Mixed feeding baby
If a child gets both mother’s milk and a mixture at the same time, this feeding is called mixed. With this type of feeding, the proportion of the mixture in the baby's diet is from 20% to 50%.
In the case of this type of feeding, feeding can be organized in two ways:
- First give the breast, and then finish feeding the mixture.
- Completely replace any feeding mixture.
It is recommended to choose the option in which the mixture will be consumed less, that is, the baby's mother's milk will receive more.
- Most often, mixed feeding is transferred in case of insufficient production of breast milk. Often, a lack of milk is a fictitious problem, caused either by the subconscious reluctance of the mother to breastfeed, or by the low awareness of the woman about lactation processes. However, there are also objective causes of hypogalactia, forcing mom to resort to dokormu.
- The second reason for the combination in breastfeeding the baby and the bottle is that the mother goes to work or study. Often, the mother leaves the expressed milk for the time of absence, but more often when the mother is working, the child is fed with milk formula.
- The doctor recommends a mixed type of feeding when the baby is not gaining enough weight or is born prematurely. In this case, this type of feeding is a temporary measure - gradually feeding becomes completely breastfed.
- Also, mom can start to finish feeding the crumbs from a bottle in order to free up some time for herself. In this case, the child can be left with the husband or another adult for a short time, without worrying that the baby will remain hungry.
- Another important reason for feeding the infant with the mixture is that the mother has diseases in a compensated form.
- With this type of feeding, the mother may be temporarily replaced by another adult, but at the same time she will be able to maintain intimacy with the crumbs during breastfeeding.
- The baby has all the benefits of breastfeeding.
- Mom may be away from the child for a while.
- Mixed feeding can help dad to establish a closer relationship with the baby.
First of all, because of the missed feed, the mother may have problems with the breast (congestion, milk flushes, chest pain and even mastitis) and lactation. Mom can also psychologically suffer from the fact that the time of breastfeeding has decreased.
At the same time, it may be difficult for a child to adapt to two types of feeding at once:
- He may refuse bottle feeding and be naughty. His appetite may be reduced.
- Starting with ease to get the mixture from the bottle, the baby does not want to "work", extracting milk from her mother's breast. This happens during a very early transition to mixed feeding (in the first 6 weeks of a baby’s life).
- Often having lost the breast during the day, the baby begins to demand more breast milk in the evening and at night.
Which is better: add the mixture to the feed or fully translate into it?
The digestive system of the baby is tuned to breast milk, and when the mixture gets into it, various unforeseen reactions are possible. Therefore, we must especially closely monitor the reaction of the baby.
It is important to understand that the mixture, even if it is expensive and of the best quality, is not equal to breast milk. Therefore, to abandon breastfeeding is not necessary in any case. It is easy to relate to the finishing of the mixture, you should not choose a mixture without consulting a doctor. Also, the decision of the mother to feed the crumbs with goat milk or kefir can only harm the health of the baby.
- If the mixture and breast milk are given in one feeding, then at first the baby is applied to the breast (even if the mother has very little milk), and when the child empties it completely, the mixture is given. The reason for this approach is to have a greater appetite in the infant at the beginning of feeding. If you give the mixture first, the mother will find it difficult to calculate the right amount, and the child will not want to suckle to get milk, since he has already satisfied his first hunger.
- In situations where the mother will be temporarily absent during the day, the baby is transferred to a mixed feeding regime in which the baby will receive only the mixture two or three times a day, and only mom's milk in the other feedings.
- If the volume of the supplement is small, it is recommended to give the mixture from a spoon, since, due to the easier delivery of the product from the nipple, there is a risk that the baby will not suck from the breast. If the mixture is given in a large volume, it is important to choose an elastic nipple, which has small holes so that the infant makes efforts to obtain a mixture from the bottle.
- Diet with this type of feeding can be free, but if the mother decides to feed the baby on a schedule, the number of feedings can be reduced by one.
- It is important to carefully monitor the sterility of the bottles and nipples.
- If the mother goes to work, you should not put off the first attempts to feed the baby from the bottle for the last days. In most cases, infants are not immediately put up with bottle feeding. It is optimal to start feeding the infant with the mixture 2-3 weeks before the moment when the mother begins to leave the house for a long time.
- When mixed feeding a child, you can begin to feed up for two or three weeks earlier than a baby who receives only breast milk.
If you have the opportunity to provide your baby with the required amount of milk per feeding (when cutting back on their total amount), use this opportunity and give the mixture only one feed. In this case, it is possible to calculate only the amount of the mixture required for the current feeding of the infant mixture.
To determine the infant's nutritional needs, consider the age of the crumbs and the type of mixture used.
First, calculate the total daily infant nutritional need:
- A child under the age of 10 days with a weight of less than 3200 g should be multiplied 70 times the age in days to calculate the required amount of food (weighing over 3200 times 80 times the age in days),
- a child under 2 months is given food in the amount of 20% of its body weight,
- children from two to four months require food in the amount of 1/6 of their weight,
- babies older than 4 months to 6 months of age need nutrition in the amount of 1/7 of their body weight,
- Children from six months to a year need a daily intake of food in the amount of 1/8 to 1/9 of their weight.
The total amount is divided by the number of feedings and we know the approximate amount of food needed by the baby in one feeding.
The amount of sucked milk can be measured by control weighing: weigh the baby before feeding and then after. After subtracting these values, you will know the amount of milk consumed. Now it only remains to take away the volume of breast milk received by the infant from the total volume - this way mom finds out how much baby needs a mixture.
To make sure that the baby has enough for the growth and full development of all nutrients, you need to calculate how much the child receives protein, carbohydrates and fats daily. The calculation is based on the rates of entry into the children's body of the main nutrients, as well as the approximate content of these substances in human milk.
Child's age (months)
From birth to 4
In breast milk
First, it is calculated how much the baby receives all the breast milk per day, and then how much protein, carbohydrates, and also fats he gets with this diet. Further, the content of nutrients in the resulting volume of the milk mixture is also calculated. By calculating the needs of the little ones, depending on their age, they determine whether the crumbs of the food they eat are sufficient.
At the same time, it should be noted that the protein requirements increase when mixed for feeding to the infant. A baby under 4 months for each kilogram of mass requires 3 grams of protein, if supplementation is carried out with an adapted mixture, and 3.5 grams, if the mixture is not adapted. A child older than 4 months requires 3.5-4 grams of protein.
What can not be fed?
Baby should not be given a medical mixture, if it is not recommended by a pediatrician. For the use of mixtures with a therapeutic effect, there are strict indications, for example, the soy mixture is given for allergies to milk protein, and lactose-free is used in crumbs with a lack of lactase. Kefir, cow or goat milk can significantly harm the body crumbs.
If the child does not like the bottle
Many babies do not want to move from breast feeding to bottle feeding. To make this transition more successful, my mother is recommended:
- Try to put on the bottle nipples of different types, so that the baby can pick up "his."
- The first time to feed bottle of expressed female milk.
- Feed from a bottle at a time when the crumbs want to eat, but the baby is not too hungry.
- Let the first time someone else offer the bottle to the baby, not the mother.
- When the crumbs will be fed with a mixture, let the baby be in a position not in the position in which he is accustomed to getting his mother's breast.
- The liquid that is given to the baby should be warm, since the crumb used to get milk from her mother's breast in the form of heat.
- We should not expect that the baby will immediately drink the entire mixture from the bottle.
- In extreme cases, the mother will not have to give the baby a breast all day long, so that the baby still agrees to try the mixture from the bottle.
- If the baby persists and he has already turned 6 months, it makes sense to plan for the time of the absence of the mother feeding the baby complementary foods.
We advise you to read our article on how to accustom the child to the bottle.
If the baby does not take the breast after the bottle
Unfortunately, starting to receive food from a bottle, in most cases, children do not want to suck their mother's breast anymore, since it is more difficult for an infant to “get” milk from the female breast than to suck the mixture through the nipple, while others use muscles from the nipple. To begin with, try to pick up a nipple with a small hole or with only 1 hole, perhaps this will help to keep feeding mixed.
If the mother wants to return breastfeeding, she will have to give up the bottle and give the little one the opportunity to get hungry well. Otherwise, it is capable of helping out the decanting and feeding of women's milk from a bottle. Either it will remain to put up with the final transition to feeding with the mixture.
Opinion E. Komarovsky
The well-known pediatrician recommends giving preference to a product that is of greater importance for the health of the child if it is necessary to transfer the crumbs to mixed feeding. Komarovsky, like other pediatricians, considers her mother's milk the most valuable food for babies.
In cases where the mother is forced to give the crumbs some more nutrition, the woman should choose a feeding regime where the baby will consume more breast milk. Mom can give the baby in each feeding first the breast, and then finish feeding with the adapted mixture, or give only the mixture in one of the feedings.
How to feed a baby on mixed feeding
What is mixed feeding of infants and babies, how and when should it be performed? Under this concept refers to the feeding of children up to a year at the same time with breast milk and formula. The volume of the mixture does not exceed half of the total diet of the child.
Is this a normal combination? Doctors say unequivocally about the mixed or artificial feeding, which is better, and this is the first. Even the minimum amount of breast milk will benefit the child, increase his immunity. And he will end up with less cow protein, which is foreign to the human body and the basis of most mixtures.
How to organize mixed feeding baby and when it is necessary
If during breastfeeding the child wants to suckle quite often, sometimes even once an hour, and this is understandable, because mother’s milk is very quickly absorbed, then with a mixed one a certain feeding schedule emerges. Mixed feeding of children of the first year of life is usually carried out every 3-4 hours. This is the time after feedings, in which the mother fed the baby with the mixture. But do babies need to be fed after each feeding? This is determined individually. And first of all you need to make sure that the mixture is generally needed.
You should not start feeding the children yourself and for the following reasons.
1. Visual reduction of the mammary glands, the feeling of their emptiness. Milk usually comes during the feeding of the child, and between feeding it remains at least in the glands, all of it is localized in the alveoli - milk bags, invisible to the eye.
2. Frequent attachment to the baby’s chest. The continuity of the child depresses many young mothers and provokes them to use the mixture for mixed feeding of the infant. Of course, the effect of feedings immediately felt. But it would be good to do without artificial nutrition. Lactational crises sometimes occur in every mom. The amount of milk is temporarily reduced. But the frequent sucking of the breast by the baby normalizes the process of milk production. If the mother begins to give the baby a mixture, the amount of her breast milk becomes even smaller ...
3. Frequent waking at night. Mommies believe that by removing nightly breastfeeding or replacing them with a mixture, they will improve the sleep of the baby. But, by no means ... Children of the first year of life at the age of about 6 months and later wake up often at night because of discomfort in the gums. Teeth are cut during the first 2-2.5 years of a child’s life. And precisely because of them, babies are so capricious. By changing the food, you will not achieve more rare baby awakenings. He will not sleep better.
4. Can't pump enough milk. The fact that little milk is decanted does not mean that it is not enough in the mammary glands. In order for the milk to flow, a “tide” has to happen, well, and the hormone oxytocin, which is also called the pleasure hormone, provokes it. Its emissions occur when the woman is pleased. Namely, when the baby stimulates the nipples. If a woman presses on her chest herself, and even wrongly, causing herself pain, then what oxytocin is meant? Properly decanting is also a science.
5. Control feeding and weighing showed that the baby sucked the milk significantly less than the norm. Babies, especially those who are fed on demand, can drink 10 grams of milk in one feeding and 100 grams of milk in the other, and 100 on one weighing in weighing one cannot judge the child’s malnutrition. If we are to weigh, then constantly. So, you need to get children's electronic scales, as in clinics.
Separate conversation is the situation when the child often sleeps, and he simply does not have the strength to suck mother's milk. This happens in the first month of life, as in absolutely healthy, full-term babies, and premature babies. Because of lazy sucking, the mother leaves the milk, and when the child gets hungry, there is very little breast milk. The way out of this situation is to keep the baby awake while nursing, try to wake him up. And be sure to keep a long time at the chest. Almost all day. Then it will be possible to avoid the introduction of the mixture.
And when mixed feeding baby in 3 months and at another age you need to enter?
1. With very bad weight gains and maintaining this trend. For example, if a child is gaining less than 500 grams per month - this is not normal. Supplement required.
2. If the urination of a child is less than 10 per day. Need to count wet reusable diapers or diapers. By the way, when malnutrition in children is often constipated. And the baby’s stool, when fed mixed with adequate nutrition, normalizes itself.
3. If the mother is forced to part often with the child.
Where to begin?
If you have already carried out check weighing, then you can roughly estimate how much you need to give the mixture to the baby and in each feeding. If the volume of the mixture is, say, 30 grams, and the child is able to drink with a spoon, then you can supplement it in this way. If not, then from the bottle. Be sure to boil the bottle before first use. And the pacifier too. By the way, it must be with a “slow flow”. In the future, boil the bottle after each feeding is optional. It is enough to wash the baby detergent and brush.
But the question of bottles is not so important. The main thing - the choice of the mixture for mixed feeding. Of course, the composition of the mixture should be as close as possible to breast milk. So, the mixture must be adapted. And suitable for age: for babies up to six months - one, from 6 to 12 months - two.
It is better if the pediatrician recommends the mixture to you. Oh, who, if not a pediatrician, is well versed in the quality of mixtures. After all, he daily takes moms with children and listens to their complaints about certain brands of mixtures.
Let the doctor recommend several options. And you choose your own, drawing attention to the reviews of friends or acquaintances, the price, the presence of the mixture in pharmacies and (or) stores.
More carefully, the choice of food for feeding a child should be approached if the child is prone to regurgitation, allergic reactions, and intestinal disorders. Минусом смешанного вскармливания является то, что неподходящая смесь только спровоцирует ухудшение самочувствия ребенка. А марку смеси желательно менять только при крайней необходимости и обязательно медленно. Поэтому, нужно постараться выбрать сразу подходящее.
Mixed feeding rules
If you want to keep HB, give the mixture only after the newborn has sucked one breast to the end and the other. It usually takes at least 20-30 minutes. Then offer the cooked mixture. By the way, the finished mixture can not be stored. Undesirable even in the fridge. It should be done immediately before use, and therefore prepare a clean bottle and water in advance.
If the child did not finish the mixture or refused it at all, consider - this is your victory. The baby received enough milk from the breast. In general, with due diligence, mixed feeding is quite easy to switch back to breastfeeding. And you need to strive for this.
If there is constipation in infants mixed feeding, you need to find its cause. With the introduction of the mixture should be offered to the child between feeding to drink water. After all, the lack of moisture affects the intestinal function.
But if after changing the water, nothing changes, the child pokes hard and rarely, perhaps it makes sense to introduce a fermented milk mixture. Give it at least once a day.
There are no clear recommendations on how to feed an infant on mixed feeding. The main thing is the health of the little man and his well-being. Well, an indicator of good development are mental and physical skills, as well as weight gain and height.
What is mixed feeding?
Mixed feeding is a feeding method in which an infant receives infant formula at the same time as breast milk. The amount of additional food should not exceed 50% of the daily portion of baby food. If milk formulas make up a large part of the diet, feeding is considered artificial.
Properly organized mixed feeding of the newborn helps to maintain breastfeeding and increase milk production. Baby food can not completely replace breast milk. It contains many valuable substances that are not in artificial analogues. Natural food is ideal for the development of the crumbs and protects it from disease. Equally important is the psychological contact between mother and child, which is established during breastfeeding. The process of sucking mother's milk soothes the newborn, gives him a feeling of safety and comfort.
The introduction of infant formula in the diet of the baby should be dictated only by objective necessity. As the obstacles to breastfeeding are eliminated, the amount of supplementation should be reduced.
Mixed nutrition is prescribed to newborns who, due to their health or the health of their mother, did not receive breast milk immediately after birth. After breastfeeding becomes possible, the infant is gradually transferred to breast milk.
It is necessary for women suffering from hypogalactia to feed their child. Hypogalactia is called breast failure, in which milk is produced too little. Not getting the required amount of food, the kid is starving.
A crumb can be malnourished when its mother’s milk is not nutritious, although it is produced in excess.
Women who work or study and cannot provide him with the necessary amount of expressed breast milk are forced to transfer the child to a mixed diet.
On mixed feeding there are babies who, due to their state of health, are prescribed medical or special mixtures by a pediatrician.
How to determine that mixed food is necessary
Many women are afraid that they will not cope with the role of the mother and will not be able to breastfeed their baby. In most cases, their fears are not justified. The female body regulates the amount and composition of milk produced, focusing on the requirements of the newborn. Therefore, the maturing baby is saturated with breast milk and receives all the nutrients necessary for development.
It is impossible to transfer a child to mixed feeding, guided by the appearance of the breast or milk. If the mammary glands weakly poured, and the milk looks watery, this does not mean that the crumb is not fed up.
The decision on the introduction of additional nutrition should be made by the pediatrician. Without his permission, it is impossible to feed a newborn with infant formula.
When unfoundedly fed, the baby will overeat. Excess food can cause a breakdown of the digestive system and lead to weight gain. Systematic overeating in childhood often becomes the cause of obesity in adulthood.
If it is inappropriate to organize mixed feeding, the infant formula can displace breast milk, and the baby will lose natural food.
Signs of Newborn Malnutrition
To determine whether the baby gets enough food, you need to watch him and evaluate the dynamics of his development.
Rare urination indicates a shortage of breast milk. If the diaper of a newborn becomes wet less than 6-8 times a day, he gets a little food. Tracing urination is not difficult if gauze diapers are used. On a fabric surface, it is easier to evaluate the type of urine. If it is dark and smells bad, it is a sign of dehydration. It occurs in a newborn with intense vomiting, diarrhea, or long-term malnutrition.
An important indicator of the nutritional value of the child during the feeding period is his weight. The newborn must return its weight, which he had at birth, within 2 weeks after birth. For the first 6 months of life, a fully fed baby increases its mass by at least 500 g per month. Daily weigh baby is not necessary. It is enough to evaluate its weight every 2 weeks. If there is any doubt that the crumb is undernourished, control weighting can be done before and immediately after feeding. This will determine what portion of milk the baby drank. A monthly baby sucks about 90-100 g of milk for one feeding. A baby at the age of 3-4 months drinks 150 g of milk, and a half-month old baby - 180-210 g. The daily volume of food eaten should be 1/5 of the weight of the baby. If, after controlling weighing, the infant's weight changes slightly, there is not enough food for him.
The malnourished baby cannot withstand 1.5-2 hours between feedings. He starts crying hard an hour after eating and sucks greedily.
A sign of starvation of a child is a change in the nature of feces. The baby’s chair darkens and becomes more dense, has a greenish or brown color.
How to organize mixed feeding
When the decision is made to switch to mixed feeding, it is necessary to consult with a pediatrician on how to properly feed the child:
- Eating should start with breast milk. The infant should be allowed to empty both breasts and only then offer infant formula. By allowing the baby to suck all the milk out of the breast, a significant increase in production can be achieved. Before breastfeeding, only some of the therapeutic mixtures prescribed by the pediatrician can be offered to the baby.
- Do not offer baby food in a bottle with a nipple. Satisfying his need for sucking, the baby can lose interest in mother's milk. If there is a big hole in the bottle nipple, it will be much easier to suck it than a breast. In this case, the baby may completely refuse to suck the mother's milk. It is best to feed the baby with infant formula from a spoon. This method is the most uncomfortable for babies. Therefore, he will seek to suck more breast.
- To preserve lactation and increase the amount of milk produced, it is necessary to breastfeed an infant at night. During this period, the greatest amount of the hormone prolactin, responsible for lactation, is produced.
- You can give in one of the feeds only infant formula. This scheme is convenient for women who need to leave every day for a few hours.
- It is recommended to give the baby a breast on demand. You can offer breast milk when the baby is upset, can not fall asleep or feels unwell. The more the newborn will suckle, the more milk the mammary glands will produce.
- If you carefully follow all the recommendations, the amount of milk will gradually increase. As lactation increases, it is necessary to reduce the amount of infant formula. Thus it is possible to carry out the transfer of the child to full breastfeeding.
How to calculate the required amount of infant formula
The amount of supplementary nutrition is calculated depending on the child's body weight deficit. If a newborn at 3 weeks weighs 3,100 g (birth weight is 3,000 g) and has all the signs of malnutrition, he needs additional nutrition. The lack of body weight is 3400 g - 3100 g = 300 g. To calculate the required daily volume of food, you need 3100 g: 5 = 620 ml. With a seven-meal diet, the baby should eat about 90 ml of milk per feeding.
Control weighing allows you to determine the amount of milk that the baby sucks from the mother during one feeding. If its amount varies in the range of 60-70 ml, it is necessary to prepare a single portion of baby food 40-30 ml.
If a single feed is completely replaced with infant formula, the serving volume should be increased to 90 ml.
The optimal amount of infant formula helps to calculate the pediatrician. He will take into account the individual characteristics of the child, his state of health and the maturity of the digestive system.
What kind of mixes can I use for supplements?
For mixed feeding, the doctor will tell you how to choose the right formula. If the baby is completely healthy and has no disturbances in the work of the digestive organs, it is possible to give him adapted mixtures of Nutrilon, Humana, Nan, Hipp.
When a baby suffers from constipation, regurgitation and colic, it is better to include in its diet fermented milk formula Nan, Nutrilon, Nutrilak or Agusha. They contain lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, which help restore a healthy balance of microflora in the intestines of a child.
If the crumb has intolerance to cow's milk, you can feed it with infant formula based on goat's milk (Kabrita, Nanny) or soybeans (Nan-soy, Frisosa, Enfamil-soy, Similac isomil). Such products are in most cases well tolerated by children.
For kids with protein intolerance produce products with split proteins. Such mixtures do not cause a negative reaction in the child, but have an unpleasant taste and low nutritional value. They can be used only as prescribed by a doctor.
If the mixed feeding of infants is carried out, it is not necessary to strive at all costs to feed him the entire prepared portion of the infant formula. If he refuses to eat, feeding needs to be finished.
For the next meal, it is not necessary to prepare an increased portion of the mixture, trying to recover the volume that the baby refused during the previous feeding. It is always necessary to prepare the portion of baby food recommended by the doctor.
After the baby has eaten the proposed mixture, you can again offer him a breast. If the baby is not fed, he will be happy to suck the breast.
Infant formula is absorbed longer than breast milk. The number of feedings with mixed feeding will be 1 less than with breastfeeding.
In order for the baby not to wean from the breast, you can use a special device for feeding newborns. It is a container for baby food with a tube attached to it. The tubule is fixed near the mother's nipple. The child captures it along with the nipple and receives additional food in the most favorable conditions for it.
Babies who are on mixed feeding, it is necessary to introduce the first complementary foods 2-3 weeks earlier than those on the breast ration.
No need to be upset about the fact that you have to feed the child with infant formula. Critical periods occur in all lactating women. With the growth of the baby, his needs for food also increase. The mammary glands need time to ensure the baby’s increased appetite. For some women, adaptation takes a little longer.
We need to think about how to properly organize mixed feeding and quickly restore lactation. It is necessary to drink more liquids, eat fully, just relax, get enough sleep and regularly go to the open air.