only on inhalation, but also on exhalation. Cough at first louder than usual, but gradually becomes superficial. Breathing is often replaced by superficial, can be noisy and irregular. Abdomen sharply retracts. The symptoms of carbon dioxide accumulation in the body become pronounced. When listening, you can hear harsh noises, after which breathing is relaxed. Blood pressure may fall, heart tone becomes muffled and quickens. The treatment is carried out in a hospital.
Stenosis of the last stage
Symptoms and methods of treatment of laryngitis in infants are interrelated. In the last stage, the disease is very dangerous, and the child’s condition is assessed as very serious. Seizures may occur, the temperature may drop and even coma may develop. The breathing is rapid, its absence can be observed, the heart rhythm slows down. At this stage, the composition of the blood changes to critical values. Stenosis of the last stage can be supplemented by serious intoxication and complications. Be sure to call an ambulance, even if the child does not seem very sick.
Diagnosis of laryngitis
Diagnosis usually does not cause problems, as with laryngitis the larynx swells, and tests show a complete picture of the disease. When the first symptoms appear, you must call the doctor at home. Only a qualified specialist on the basis of laboratory tests can make an exact diagnosis to an infant. The main diagnostic methods are the study of history, physical examination, listening to the lungs, if necessary, a study of sputum and blood.
A visual examination by a doctor is carried out with an endoscope. At the same time, a narrowing of the laryngeal lumen, the presence of edema and redness, purulent or mucous plaque can be detected. Sampling of the larynx mucosa is done to determine the causative agent of the disease. Complete blood count helps to identify the viral or bacterial origin of laryngitis. During a general examination of the baby, the doctor will note changes in the size of the lymph nodes and the presence of pain in the larynx area. Based on the information received, you can make a final diagnosis and determine the tactics of therapy.
The most dangerous complication of laryngitis in young children is the development of stenosis, that is, the last stage of the disease. Pneumonia, tracheitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, sepsis, laryngeal atrophy, the development of benign tumors, purulent phlegmon of the neck, or the transition to a chronic form are also dangerous consequences. Possible complications are very dangerous, therefore, for laryngitis in infants, treatment (adequate and timely) is very important.
First Aid Child
Treatment of laryngitis in infants should begin with first aid in the attack. Due to the small diameter of the larynx and the peculiarities of its location in young children, the disease can provoke attacks of suffocation. In case of sudden difficulty breathing, first aid should be given. The child is stripped above the belt, and then fixed in a vertical position. You can put a pillow under your head so that your baby is half-sitting.
You need to open the window so that the room has enough fresh air. You can moisten the air using a special device or using the grandmother's method - hang wet towels on radiators. You can dial a bath of hot water or turn on the shower, and then bring the baby into the room so that the child breathes in moist air. According to Dr. Komarovsky, the treatment of laryngitis in infants should be carried out only in a room with humid and cool air. The temperature in the room where the baby is constantly located should be about 18-22 degrees.
The baby should also be given alkaline mineral water or milk with baking soda. You can drink compote of dried fruit or warm water. Children older than two years must use mustard plasters on calf muscles. If the temperature is not elevated, you can make a hot foot bath. When the body temperature rises, the child is given antipyretic. If breathing is stopped, one should induce vomiting by pressing a finger or spoon on the tongue.
It is recommended to give an antihistamine immediately to very young children or those who are definitely allergic to something. This can improve the condition of the child a little and will remove the swelling. All these actions are recommended before the arrival of the ambulance. The attacks of the disease recur, so that after the first one you should not relax, because the second attack may be stronger.
Hospitalization for laryngitis
If laryngitis is diagnosed in a baby, doctors will determine how to help the baby. At home, parents can only relieve the attack before the arrival of the doctors, but the treatment of very young children (or if the disease has occurred for the first time) is carried out only in the hospital. In the acute form of the disease, doctors will quickly remove the swelling and make the necessary inhalations. The child may be prescribed antibiotic therapy.
In a severe form of the disease in the hospital, they can intubate the trachea or perform artificial respiration. This concerns serious laryngeal edema. In this situation, only the doctor will help. Without medical care, the child may die. The baby will receive a tracho-system to restore breathing. The system consists of a tube inserted into a slit in the neck. When the condition returns to normal, the handset will be deleted. Treatment of laryngitis in infants will be further carried out with medicines.
At home, the treatment of laryngitis in infants is carried out only if the stage of the disease allows, and the child already had seizures, so that the parents are able to adequately carry out therapy. If inhalations are not contraindicated, they should be done at home, but in some cases this will not be enough. Drug treatment of laryngitis in infants is carried out only according to the testimony of a doctor.
Antihistamines are usually prescribed (especially if the allergic nature of the disease), antibiotics (when detected in bacteria tests), cough suppressants (can not be used in the presence of sputum), expectorant drugs and mucolytics (when wet cough). Antibiotics are selected in accordance with the age of the child. Also in the hospital may be prescribed hormonal treatment.
In children under one year, acute laryngitis is especially dangerous. It is imperative to call the doctor at home if you have difficulty breathing, fever and restless behavior of the baby. If an attack has started, it is better to call an ambulance, rather than wait for the arrival of the district pediatrician.
When treating at home, the child should be provided with bed rest and minimal tension in the vocal cords. Making the baby silent will not work, but you need to try to make him speak at least in a whisper. At the same time, the larynx is restored fairly quickly, and the number of defects in the development of the vocal cords, which are just being formed, tends to zero. The room should be kept at the optimum temperature and humidity. It is necessary to do wet cleaning regularly and air the room, if necessary, use a humidifier and reduce the intensity of the heating devices. Food should be such as not to irritate the throat. Drink shows the most abundant. This will allow you to go through the stage of dry cough faster and reduce the toxic effect on the body.
In the absence of adequate treatment or in the event that the disease remains undertreated, chronic laryngitis may develop. At the same time, problems with the throat or vocal cords develop slowly; the child constantly feels the need to clear his throat. By the way, chronic laryngitis in adults is often an occupational disease, to which are inclined those who on duty speak a lot, that is, singers, actors, teachers.
How to protect infants from laryngitis? To protect the child, you should not give him to drink cold, wear according to the weather and only in clothes made from natural fabrics, follow the rules of hygiene, avoid infections, regularly carry out wet cleaning in the house, maintain the optimum temperature and humidity, engage in hardening, do not cure colds and other diseases on their own. You also need to periodically visit the district pediatrician for routine examinations.
What is dangerous laryngitis?
The larynx in a child has a small diameter. The baby's vocal cords are short, the laryngeal lumen is so narrow that a small inflammatory process can lead to difficulty breathing, up to asphyxiation. Therefore, parents should know the symptoms of the disease, how the treatment is performed, and how to eliminate the sudden attacks.
The forum, which is conducted by Dr. E. O. Komarovsky, contains information on how abundant drinking and clean cool air is what will help with laryngitis.
Causes of disease
- Viral and bacterial infections that enter the body through the nasopharynx, most often lead to the development of laryngitis and swelling of the vocal cords. Such is the defensive reaction of the organism, conceived by nature,
- House dust, household chemicals, cat and dog hair, food cause an allergic form of laryngitis. Allergy treatment is one of the most difficult in medicine.
- Laryngitis manifests itself as complications from measles, scarlet fever or whooping cough, so they need to be treated promptly. Hypothermia and excessive exercise also contribute to inflammation of the larynx,
- Lymphatic-hypoplastic diathesis is a congenital disease. The situation is aggravated by the mature age of the mother, the achievement by both parents of 30 years, errors in nutrition during the period of childbearing, manifested in the abuse of carbohydrates and fats. Late toxicosis also threatens the health of the unborn child. The baby needs to strengthen the immune system, prevent and eliminate the development of infections in the oral cavity, you should not postpone the visit to the dentist and dental treatment,
- The nervous system of a child under one year old is not yet resistant to emotional shocks. Stress causes a reflex contraction of the vocal cords, leading to severe spasm and laryngitis.
Laryngitis is an occupational disease. The medical forum is replete with complaints of throat from teachers, announcers, lecturers and singers.
How the disease manifests itself in various forms
Laryngitis in infants is very dangerous and cunning. The disease causes pathological changes in the tissues of the respiratory tract of varying severity:
- Catarrhal is a mild form. Symptoms are not pronounced or completely absent. Discomfort in the throat, weak cough, and fever and difficulty breathing are absent,
- In the case of hypertrophic laryngitis, cough occurs due to the formation of "nodules" on the folds of the larynx. At the same time, the nose is not blocked, the body temperature is not higher than 37. The disease can pass without medical intervention, but in case of deterioration, immediately treat,
- Chronic disease leads to the development of atrophic laryngitis. The baby is disturbed by frequent and sudden attacks of cough, the mucous membrane of the larynx becomes thinner, the ability to reproduce sounds is lost. At an early age it is dangerous that the child will not speak, it will lead to a delay in development. Then you will need treatment by a child psychologist.
E.O.Komarovsky argues that in case of any changes in his voice, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
Acute laryngitis in an infant occurs unexpectedly. The symptoms are almost absent, the healthy and full of strength of the baby changes its timbre for no reason. There may be low-grade fever, at which the body temperature reaches 40 degrees.
Symptoms appear in the morning or at night, at first a peculiar barking cough worries. The condition is rapidly deteriorating: due to the strong constriction of the larynx, the child stops breathing normally. Breathing becomes superficial, it becomes ineffective. The child cannot speak normally, and the skin around the mouth becomes bluish. Attacks of laryngitis will disappear sooner if the acute respiratory disease that caused it is treated.
When laryngitis appears, a person needs “voice rest”. After a couple days of silence, all the signs will disappear, the voice will return.
Periodically repeated inflammation of the larynx, measles and influenza laryngitis leads to the development of a chronic form in which there is a pathology of laryngeal tissue. The secretion glands are rearranged, the vessels dilate, resulting in excessive growth of laryngeal cells, or hypertrophy. This form is diagnosed in children older than a year. The main symptom of a chronic form is a qualitative violation of the voice, from minor changes to losing the sonority of the voice.
The kid experiences discomfort in the trachea or larynx. Unpleasant sensations are similar to tingling, a strong pain syndrome is not observed. Breathing is not difficult, the formation of sputum, which departs well. Treatment should be literate, as this form of the disease is protracted. Acute laryngitis is faster, although its signs are more pronounced.
E.O. Komarovsky argues that children who are prone to allergies are most susceptible to laryngitis.
How to act during an attack
If the newborn in the middle of the night had a seizure, then you can not put off a minute. It is necessary to immediately call the ambulance crew, so that the choking baby will receive qualified medical assistance. Self-treatment can result in serious complications. Give the baby first aid:
- Try to calm the child so that he does not cry. Severe stress will increase the constriction of the larynx and spasm,
- Steam bath is recommended. To do this, close the drain in the bathroom and turn on the hot water tap. The air in the room will become wet, thanks to a couple of coughing will cease to be dry, sputum begins to easily move away. For proper effect in the room it is necessary to spend about ten minutes, if necessary, repeat the procedure,
- Give your baby an alkaline drink. Mineral water and water with the addition of soda perfectly relieve symptoms. In one liter of boiled water part one teaspoon of baking soda. Every 15 minutes it is necessary to take one tablespoon, for a baby it will be enough tea. Exclude the use of the following drinks: compote, milk, tea and juice,
- Dry indoor air can be moistened, if carried out, wet cleaning. In the cold season it is enough to hang a wet cloth on the battery, you get an improvised humidifier. Only in no case cover electric heaters,
- The forum for young mothers suggests making warm foot baths. After the legs were hovering and the baby was wrapped in a blanket, give the kid a warm drink. Treatment with these trays will be more effective.
- Antihistamines will eliminate allergic laryngitis, and the spasm will help to stop taking Drotaverine. Carefully read the instructions before use, the dosage is calculated based on age,
- At home, you can do inhalation with saline. Nebulizer treatment can not be carried out more than three times a day,
- When the temperature rises from 38 degrees, the child should be given an antipyretic drug,
- The disease in newborns is more complicated than in adults. The laryngeal mucosa is so loose that the disease can deprive the lungs of oxygen. The forum for young mothers recommends keeping the child upright so that he does not suffocate,
- Tracheitis and laryngitis due to the likelihood of asphyxia are considered deadly. If you notice symptoms of laryngitis, you should immediately consult a doctor.
E.O. Komarovsky: "Fatty tissue in a child contributes to stenosis of the larynx."
Only a qualified specialist should diagnose and prescribe therapy. If a child has a cough, an increase in body temperature, then consult with your pediatrician. He will conduct a primary examination, refer you for testing, prescribe treatment. Therapy of each form of laryngitis has its own characteristics, depending on what symptoms bother the baby.
The mild form can be treated at home. The most important thing is to create an emotionally comfortable atmosphere and not to let the baby feel nervous. Symptoms will disappear if you make warm foot baths, compresses, mustard plaster, wave a warming ointment.
Do not eat foods that often cause allergic reactions: honey, herbs, raspberry jam. Antibiotics are prescribed if laryngitis develops due to an infection. In case of allergic laryngitis, antihistamines are taken. Laboratory research will help identify the allergen.
The room where the baby is located should be constantly aired, it is imperative to carry out daily wet cleaning.
Medium and severe forms
The second and third degrees should be treated in the hospital. The child must always be under the supervision of doctors, as the likelihood of a sharp deterioration in health is high. The initial examination should be carried out with extreme caution, parents at this time can hold the child in their arms. A calm baby cough quickly stop.
At hospitalization, blood is taken for general analysis. However, it is better to donate blood for research when the emotional background returns to normal. Children under one year old are afraid of injections. Inhalation, antipyretic drugs, droppers, antibacterial drugs will help to quickly improve health.
What it is?
Laryngitis in infants is an inflammatory pathology of the vocal apparatus. For the development of this disease in the smallest children, there are various reasons.
The inflammatory process in laryngitis is quite acute. This leads to the fact that unfavorable signs of the disease appear in a short time.
Larynx - a real breathing apparatus.. This organ carries out respiratory function in the body. Through the larynx passes the air with oxygen dissolved in it from the external environment into the body. The emergence of any pathological processes in this organ contributes to the appearance of symptoms associated with respiratory failure.
Respiratory organs, like the immune system, in an infant are not yet fully formed.. They function quite differently from adults. This feature causes a strong susceptibility of the child to any infectious and non-specific factors that can cause inflammation of the larynx and other pathologies of the respiratory tract.
The diameter of the larynx is very small. Inside this organ are the vocal cords, which provide voice formation. Inflammation contributes to the appearance of various symptoms associated with voice disorders. This is explained by vocal cords in infants are still rather short. During this disease, the inflammatory process leads to the development of severe edema, which only contribute to the fact that the child's voice is noticeably disturbed.
It is important to note that the muscles surrounding the larynx are very easily excitable in children. This contributes to the fact that any provocative factor leads to their reduction.
This situation provokes a strong narrowing of the lumen of the glottis. With the development of inflammation, mast cells emit a huge amount of biologically active substances that increase edema, which provokes the development of adverse symptoms.
Laryngitis in older children is less aggressive. Usually, babies of the first year of life, having become ill, can suffer the disease in a rather severe form.. There are also frequent cases of complications. In some situations, inpatient treatment is required. With timely diagnosis and the correct tactics of therapy, even in a newborn baby, the disease ends with full recovery.
Influence of a variety of causes can cause illness in a baby. They can be isolated or act simultaneously. For a newborn baby, even mild or moderate intensity is sufficient for the development of adverse symptoms.
The following reasons lead to the appearance of clinical signs of laryngitis in infants;
- Infections caused by bacterial flora. Typically, the incubation period for these pathologies ranges from 5 to 10 days. Bacterial forms of laryngitis in very young children occur in a rather severe form. They are characterized by persistent febrile, as well as severe intoxication. To eliminate the dangerous clinical signs, antibiotics are required.
- Congenital infection. In this situation, the first signs of the disease appear in the child immediately after birth. Infection occurs during the passage of the baby through the birth canal of the mother. This form of laryngitis is relatively rare in pediatric practice.
- The consequences of viral infections. Timely vaccination against childhood infections begins with the first hours of childbirth. The development of viral forms of laryngitis in infants and babies is most often caused by the effects of influenza. The course of the disease may noticeably deteriorate when joining the bacterial flora.
- Pronounced local hypothermia. The immune system of a newborn baby is not yet able to withstand the effects of cold. If the baby is very cold, then he may quickly develop adverse symptoms of laryngitis.
- Exposure to dirty air. Dust particles dissolved in it, as well as the smallest components of industrial emissions, can provoke real microtrauma on the mucous membranes of the respiratory organs. According to statistics, for babies living in large cities and near major highways, chronic laryngitis is recorded several times more often.
- Excessive use of a variety of cough medicine. Usually, the first signs of this clinical form of the disease appear in a 6-month-old baby. Sprays and aerosols used for a long time, contribute to the formation of a chronic variant of the disease.
According to statistics, it is more common in babies aged from 8 months to 5 years.
- Allergies. The ingress of allergenic factors on sensitive laryngeal cells contributes to the formation of an allergic variant of the disease. It is most common in babies predisposed to the development of allergies. The presence of allergic pathologies in parents or close relatives may indicate the presence of congenital hypersensitivity to certain allergens in the child.
- Congenital pathologies of internal organs. Anatomical defects often contribute to the formation of various diseases. So, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract can contribute to the development of diseases of the respiratory system. Congenital immunodeficiency conditions often lead to the onset of the disease. With these pathologies, the functioning of the immune system is reduced several times.
- Special constitution. There have been cases of inflammation of the larynx in babies with lymphatic-hypoplastic diathesis. This is due to some physiological features. Usually, all babies have similar signs: rounded face, very loose and pasty subcutaneous fatty tissue, pale skin. They also suffer from an excessive tendency to form edema on the body.
The severity of adverse clinical signs may be different. In newborn babies, the disease usually manifests itself with numerous symptoms that severely affect one’s well-being. Also in weakened babies, manifestations of the disease can be quite acute.
The disease in babies-babies is manifested by the appearance of the following symptoms:
- Coarse voice timbre. In newborn babies, this symptom is better defined while the baby is crying. The timbre of the voice in this case becomes hoarse. At an older age, the child starts wheezing. This is well manifested during the pronunciation of several simple syllables or sounds by babies.
- Cough. It can be different: dry or productive (wet). Typically, an unproductive cough is characteristic of viral laryngitis. If the bacterial flora joins, it becomes wet. The amount of sputum may be different and depends on the severity of the disease.
- Strong weakness. During the acute period of the disease, the baby becomes quite sluggish. During the daytime, drowsiness increases substantially. Active games cause fatigue in a child, so he tries to avoid them.
- Sleep disturbance. Often there is abnormal daytime sleepiness. At the same time, the duration of sleep noticeably suffers at night. A child may wake up several times in the middle of the night, cry. Some babies often ask for hands.
- Decreased appetite. Soreness in the neck leads to the fact that the baby refuses to breastfeed.
- Increase in body temperature. Quite often, it rises to febrile numbers. The use of antipyretics usually has only a temporary positive effect. It may take several days to normalize body temperature.
- The appearance of whistling. The appearance of this symptom is a very unfavorable sign. It occurs as a result of the passage of air through a highly narrowed glottis.
Whistling while breathing also indicates that the vocal cords are quite inflamed and swollen. When this symptom appears, the child should be shown to the doctor as soon as possible.
Causes of laryngitis in newborns
Viral infection provokes the development of the inflammatory process in 90% of cases. The main causative agents are influenza virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus infection and respiratory syncytial virus. Also of great importance in the etiology of measles and rubella virus, bacteria that cause the development of scarlet fever.
There are a number of related factors, which aggravate pathology and accelerate the development of laryngitis in infants:
- hypo-or avitaminosis,
- reduced immune defense
- long crying baby on the background of SARS,
- dry air in the room
- increased dust levels
- unsanitary living conditions,
- congenital predisposition to inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract,
- the use of sprays or aerosols for the treatment of infants.
Important! In addition to the viral nature of laryngitis, allergic factor is of great importance. The development of laryngitis in the first year of life can serve as an indicator of the increased sensitivity of the child’s body to any allergen.
Signs and symptoms of illness in babies
Laryngitis in infants has a specific clinical picture that allows you to immediately make a diagnosis. Symptoms develop suddenly. The baby becomes lethargic, refuses food and water. On the part of the respiratory tract pathology is manifested by the appearance of coughing, wheezing, and change in voice. Breathing becomes heavy and whistling.
The clinic may be accompanied by a rise in temperature to subfebrile parameters, the appearance of nasal discharge of a mucous character. The child has pain and sore throat. Sometimes indicators of body temperature can reach 39 o C. It is not knocked down by either antipyretic drugs or folk remedies.
In the case of laryngeal edema, a so-called false croup appears - a narrowing of the lumen through the respiratory tract. This usually happens at night. The child’s cough resembles barking. Symptoms of choking appear. Due to the lack of air, the skin on the face becomes bluish in color, cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle appears. The kid is frightened of his condition, which further aggravates the clinical picture.
The condition of stenosis in laryngitis (false croup) resembles the development of this (true croup) in diphtheria. A distinguishing symptom is a barking cough, which is absent when infected with diphtheria bacillus.
Assessing the condition of the child, the doctor determines the stage of false croup, in which the baby is:
- Compensated stenosis - the baby is conscious and at rest has smooth and free breathing. Emotional arousal provokes the appearance of shortness of breath. Barking cough - occasionally.
- Subcompensated state - the baby is excited, has pale skin and cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle. Dyspnea develops even at rest. Breathing becomes loud, wheezing, accompanied by attacks of barking cough. When crying or crying, you can hear the voice of osip.
- Декомпенсированный стеноз – малыш в тяжелом состоянии, резко возбужден или, наоборот, заторможенный. Одышка сопровождается затрудненным вдохом. Выдох становится коротким. The skin acquires a cyanotic hue, the pressure drops.
- Asphyxia - the baby is unconscious. Strong cyanosis of the skin. Pupils are dilated, and heart sounds are almost impossible to listen to. Breathing is shallow or absent. The development of seizures is possible.
In whatever stage of the pathological condition the child is, emergency care should be carried out immediately!
First aid for stenosis
It is necessary to call the ambulance brigade, specifying the age of the child. This is necessary in order for the station to send a competent specialist. At the same time, a complex of measures is being taken aimed at stopping the development of edema and preventing the complete blocking of air access.
- Keep the child upright.
- Free the baby’s chest from clothing and ensure adequate air flow.
- Get hot water in a basin or bath, so that the room is filled with steam. Air humidification allows you to remove the spasm.
- Give the child a warm alkaline liquid, which is an edema quencher (milk with soda or mineral water without gas).
- Dip the feet and hands of the baby in a bowl of warm water. It acts as a distraction therapy.
- It is good to moisten sheets and towels of large sizes in water and hang them around the crib, thus moisturizing the air.
- In the presence of a nebulizer at home inhalation with saline. If a child has had a similar attack, then the parents know how inhalations are carried out with hormonal drugs. The dosage should strictly correspond to the age and body weight of the baby.
Note! Laryngitis, accompanied by stenosing attacks, in infants tends to recur. Then the symptoms become brighter than in the first case. Therefore, seeking specialized help is obligatory, even when an attack has been managed to stop itself.
On the part of medical workers, first aid is provided depending on the stage of stenosing laryngitis. In the compensation stage, inhalations are performed using a Bobrov apparatus or a nebulizer. Oxygen and infusions of chamomile, violet, plantain (if available) can be used. To a warm drink add a tablespoon of cough syrup with althea, thermopsis.
Intravenously or intramuscularly injected antihistamines (suprastin) or intramuscularly lytic mixture (pipolfen + aminazin + novocaine). In parallel, antibiotic therapy is prescribed.
The second stage also requires inhalation, however, decongestants are already used. Here is an example of one of them:
- adrenaline hydrochloride,
- physiological sodium chloride solution.
The doctor prescribes the dosage and time of the inhalation depending on the age and body weight of the infant. Enter aminophylline to relieve spasm. At the same time, antibiotic therapy, administration of antihistamines and hormonal preparations are carried out.
The third stage of false croup requires all the same measures, but the doses of hormonal and antiallergic drugs are increasing. A narcotic direct laryngoscopy is also performed with the respiratory tract toilet.
The stage of asphyxiation requires immediate tracheotomy.
Treatment of the disease
Laryngitis in infants, even in the absence of the development of false croup, requires complex therapy. Be sure to give your baby a large amount of warm alkaline drink. Distracting methods in the form of warm foot and hand baths will enhance the outflow of blood from the site of the inflammatory process.
During the period of exacerbation, do not allow the child to cry for a long time, so that he does not lose his voice. Allergic etiology factor requires the use of antihistamines (L-Cet, Fenistil, Suprastin). In the case of the viral nature of the disease, antiviral agents are used, and in the case of bacterial diseases, antibiotics are used.
The fight against dry cough is carried out with antitussive drugs, used strictly by prescription (synecod, stoptussin, panatus). If the cough is moistened, the drugs are canceled. In the case of a wet cough, expectorants and mucolytics are prescribed (prospec, gedelix, ambrobene, bromhexine).
The breast period of life requires strict control during the use of any of the groups of medicines. Dosage and duration of treatment is selected individually by the attending pediatrician.
Extremely severe laryngitis
The treatment of the fourth stage is carried out in the intensive care and resuscitation department. For asphyxia caused by severe spasm, the surgeon will perform an operation to install a special breathing tube. After recovery, the trachyostomy will be removed.
In winter, the likelihood of developing laryngitis increases, since most of the time a person spends indoors, which is poorly ventilated.
Hardening procedure will help to improve the protective functions of immunity. The baby will not be afraid of seasonal flu and cold epidemics. Enough to spend a lot of time in the fresh air, try not to talk a lot in cold weather and take a contrast shower.
Noisy and restless children who like to shout should be explained that this behavior is dangerous for the vocal cords. Taking adaptogens will reduce the incidence of laryngitis.
What is laryngitis in children under one year
Laryngitis is a mixed form in which the child develops signs of both pharyngitis and rhinitis. Initially, the baby has a runny nose, and later coughing joins it. In severe cases, a laryngeal spasm is formed. The vocal cords are often involved in the pathological process.
Laryngitis - inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx
Infants suffer diseases much more difficult than adults. This is due to the special structure of the respiratory system. The diameter of the larynx in infants is small, and the vocal cords themselves are short. At the same time, the surrounding muscles actively respond to any effects. The result - the narrowing of the glottis with the appearance of a provoking factor.
Swelling of the laryngeal mucosa can occur even with a slight inflammation. And if, in an adult, it will cause mild discomfort, then in a child it will cause difficulty in breathing, and in the worst case, an attack of suffocation (the development of a false croup).
Important! If the child’s cough has begun to resemble a dog barking or there is a whistling touch in it, then a doctor should be called in urgently, as the probability of developing false croup is high.
In some cases, the disease proceeds without the formation of specific symptoms, and only with a sharp deterioration in the condition of the child does the mother understand that the baby is sick.
When diagnosing laryngitis, a pediatrician will recommend to hospitalize the infant. In this case, the baby will receive all the necessary treatment. In addition, with the development of false croup, he will be provided with qualified assistance.
There are several types of the disease:
- Acute laryngitis - the response of the child's body to hypothermia, a viral infection that has been transferred, or an overstrain of the vocal cords:
- catarrhal - the initial stage of the disease, characterized by inflammation of the laryngeal mucosa,
- Podskalochny (false croup) is one of the varieties of catarrh of the larynx. Formed in the sub-vocal cavity,
- phlegmonous - accompanied by the formation of ulcers on the surface of the larynx and high body temperature.
- Chronic laryngitis:
- hypertrophic (hyperplastic) - the entire surface of the larynx is involved in the inflammatory process. The maximum swelling is determined in the area of the vocal cords,
- atrophic - the last stage of chronic laryngitis, characterized by the formation of dense dry crusts on the nasopharyngeal mucosa.
In infancy, the chronic form of laryngitis does not occur, as it is inherent in adults, in particular alcohol and smoking abusers.
Children up to one year old are most often diagnosed with catarrhal and subscalon forms of laryngitis.
The causes of the development of the disease in infancy
The factors that can trigger the development of laryngitis include:
- long stay of the child in the room with dry air,
- long walks in the cold season,
- strong crying, which caused an overstrain of the vocal cords,
- inhalation of allergens by the baby, for example, house dust,
- weakening of local immunity,
- inflammation of the nasopharynx.
There is another classification of laryngitis, depending on the underlying cause of the disease:
- Bacterial laryngitis is the most dangerous form of the disease for a baby. The causative agent is bacteria that have got on the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx, for example, streptococci, staphylococci, Koch sticks, etc.
- Viral - inflammation can develop during the period of viral damage to the upper and lower respiratory tract of the baby.
- Allergic - this form of the disease occurs as a result of direct contact of the child with an allergen, for example, house dust, animal hair or a flowering plant.
There are many causes of laryngitis, but in infancy, pathology is most often infectious.
Dr. Komarovsky about laryngitis in infants and babies - video
The main symptom of laryngitis is breathing problems. In general, the onset of pathology is very similar to the development of a cold.
Typical signs of inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx can be called:
- hoarse voice
- a cough that resembles a dog barking
- pain when swallowing,
- throat sensation,
- uneven breathing (too frequent or difficult)
- general malaise,
- runny nose
- redness and swelling of the posterior pharyngeal wall.
The appearance of even two symptoms of laryngitis in infants is a reason for calling an ambulance brigade. False croup can develop completely suddenly!
Attacks of false croup are formed in the morning. The signs of laryngeal stenosis development are:
- the appearance of a "barking" or "croaking" cough,
- difficulty breathing, accompanied by atypical wheezing or whistling,
- shallow breathing (the baby cannot take a deep breath),
- hoarseness or lack of voice,
- blue nasolabial triangle.
Features of laryngitis in babies
Laryngitis is an inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract that affects the larynx, the vocal cords and the mucous membranes adjacent to them. Most often, they are sick of young children, and there is the following pattern - the younger the child, the higher the likelihood of serious complications.
The formation of the respiratory system and the "quality" of its work are directly dependent on the age of the child. The course of laryngitis in newborns and infants is complicated:
- small diameter of the larynx,
- short vocal folds
- loose respiratory mucosa, swelling at the slightest inflammation,
The older the child becomes, the less chances he has for laryngitis. However, in infancy, even a small inflammation of the larynx can cause serious breathing problems and even suffocation.
The main treachery of laryngitis is that the dangerous symptoms develop suddenly and most often at night or before dawn. That is why parents need to closely monitor the condition of the baby, if he coughed a little before bedtime.
Causes of laryngitis in newborns and infants
It is important to know not only the types of the disease, but also its causes. In most cases, the occurrence of acute laryngitis in newborns and infants is associated with ingestion:
- viral infections (flu, parainfluenza, measles, rubella, chicken pox, ARVI),
- pathogenic bacteria (scarlet fever, whooping cough),
- allergens (dust, animal hair, dairy mix, household chemicals, perfumes).
In addition, there is a complex of disposing factors, in the presence of which the risk of inflammatory processes in the larynx increases substantially. These include:
- long stay of the child on the street during the cold season,
- dry or “smoked” indoor air,
- overstrain of ligaments caused by prolonged crying,
- abnormal structure of the respiratory system (inherited),
- use of aerosols and sprays for treating colds,
- local weakened immunity.
In many cases, inflammation of the larynx in an infant is of viral origin. The bacterial form of the disease is considered more dangerous, since antibiotics must be used to treat it.
Symptoms and signs in children of different ages
Children younger than a year are not yet able to tell about the unpleasant sensations arising from the disease. They can not complain about a lump in the throat, scratchy, so parents must record all the adverse symptoms.
Inflammation of the larynx in infants of any age is manifested through:
- a sharp, "barking" cough,
- a slight increase in temperature (however, with bacterial infection or weakened immunity, it often reaches 39 ° C),
- whistles and wheezing when breathing,
- hoarse voice
- restlessness, tearfulness during sleep and wakefulness.
Laryngitis in newborns is accompanied by general symptoms of the disease, but due to the physiological structure of the larynx and respiratory tract has its own characteristics:
- violation of the voice appears only through a deaf, poorly discernible cry
- almost immediately, the nasolabial triangle becomes bluish due to oxygen starvation.
The disease develops unexpectedly: just yesterday the child seemed cheerful and completely healthy, and already in the morning there are disturbing symptoms. From the first signs of pathology to the onset of suffocation, sometimes several minutes pass. The effectiveness of the treatment or sometimes even the life of the baby depends on how quickly the qualified assistance arrives.
Laryngitis begins in infants often with a cold. It is not surprising that many parents confuse a dangerous condition with a common cold. In addition, the temperature does not rise to critical values (especially with the allergic nature of the disease). At the onset of the disease, the child usually feels satisfactory.
On day 3-4, symptoms increase:
- the temperature rises (in case of viral and allergic laryngitis the rise is insignificant, in the case of bacterial form - up to 39ºС)
- breathing becomes frequent, with clearly distinguishable wheezing, a "barking" cough appears, crying is not accompanied by sounds, since the inflammation has already passed on to the vocal cords,
- the child refuses a breast or a bottle with a mixture, becomes capricious, whiny.
With a mild form of the disease and qualified therapy, the baby is rapidly recovering. After a few days, the unproductive cough becomes wet. After 2 weeks, coughing stops altogether.
In the event of a severe illness or if the patient is not late in contacting the doctor, the well-being of a small patient deteriorates dramatically. In the area of the nasolabial triangle, the skin acquires a bluish tint, due to the overlap of the larynx, breathing becomes whistling. This condition requires emergency medical care!
A special danger for newborns and infants is the sublastic form of laryngitis, also called false croup or stenosis of the larynx.
Stenosis is a partial or complete constriction of the larynx, due to which oxygen supply to the respiratory tract is significantly reduced or completely stopped.
Depending on the severity of the disease, physicians distinguish 4 stages of false croup. If untreated, the child’s well-being quickly deteriorates, and in severe cases, suffocation begins, which can result in the death of the baby.
Causes of laryngitis in infants
The main cause of inflammation of the larynx in infants is a viral or bacterial infection, which is deposited on the mucous throat of the child. Viruses, bacteria, or combinations thereof cause the inflammatory process of the structures of the larynx of a newborn or infant of young age.
It should be borne in mind that, in most cases, the infection affects children with weak immunity or background diseases that weaken the immunological reactivity of the crumbs (diathesis, perinatal pathology of the central nervous system, functional diseases of the digestive tract).
Therefore, the immune complexes that enter the child's body during breastfeeding are considered to be an additional factor in the protection of the infant. The course and treatment of laryngitis during breastfeeding is much easier, but still in most cases carried out in a hospital.
In addition to viral respiratory diseases, manifestations of laryngitis in children under one year of age can occur or be aggravated with insufficient air humidity in the room, lack of ventilation, dust, fungi, or other allergens in the room where the child resides.
It is important to remember that in 65% of cases, inflammation and swelling of the larynx in newborns and babies during the first months of life is triggered by unsanitary conditions and negligence of mothers, as well as prolonged crying and / or inhalation of very dry air.
Parents should be aware that the use of aerosols and sprays in children under one year old (in rare cases up to three years) causes reflex narrowing of the glottis and provokes the occurrence of laryngitis.
Features of the manifestation and course of laryngitis in infants
In newborns and infants, this disease is difficult due to the fact that the lumen of the respiratory tract in babies less than one year old is narrow, and the structures of the nasopharynx cannot exercise the necessary protection of the respiratory system, as in an adult. In addition, active blood supply, the delicate structure of the mucous vocal cords and the looseness of the submucosal space of the larynx contribute to the rapid inflammation and the rapid growth of laryngeal edema.
Sometimes the severity of the baby’s condition worsens within a few minutes, so when the first signs of pathology appear, any experienced doctor will refer the child to the hospital. Only under the constant control of the clinical manifestations of the disease can laryngitis be treated in infants.
Symptoms of laryngitis in infants include signs of inflammatory lesion of the larynx and manifestations of an infectious viral disease (fever, lethargy, runny nose, sneezing, nasal congestion). Parents need to remember that with minimal suspicion of the development of this dangerous disease in infants, it is urgent to seek medical help — consult a pediatrician or call an ambulance brigade.
Any delay can lead to aggravation of the condition of the baby and the development of its dangerous complication - croup. If this condition occurs, the baby may suffocate. Therefore, it is necessary to know the signs that infants have laryngitis.
The main symptoms of the disease include:
- change in timbre - hoarseness of varying degrees,
- dry "barking" cough,
- whistling while shouting and breathing, noisy breathing.
In addition, there is a capriciousness, increased anxiety of the child, refusal to eat, sleep disturbance. The video tells about the main symptoms of laryngitis in infants.
With the appearance of all these symptoms, it is necessary to urgently consult a specialist. You can not postpone visiting pediatrician - in infants laryngitis and its symptoms are growing rapidly, especially at night and in the early morning.
Therefore, as soon as the baby has the first symptoms of the disease, it is necessary to call the district pediatrician, contact an appointment or independently contact the emergency room of the hospital. Trying to independently undertake laryngitis treatment in infants is strictly prohibited, it is also dangerous to refuse hospitalization.
When it is necessary to call the ambulance brigade
The danger of laryngitis in infants lies in the very rapid onset of stenosis of the narrow small larynx - an extreme narrowing of its lumen, in which the inflamed and swollen mucous structures of the larynx make it impossible for air to enter the crumbs of the respiratory tract. At the same time, the baby cannot breathe on its own and often this problem has to be solved immediately, sometimes even by performing an urgent tracheotomy (tissue incision in the trachea and the installation of the breathing tube).
To avoid this, it is necessary not to miss the symptoms, when laryngitis in infants and home treatment of this pathology becomes impossible and you need to immediately call an ambulance.
These features include:
- the symptoms of laryngitis in infants are aggravated (aggravated "barking" cough, hoarseness, moodiness and anxiety of the baby),
- fever, chills, regurgitation, lethargy, weakness and nasal congestion are added to all these manifestations,
- there is an increase in respiration and shortness of breath with blue nasolabial triangle and participation in the act of breathing intercostal spaces and other auxiliary muscles,
- the general excitement of the baby increases, continuous cough, blue skin, cramps occur.
Proper treatment of laryngitis in infants
Parents of babies of infancy should remember that laryngitis at this age is a dangerous and insidious enemy, and the first thing to do is to show the crumbs to a specialist (pediatrician, infectious diseases specialist or family doctor). Only a doctor can clarify the diagnosis, determine the condition of the child and prescribe treatment (at home or in hospital).
If the diagnosis is made on time, and the condition of the child does not cause concern - the doctor may decide on treatment at home. But at the same time, the pediatrician assumes responsibility and must daily monitor the change in the state of the crumbs before the cough enters the productive phase, which is considered a significant improvement in the condition and the beginning of recovery. In this case, the doctor’s instructions should be accurately and scrupulously carried out by parents, and the list of drugs, their doses and the frequency of use should not be changed independently.
Many parents are concerned about how to treat laryngitis during breastfeeding. With this pathology, pediatricians recommend more frequent attachment of the baby to the breast and a mandatory hypoallergenic diet for the mother. In all other aspects of laryngitis therapy there are no fundamental differences in babies with natural and artificial feeding.
If a specialist strongly recommends hospitalization of a child - you should not take responsibility and write a waiver of inpatient treatment - the price of this decision can be extremely high, and in some cases even an irreparable mistake.
What not to do when laryngitis in infants
If there are signs of laryngitis in infants, in addition to urgent consultation with a doctor, you need to know that you cannot start treating a child by yourself:
- you can not give crumbs any expectorant syrups, drops and other medicines,
- thermal procedures cannot be applied, even if they were effective in an older child: compresses, warming with salt, potatoes or cabbage leaves with honey (all thermal and physical procedures are carried out only in the hospital),
- Do not rub the crumbs with various ointments, fats and oils.
It is important to remember that only a specialist can determine the condition of the child and prescribe treatment. If there are signs of inflammation of the larynx, urgent consultation with a doctor is necessary - do not risk the health and life of your baby.