Leukocytosis in newborns is a negative manifestation that happens quite often. The situation requires attention from parents, but is not dangerous. Leukemia - rather a symptom and manifestation, which indicates the presence of negative processes. In infancy, the formation of systems and organs.
Blood is a tissue that has a liquid form. It consists of several types of cells. They may be white and red. In scientific practice, they are called leukocytes and red blood cells, respectively. Their number and percentage ratio is not the same at different intervals of a person’s lifetime. It is important to establish the true causes of the pathological process and do everything to prevent the development of diseases in the future.
The following conditions are diagnosed against the background of the decrease and increase in the white blood cell content:
- Leukopenia is a decrease in the blood leukocyte count.
- Leukocytosis - an increase in the number of white cells.
After the baby is born, both of these negative manifestations can overtake the baby at any time. Parents should be aware of the specifics of the process in advance and know how to respond to it.
Scientists were able to establish that in a newborn, certain cells in the blood change even within 24 hours. This state is influenced by character, activity of life, as well as its ability to adapt to external conditions.
Leukocytosis is not a disease, but a state of blood that is fixed at a given time. Any external and internal change can lead to a change in the general condition of the blood.
An important role is played by the immune system. Diseases and negative external factors in turn affect it. That is why the state of leukemia should not be ignored, especially if it is of a systemic nature.
Features of leukocytosis in premature babies
White cells in the body of any person play an important role. That is why they are part of the blood. After the birth of babies, a wide range of their number per liter is recorded. With age, this figure becomes more static and ranges from 4-9 billion. For an adult, this number is also considered normal.
The scatter of the indicator is associated with stress, which the baby's body experiences at the moment when it comes out of the womb of the mother and begins to live an independent life. Outside there are many viruses and bacteria that affect the basic life processes. Premature babies are even more shocked because they have less time to prepare for adaptation. They are under heavy strain on all internal organs. The situation adversely affects the number of leukocytes in the blood, so their figure is far from the norm.
That is why the probability of occurrence of leukocytosis in premature babies is much higher than that of those who appeared on time. The scientists were able to establish that the oscillations of white blood cells in this case are produced throughout the entire first year of life.
White blood cells are almost entirely composed of leukocytes. However, they are almost completely absent eosinophils. The overall composition notes a low monocyte content, which returns to normal by about a year.
Why does leukocytosis occur?
As a rule, in newborns, leukocytosis occurs against the background of pathology in the course of a particular process. Parents should not panic, as white blood cell count can return to normal within a few hours. However, to completely ignore the situation is also not permissible. It is necessary to seek advice from a specialist in this matter. The doctor will prescribe the necessary tests, on the basis of which the conclusion will be drawn about the state of health and the danger of harming him.
The number of leukocytes directly depends on the total body temperature. For example, the rate may change dramatically after taking a bath or a long stay in the sun. Dependence was also detected on the diet and medication.
The overall emotional state also plays an important role. Jumps in the volume of leukocytes in the human body are observed against the background of stress and experience. Children differ in temperament from birth, therefore, changes in their bodies are also individual.
Quite often, leukocytosis occurs against the background of improper functioning of the immune system. The fact is that after the birth, it begins only its formation. The first antibodies come with mother's milk. If the baby is on artificial feeding, then a decrease in the basic protective functions of the whole organism is recorded. The situation may lead to a long normalization of the number of leukocytes in the blood. Cases have been recorded when a separate indicator of the content of leukocytes in the blood was recorded for a person in adulthood.
Leukocytosis often occurs against the background of penetration into the body of harmful infections. The reason for this disease, which occur on the background of SARS, influenza or rubella. The disease can be caused not only by bacteria, but also by fungi, which adversely affect the entire flora of the body.
Leukocytosis severely characterizes children with allergies. It is an increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood that makes it possible to diagnose this ailment in a baby. Doctors note that allergies also develop with a negative effect on eosinophils. These cells are also commonly referred to as white blood cells.
Inflammation makes the body weak. When present, the structure of the blood changes significantly. In this case, the number of leukocytes is calculated after passing the appropriate analysis. The launch of any protective system will certainly increase the number of white bodies. The situation occurs during damage to the integrity of the bones, skin or burns.
Leukocytosis is an indispensable companion of cancer diseases. In this case, leukemia or leukemia is diagnosed. These pathologies are diagnosed if the patient has a white blood cell count several times normal.
Based on the above, we can conclude that leukemia is a pathological condition that is characterized by several negative manifestations at once. That is why it is important to get expert advice in this area. He will appoint the delivery of all necessary analyzes, on the basis of which the conclusion will be made.
Consequences of the disease
The result and consequences of the disease are directly dependent on the cause of the disease. Most dangerous is infection and inflammation. They can lead to sepsis and significant blood loss. Against the background of these pathologies, the risk of developing diseases of the cardiovascular system, severe headaches, impaired sleep and rest, and large blood loss increases. It is also impossible to completely eliminate the likelihood of a baby’s lag in development.
The manifestation of pathology is also dangerous due to improper mental development, which can even lead to disability.
If the increase in the level of leukocytes occurred against the background of the physiological state, then no treatment is required. This happens quite often in newborns and passes on its own within a short time.
At the first stage of treatment, it is necessary to completely eliminate the factor that provokes this negative manifestation from the baby’s life. If this method does not give the desired result, then careful research and analysis will be needed to help determine the true cause of the condition. As a rule, the elimination of the underlying disease leads to the return to normal and the number of leukocytes in the blood.
That is why it is important to get diagnosed on time. To do this, donate a blood test. He will help to clarify and finally choose a treatment option. Additionally, the doctor examines the nature of the symptoms and analyzes the case history of a small patient.
Antimicrobial agents are used in the treatment of leukemia. They help eliminate the infection that causes this condition. Thanks to special preparations, it is possible to prevent the development of sepsis. If necessary, additional anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed. With their help, it is possible to quickly and effectively reduce the number of white blood cells. Only in rare cases it is necessary to conduct leukopheresis. The procedure involves a mechanical method for changing the number of leukocytes in the blood.
White blood cells: description and function
Leukocyte functions in the body
Before moving on to why leukocytes can be raised in the blood of a newborn baby, it is necessary to find out in more detail what these cells are and why they are so important.
White blood cells, or as they are also called, white blood cells (which are actually transparent), protect the human body from external influences. The leukocyte can reach a size of from 6 to 20 microns, and all of them can be of different shapes, both rounded and irregular.
In the human body there are many leukocytes, each of which can perform different functions. For example, some protect the body from antigens, others from bacteria and microbes, others from dead cells, etc.
If there are no foci of inflammation in the body, then the leukocytes will be within the normal range.
But if bacteria or microbes have penetrated into the body of the newborn, or, for example, during childbirth, the child is injured, they will increase dramatically, which can be seen from the results of a blood test taken from a finger.
Decoding: norms and deviations
Deciphering blood test, leukocyte rate
If the birth went well and there was no damage (or the likelihood of infection), then most likely the leukocytes in the newborn will be normal.
Leukocytes in the blood at a level of 9 to 30 are considered normal for a newborn baby, which is much higher than that of an adult.
If we talk about deviations, then everything above 30 will be considered elevated, and everything below 9 will be considered reduced. But if doctors rarely encounter a reduced content of leukocytes, as this does not particularly affect the condition of the baby, then they pay special attention to their elevated levels, and this is because it is the main signal for the development of either inflammatory processes or injuries.
As a rule, the level of leukocytes gradually decreases in the first weeks of the baby’s life.
Every day there is a decrease. But if this does not happen, then pediatricians will pay attention and begin to take action to find the problem.
More information about white blood cells can be found in the video.
As mentioned above, immediately after birth, the level of white blood cells in a newborn is so high. But every day it decreases. And after about two or three weeks will come back to normal. If this does not happen, then the baby’s body is struggling with an infection or an inflammatory process.
An elevated white blood cell count in a newborn may indicate:
- Injury, which often happens during childbirth. Not all obstetrician-gynecologists can notice a microtrauma, especially if the birth went well.
- Diseases that begin to manifest themselves immediately after birth.
- Blood loss, especially when the birth was hard, or the child had to have an emergency operation.
- Infections that could get into the body of the baby during childbirth or later, due to non-compliance with sterile conditions.
Based on these problems, doctors will have to carry out all the necessary tests and examinations to accurately determine the cause of the increase in white blood cells and begin to treat the baby.
Causes of increased white blood cells
The main reasons for the increase in the level of leukocytes in the blood
In fact, there are several reasons why blood lesions in a baby can be detected, namely:
- The overgrowth of leukocytes in the blood.
- Increased blood viscosity, when it is difficult for it to flow through the blood vessels and veins, resulting in deterioration of the overall condition of the baby.
- Diseases of the mother during pregnancy, especially if she was not treated properly. Often an elevated white blood cell count in a newborn can persist for a long time due to a banal cold before the very birth.
- Increased formation of blood cells in the bone marrow.
Depending on what caused the increase in leukocytes, further treatment will depend.
Leukocytes in the urine of a newborn
Deciphering urinalysis for leukocytes in a newborn
Sometimes in a newborn, leukocytes (their elevated levels) are found in the urine, which makes it possible to speak more precisely about the localization of the inflammatory focus.
Normally, if everything is in order with the baby, the level of leukocytes in the urine should be from 0 to 10. If the value exceeds these indicators, then we can say that there are problems.
As a rule, elevated leukocytes in the urine of a newborn may indicate the following:
- Kidney problems. Most often this suggests an inflammatory process in the kidneys, which leads to an increase in the level of leukocytes in the urine. During childbirth, an infection can enter the baby’s body, which, due to weakened immunity, can easily spread throughout the body, and in most cases, finds a place in the urinary system, in the kidneys.
- Inflammatory processes in the genitals. This can occur if in the first minutes after birth the baby was poorly washed, or the woman had an infection in the birth canal that was not noticed by the obstetrician-gynecologist.
- Inflammatory processes in the urinary system, leading to problems with the excretion of urine.
If elevated leukocytes were found in the child’s urine, the doctors will take all measures to get rid of the inflammation, which is not difficult to do.
Symptoms of elevated leukocytes
If a child has increased white blood cells, both in the urine and in the blood, then this may be accompanied by a number of symptoms. And they are similar, as the whole organism reacts to any inflammatory process.
The main symptoms of increased leukocytes in the blood and urine include:
- Increased body temperature. Usually, even the smallest inflammatory process in any of the organs is accompanied by fever. And it could be 37 degrees, and maybe 39. It all depends on how the body itself reacts to the stimulus.
- Chills that occur as a result of frequent changes in body temperature and intoxication, as the body is trying with all its might to drown out the focus of inflammation.
- Nausea and vomiting, which appear as a result of intoxication.
- Problems with urination, namely the child can either not go to the toilet for a long time, or, conversely, often write.
- Increased tearfulness, especially at the moment when the child pees. This is due to the fact that the mucous membrane is inflamed and there may be microcracks on it, causing the baby to hurt, and the only way he can show it is crying.
- Discoloration of urine. It can be either dark or, on the contrary, very light.
- The appearance of turbid sediment in the urine.
Usually, after the exact reason for the increase of leukocytes in the blood or urine has been established, doctors prescribe antibiotics, which will remove inflammation.
Features of physiological leukocytosis
No wonder doctors say that before the delivery of any analysis must be prepared. And all because there are a number of factors that can affect the content of leukocytes in the blood. And if the tests were collected incorrectly, or if the person was not prepared in any way, did not follow the recommendations of the specialists, they may be false.
Very often physiological leukocytosis is detected in newborns, which appears due to the effect on the body of physiological stimuli.
It may be in the following cases:
- Two days after the birth. For some reason, this particular day is considered critical.
- In the middle of pregnancy, namely in the fifth or sixth month.
- Two hours after meals. And since young children eat often, this factor for the most part has an impact.
- For the second week after birth.
- With strong agitation. In the case of small children, it can be crying.
- With a strong physical exertion, the child quickly moves the arms and legs.
After the physiological factor is removed, the leukocytes, their content, are restored.
Features of neutrophilic leukocytosis
Sometimes the number of leukocytes increases due to the fact that the blood has increased the content of neutrophils.
This type of leukocytosis may appear due to:
- The inflammatory process, and there is no particular localization. It can begin absolutely in any organ.
- Viruses and infections that enter the children's body every day. Just at one point, immunity is no longer able to fight them.
- Purulent processes, especially when neither the doctors nor the parents themselves paid attention to the deterioration of the child’s condition and started the disease.
- Large blood loss, especially this happens when the child immediately after birth makes a forced operation.
- Intoxication, during which the body is experiencing a large load, because toxic substances adversely affect the cells.
- Ожогов, что хоть и случается довольно редко с новорожденными, но все-таки случаи зарегистрированы.
An experienced specialist, having received the results of analyzes, can immediately identify the problem, since in this case, everything literally "lies on the surface."
Normalization of the level of leukocytes in the blood of a newborn
As mentioned above, immediately after the birth of a child's leukocytes are at a high enough level. This is due to the fact that the child's body adapts to new conditions. After the adaptation has passed, the leukocytes will begin to fall. But if this does not happen, doctors will have to find out the reason and start the treatment.
Before you prescribe any drugs, additional tests will be taken, as well as re-analysis of the level of white blood cells to make sure that there is no error. And only after that treatment will begin.
Treatment in this case is one thing - antibiotics that can quickly eliminate inflammation, as well as kill pathogens. And although it is undesirable to give antibiotics to the newborn, sometimes it is necessary to do so in order to avoid the development of complications.
Elevated white blood cells in a newborn baby is a cause for panic, but only if they either remain at such a high level two weeks after giving birth or grow even more.
You can determine this by blood analysis. If there are any symptoms of leukocytosis, it is necessary to urgently turn to a specialist for help, since the children's body, especially the newborn child, is very weak and is not able to withstand many infections and bacteria.
Leukocytes are blood cells responsible for body's immune response.
Increasing their content in the blood or urine is called leukocytosis.
This phenomenon indicates body's immune response on one or another irritant.
There is a physiological form of leukocytosis, when the increase in the content of leukocytes is temporary and after a short period of time their level returns to normal.
In the pathological form, an increase in leukocytes caused by any major problem in the bodyIn this case, the normalization of their content does not occur independently, which means that the child needs medical assistance.
The most common cause of leukocytosis in infants is the immaturity of the body's immune system.
Immunity of a small child is still being formed. And if immediately after birth the body of the crumbs contains immune cells received from the mother, then over time their number decreases.
If a the baby is breastfed, he continues to get mom's immune cells along with her milk.
Immunity is reduced by reducing the infant's consumption of breast milk and the introduction of complementary foods (approximately 6 months). At this age, the baby often increases the level of white blood cells.
If the baby is bottle-fedThis situation may occur at an earlier age.
The composition of the blood is normalized when the child reaches the age of 1-2 years, when his immune system is already sufficiently formed.
The causes of the development of leukocytosis in children after 1 year are more diverse:
- Physiological causes. After exercise, a sharp change in temperature, changes in the composition and quality of food consumed, taking certain medications in a child, a slight increase in the level of white blood cells is possible. Over time, these rates tend to return to normal without any treatment.
- To a short-term increase in leukocytes can lead and emotional excitement, anxiety, stress. After the disappearance of a stressful situation, the level of leukocytes also returns to normal.
- An allergic reaction is the cause that can trigger the development of leukocytosis in children, both younger and older. At the termination of the child’s body’s contact with the irritating substance, the level of leukocytes returns to normal with time.
- Infectious diseases (viral, bacterial, fungal lesions) lead to a decrease in immunity, an increase in the level of white blood cells in the blood.
- Chronic inflammatory processes in the body of a baby can cause a prolonged increase in leukocytes.
- Bone fractures, injuries, violation of the integrity of the skin - factors in the presence of which activates the immune system and, accordingly, increases the level of leukocytes.
- Blood cancer (leukemia). With this pathology there is a significant and rapid increase in the number of leukocytes (their content may exceed the norm by 10 or more times).
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Types of pathology
Depending on the reasons that led to the occurrence of leukocytosis, there are several varieties of this disease:
- short term. It is the most common form. Occurs with stress, increased physical exertion, the presence of other physiological factors. Also, this form can be observed in some infectious diseases, for example, ARVI. In this case, the composition of the blood is normalized as soon as the child is healed,
- long. Arises against the background of pathological processes occurring in the body. Often these pathologies are hereditary,
- lymphocytic. It is a significant deviation of the blood from the normal values. Predisposing factor in this case are chronic diseases,
- basophilic. Occurs on the background of frequent colitis,
- monocytic. Manifested against oncological diseases.
Features in newborns after cesarean
Disruption of the natural labor process (cesarean section) - great stress for the body of a newborn babyand stress is a common cause of leukocytosis.
In addition, the child, passing through the birth canal, gradually gets used to the new habitat conditions.
At caesarean section, this process occurs more rapidly, and the child’s immune system, which is not yet fully formed, produces an appropriate response.
Normalization of the blood composition occurs gradually, ensuring proper care of the newborn, breastfeeding.
The epidemiology of leukocytosis in newborns is not an entirely accurate concept. Rather, we should speak about the epidemiology of the root cause, which provoked an increase in leukocytes and a change in the leukocyte formula in principle. Leukocytosis is not a diagnosis and independent nosology, it is a condition, a criterion that helps to identify or exclude pathologies of various nature in a timely manner. Statistically, leukocytosis in newborns is recorded as often as in adult patients. But, in contrast to the indicators of older people, leukocyte shifts in the formula of blood of babies quickly return to normal. This is explained by the fact that the organism of newborns is actively being formed and adapted to new conditions, and all the reasons of a physiological nature can be considered transient.
White Blood Cells (leukocytes) in fact represent a huge group of colorless blood cells, which almost all belong to the cells of the immune system.
Let us consider several options in more detail, since leukocytes themselves are divided into different groups, subspecies — granulocytes and agranulocytes:
- basophils (granular immature cells),
- MON (monocytes) - the largest cells, agranulocytes, with a large, non-segmented nucleus,
- lymphocytes, which are simultaneously part of the immune system, they are referred to as non-granular leukocytes (agranulocytes)
- granulocyte cells - neutrophils,
- active granulocytes, defenders of the body from allergens - eosinophils,
Each type of white blood cell functions as a specific response to a specific pathological cause. Therefore, the epidemiology of leukocytosis as a process denoting regularities should be considered from the point of view of studying the cause and prevalence of factors that cause a change in the ratio of the types of colorless blood cells (leukocyte formula or leukogram).
- The most common causes provoking a neutrophilic shift or neutrophilic absolute leukocytosis. Neutrophilia is characterized by active and rapid growth of granulocytes, which can be detected not only in the blood test, but also in the urine. As a rule, the neutrophilic shift is triggered by the disease. If necessary, the epidemiology of the root causes is determined by the attending physician.
- Lymphocytosis is the second most common. Such a change in leukogram is characteristic of inflammation in chronic or in acute form. In children, the most common diseases from the category of IUI (intrauterine infections), or it can be whooping cough.
- Eosinophilia in newborns is determined quite rarely and may be due to pulmonary pathologies, allergies, drug intoxication, extremely rarely - myeloid leukemia.
- Monocytic leukocytosis is characteristic of septic lesions of organs and tissues. Leukocytosis in newborns of this form is extremely rare.
- The rarest cases in adult statistics are basophilia. However, a shift in leukogram to an increase in basophils is characteristic of physiological variants of leukocytosis and is noted during pregnancy and quite often in newborn babies.
Causes of Leukocytosis in a Newborn
The causes of leukocytosis in newborns may be due to physiological changes in the body, but may also be associated with a developing disease. Let us consider in more detail the causes of increased levels of leukocytes in newborns.
Leukocytes are blood cells, "defenders" who instantly recognize harmful substances and quickly react in an attempt to expel them. Therefore, in ICD 10 you will not find a disease - leukocytosis, as this is a method of reaction or a diagnostic criterion. In newborns, the indicator of the level of whites, more precisely, colorless protective blood cells can fluctuate during the day. In this way, the baby’s immune system responds to any changes in the body, both physiological and pathological.
- A short-term increase in the level of leukocytes (physiological granulocytosis of the newborn) can be caused by the following reasons:
- The physiological adaptation of the infant to the temperature regime in the room (most often, the infant reacts to cold).
- The baby cries for a long time, screams (muscle tension, stress).
- An increase in leukocytes in the blood of a newborn may be associated with nutrition, feeding, especially in the first three days after birth. Repeated blood collection in such cases usually fixes the return of the norm in all indicators.
- Features of maturation and formation of the infant's immune system, this is typical for the period of complementary feeding, when the baby receives less antibody of breast milk.
- Elevated white blood cell levels are characteristic of those babies who are born prematurely. Within a few days after birth, these indicators are not critical and should return to normal after 3-5 days.
- Pathological causes of leukocytosis in newborns are usually caused by a group of viral, infectious diseases:
- Different types of bronchitis.
- Renal failure.
- Massive blood loss.
- Trauma due to childbirth.
- Diseases of fungal etiology.
- Viral infection.
- Purulent process that develops in the organs of the infant.
- Malignant tumor pathology.
In the first weeks after birth, indicators of the composition of the baby’s blood are considered over time if there are no other health and life threatening symptoms. The causes of neonatal leukocytosis are most often explained by a group of physiological factors and can be considered a normal age-related phenomenon.
Although leukocytosis of the newborn in most cases is a transient physiological phenomenon, there are risk factors that can cause pathologies.
We list the risk factors for leukocytosis in newborns:
- Genetic factor, chromosomal abnormalities (aberrations) - Down syndrome, Fanconi anemia.
- Unfavorable radiation background of the area where the child is born.
- Hypothermia baby.
- Preterm delivery (up to 36 weeks).
- Chronic diseases of the mother - both viral and bacteriological etiology.
- IUI - intrauterine infections (TORCH - infections), DNA and RNA viruses.
- Asphyxia during the passage of the birth canal.
- Hypoxia, perinatal cerebral disorders.
- Intrauterine growth retardation (perinatal malnutrition).
- Congenital endocrine pathologies.
- Congenital nephrotic syndrome.
- SDR of the newborn (respiratory distress syndrome).
- Urogenital diseases of the mother during gestation
- Streptococcal infection in the mother.
- Polyhydration or vice versa - insufficient amount of amniotic fluid.
The most dangerous risk factors associated with the infection of women during pregnancy. This disease develops slowly, often hidden, difficult to diagnose and most often is the main cause of fetal intrauterine damage.
The pathogenesis of leukocytosis is explained by active work, the release of mature white blood cells in response to an aggressive factor of inflammatory or other nature. White blood cells are produced in the spleen and in the main organ of hemopoiesis - the bone marrow. Short-term leukocytosis is transient and performs a redistributive function.
If the cause disappears, the body no longer needs additional leukocyte protection and the blood count returns to normal. Any type of leukocyte is very active, little bodies are able to penetrate through the capillaries into the tissue to capture and utilize harmful substances. Such phagocytosis in inflammatory processes can be quite aggressive process, and in the analysis to show a significant excess of normal numbers. Leukocytosis is usually considered in dynamics, the analysis in the final stage of inflammation is especially significant, when leukocytes are massively utilized, die, their level, as a rule, decreases.
Let us consider in more detail the pathogenesis of leukocytosis, including leukocytosis in newborns.
The increase in the level of leukocytes can be relative (there is a variant of the name - physiological) or absolute.
- Absolute - reactive leucopoesis (leukogenesis) or leukopoiesis associated with a tumor in the bone marrow, spleen
- Relative - an increase in the level of colorless bodies as a result of redistribution or as a result of accumulation in the zone of the inflammatory process (indicators of monocytes, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils can be increased)
Pathogenetic leukocytosis is also divided into the following types:
- Tumor hyperplasia of the tissues of the blood-forming organs or a reactive response to a vascular catastrophe - infarction of the lungs, kidneys, heart, spleen
- The vulnerability of the bone marrow barrier and its permeability due to septic diseases (leukocytes quickly and easily penetrate into the bloodstream)
- Enhanced mobilization of leukocytes of a redistributive nature as a protective response to a physiologically negative factor, to emotional stress, as well as with focal inflammation
Thus, the pathogenesis of leukocytosis is most often due to protective mechanisms - activation of the function of leukocytes. Given the variety of types of colorless blood cells, pathogenesis is also variable:
- Monocytosis - increased phagocytic activity
- Neutrophil defense - activation of phagocytosis in infections, inflammations in chronic form
- Eosinophilic variant of leukocytosis - protection against aggression of allergens, compensatory antihistamine action
It should also be noted that in autoimmune pathologies and leukemia, the protective function of leukocytes is reduced due to hyperactivity of the immune system.
Symptoms of leukocytosis in the newborn
Symptoms of newborn leukocytosis in 99% of cases do not appear. As a rule, there are only indirect signs of increased leukocytes in the baby’s blood. In adults, the symptoms are more pronounced and can be expressed in the following body signals:
- constant fatigue.
- weakness and low-grade body temperature.
- skin rashes.
- recurrent nosebleeds.
- increased sweating.
- hair loss or slow growth.
- movement disorder.
- blurred vision.
- sleep disorders.
- recurrent causeless muscle pain.
- weight loss during normal diet.
Recall that leukocytosis in newborns can be caused by two categories of factors:
- Physiological leukocytosis associated with malnutrition, manifested by the fact that the baby cries, screams. More precisely, it is the intense crying of a baby that can provoke an increase in leukocytes in the blood; in adults, such a condition happens after heavy physical labor, an overstrain. No less acutely, the newborn reacts to the temperature regime, with the supercooling the infant becomes sluggish, slow-moving. These are symptoms that are caused by purely physiological reasons. They cannot be considered life threatening to the infant, as they are easily eliminated.
- Symptoms of pathological leukocytosis in newborns are most often typical of the clinical picture of the disease, which can be provoked by a shift in the leukocyte formula. Similar conditions of newborns are observed in the case of their premature birth, or if the mother of the child already had an infectious disease during pregnancy. Infections affecting the gastrointestinal tract of the baby, manifested in the form of diarrhea, increased gas, colic. Septic tissue or organ damage is accompanied by fever. Viral diseases are also clinically manifested in characteristic signs - the temperature rises, mucous discharges from the eyes and nose appear, and skin rashes are visible. Such cases for the newborn are considered dangerous, and doctors take all measures to stabilize the state of the infant. Timely and competent treatment eliminates the root cause of pathological leukocytosis, respectively, leukogram also comes to normal values. In newborns, this occurs within 3-5 days, if the blood test does not improve, the doctor seeks a more serious cause of the leukocyte shift. The main task at the same time is to eliminate the cause of a life-threatening baby, such a pathology can be acute congenital leukemia.
The first signs of leukocytosis in newborns are usually invisible. If the baby was born without obvious symptoms of the disease, any pathologies, a blood test is taken as a standard prophylactic procedure. Recall that leukocytosis is not considered a life-threatening indicator, a disease or a diagnosis, it is a sign of all sorts of deviations in the functioning of human systems and organs. Therefore, the first signs disturbing a child that are noticed by the child’s mother or obstetrician can be attributed to a disease that is already developing in one form or another. The number of leukocyte cells can be increased for various reasons. The most common ones are the following:
- Physical activity of the newborn, hyperactivity, which causes muscle strain and, as a consequence, changes in leukogram.
- Overeating or nutritional deficiencies. The body of the baby can respond in the first place in a protective way - an increase in leukocytes in the blood.
- Sharp temperature change. Newborns are very sensitive to this factor, the reaction to cold or overheating can result in a change in the number of leukocytes.
- Prolonged crying, which in turn is most often caused by the above reasons. When screaming, the baby tenses, the activation of muscle tissue leads to a change in the rate of leukocytes in the blood.
- Reaction to the first vaccinations, which are done within 3-7 days after birth.
It should be noted that the level of colorless blood cells should be monitored in the older child too. This helps to identify diseases and serious pathologies in a timely manner. OAK (complete blood count) is a fairly simple procedure that allows you to determine various inflammatory, infectious processes at the stage of formation, and most importantly - blood diseases.
What should attract the attention of caring parents, what could be the first signs of leukocytosis?
- The child becomes lethargic, often gets tired without an objective reason.
- The baby may have bruises that are not caused by bruises, falls.
- The appetite decreases, the baby refuses even to his favorite dishes.
- Gradually decreases body weight (or not gained in accordance with age and height).
- The baby sweats excessively even in the absence of physical exertion.
- There may be complaints of headache, discomfort in the abdomen.
The first signs of this kind are not a reason for panic, but they should be paid attention to and consult a doctor (pediatrician or obstetrician if the child is less than one and a half years old).
The stages of leukocytosis in newborns, as a rule, are not fixed. You can talk about the various mechanisms that provoke a leukocyte shift in the blood test, as well as the peculiarities of factors that affect the level of leukocyte elevation.
Recall that leukocytosis is a deviation of the number of white blood cells from a fixed age norm.
The mechanisms for changing leukogram may be as follows:
- Serious pathological processes, including oncological diseases. Panmyelosis (panmielosis) - proliferation of blast elements of the bone marrow, proliferation, which includes an increase in leukocytes in the blood.
- Hyperactive, accelerated leukocyte formation due to inflammatory processes, when all organs and systems, including the pituitary-podchechnikovaya, are working intensively.
- In vascular accidents, all organs and tissues (blood depots), which are able to accumulate and release leukocytes, work in a more intensive mode, compensating for a negative state in cardiovascular diseases. In babies, it may be a congenital heart defect.
Stages of leukocytosis more correctly and correctly described as species. They are as follows:
- Short-term, transient leukocytosis, which in newborns is most often provoked by emotional stress or a change in temperature. The leukocyte index quickly returns to normal with the restoration of psycho-emotional state and the return to a comfortable ambient temperature. Also, a short-term shift of a leukogram can be caused by an infectious disease in acute form, purulent inflammation, sepsis. As soon as the disease is stopped, it is transferred to the stage of recovery, the level of white blood cells begins to strive for normal values.
- The physiological factors of leukocytosis are nutritional, myogenic (physical overstrain) causes. This species can also be safely attributed to transient leukocytosis.
- The eosinophilic variant of increasing leukocytes is provoked most often by an allergic aggressive reaction to drugs or to vaccination. The newborn is vaccinated against serum hepatitis in the first hours after birth, and tuberculosis vaccination (BCG) is given a little later. The baby’s first organism can tolerate the first vaccinations with some transient complications, which are manifested in increased eosinophil levels.
- The shift of the leukocyte formula to an increase in neutrophils may indicate an inflammatory process or more serious hematological diseases.
- Acute infectious diseases in a child can trigger lymphocytic leukocytosis.
- The basophilic shift in the baby’s leukogram can be triggered by an allergic reaction, a lack of microlements (most often iron), and very rarely blood diseases.
- Monocytes in newborns perform a kind of function of "cleansing" from pathogenic substances, which the baby should not have. Monocytosis - an increase in the level of MON in an infant is most often relative, that is, temporary. Absolute Monocytosis is already a sign of intensive phagocytosis, a signal of active protection and the desire to eliminate the infectious pathogen. It should be noted that leukocytosis in newborns in this embodiment is very rare.
Types of leukocytosis in newborns are well studied. Before proceeding to their description, consider the main functions of leukocytes and the varieties of the colorless blood cells themselves.
The main task of leukocytes is to protect and instantly react to everything that happens in the human body, this is especially important for the organs and systems of the newborn baby.
Despite the diversity of colorless bodies, their “work” is very organized. Each species rushes precisely to the location of the lesion, quickly identifies the necessary or alien elements, stops and displays harmful substances. If disturbing changes occur in the body, the white blood cell level rises, most often in the peripheral bloodstream, which is actually called leukocytosis.
Types of white blood cells are subject to a peculiar hierarchy, some of them are more dominant, others play the role of "performers".
The tasks that leukocytes solve in the human body are as follows:
- Directly involved in all protective functions, in the formation of the immune system at the humoral and cellular levels.
- Metabolic function. Penetration into the gastrointestinal tract (gastrointestinal tract), participation in the transport of essential nutrients into the bloodstream. This is very important for babies who get breast milk. In this way, the newborn receives protective immunoglobulins.
- Leukocytes carry out lysis (dissolution) of the destroyed elements, take part in a histolysis of the damaged fabrics.
- Some types of leukocytes perform the morphogenetic task, helping organs and systems to be formed at the stage of embryonic development.
Briefly about the types of white blood cells:
- White blood cells - The common name of leukocytes (WBC).
- NEU - the main defenders of the body against bacterial infection - neutrophils.
- MON (MO) - monocytes.
- EOS or eosinophils.
- LYM - the main cells that "fight" with a viral or bacterial infection, lymphocytes.
- BAS - young, immature lymphocytes or basophils.
According to the functions of leukocyte subspecies, an increased number of white blood cells as a diagnostic sign is also divided into the following types:
- Physiological or redistributive. The increased number of white blood cells is distributed in an organized way through the vascular system between organs.
- Reactive (absolute) indicates a serious change in leukopoiesis, that is, it is considered a sign of an active reaction to the pathology of an infectious, inflammatory, allergic etiology
Thus, types of leukocytosis can be considered either transient signs of a normal physiological process, or indicate the presence of a disease.
Leukocytosis in newborns during the first 2-3 days after birth in most cases is not a threatening symptom and is recorded as temporary, physiological. At the redistributive type, there is no significant change in the leukogram, the total number of white cells does not exceed the norm, only the level of certain types of leukocytes changes. The absolute type of leukocytosis is also a frequent phenomenon in the blood analysis of newborn babies, this is due to the following reasons:
- Reaction to the first two vaccinations
- Food factor.
- Muscle tension when screaming.
- Rarely - as a reaction to congenital pathology, or a disease of viral, infectious etiology, acquired in the first hours after birth.
In adults, relative leukocytosis is extremely rarely determined in a planned manner, more often - randomly. It is usually associated with overstrain, including emotional, absolute, symptomatic shift of the leukocyte index is already recorded as an alarm signal, and indicates the presence of primary clinical signs of the disease. Such a condition requires an appeal to a doctor, the appointment of comprehensive diagnostic measures and adequate treatment.
Complications and consequences
The consequences and complications of leukocytosis may be related to the prime cause of the increase in white blood cells, that is, to the etiological factor. In 85-90%, the effects and complications of leukocytosis in newborns are not fixed. It should be remembered that an increased level of a particular type of white blood cell is not a diagnosis, not a disease, but a sign.
If the infant leukogram does not show the norm in dynamics, then the doctor prescribes an additional examination in order to find out the exact cause of the shift in the leukocyte formula, timely identify, clarify the disease. The consequences of the diagnosed pathology depend on the form, course of the process and on the prescribed treatment.
One of the most serious complications can be considered the consequences of an inflammatory, septic, infectious process, massive blood loss, or pathologies associated with intrauterine infection. Also, the negative consequences are blood diseases, hemolytic syndrome, leukemia (in newborns such cases are recorded extremely rarely), leukemia, congenital heart disease, cerebral ischemia, hydrocephalus.
The list of complications and consequences of leukocytosis associated with serious pathological processes:
- Ischemic vascular diseases - frequent headache, poor sleep, mental, physical and cognitive developmental delay.
- Hydrocephalus - delayed development of mental abilities, myalgia, delayed psychomotor development, disability.
- Defect of one of the heart valves (CHD) - bacterial etiology endocarditis, frequent acute respiratory viral infections, acute respiratory infections, pneumonia, shortness of breath, delayed physical development.
Diagnosis of leukocytosis in the newborn
Diagnosis of leukocytosis in newborns can occur on the first day of its birth. Primary blood sampling occurs immediately after birth during the day. It is produced to determine the ability of the child to adapt and to eliminate serious pathologies obtained in utero. Blood is taken from the umbilical cord, the analytical material is checked for the presence or absence of various infections - hepatitis, venereal diseases, which could pass into the body of the baby from an infected mother. Repeated analysis, the so-called heel test, is prescribed on the 3rd or 4th day, it is intended to exclude genetic pathologies. Neonatal screening, OAK (general clinical blood test) of a newborn is shown to everyone without exception, blood is taken from the baby’s heel. Diagnosis of leukocytosis in newborns can be delayed and postponed on the seventh day for babies with a weight deficit or in the case of premature birth (premature babies).
The structure of the blood of the newborn is specific and differs from the analyzes of older children (from the year and above). Even the percentage of blood and body weight is incomparable with that of adults. As soon as a child is born, the amount of his blood is about 14% by weight, then this number decreases to 11%, later to 7-6%. All systems and organs of a child enter a difficult adaptation period and are actively developing, the blood does not stand still, it is a moving substance. This causes a change in blood counts and is taken into account in the diagnostic sense. The most actively formed and subjected to changes in blood cells that are included in the list of types of leukocytes. Analysis, diagnosis of leukocytosis in newborns is needed to identify or exclude life-threatening diseases. The framework of the norm in babies is quite wide, with time and growth of the child they are narrowed. Leukocytosis in newborns is often not considered a deviation from normal boundaries and is fixed as physiological. Immediately after birth, the level of 10–33 × 10 9 / l can be determined in the infant, with neutrophils (up to 75-80%) prevailing in the blood as segmented cells, which help the immune system to form. Later leukogram can show the numbers 6-7 × 109 / l.
The approximate ratio of types of leukocytes in the blood of a newborn:
- The largest group is neutrophils, up to 80%
- Lymphocytes - up to 25%
- Monocytes - up to 10%
- Eosinophils - up to 3-4%
Note that on the first day of birth, lymphocytes are activated in the infant, suppressing the number of neutrophils, but later, around the fourth day, the leukocyte formula changes, the level of colorless protective cells evens out. In the diagnostic dictionary, this phenomenon is defined as a cross.
Here is another list of age indicators of leukocytes in a person’s bloodstream:
- Newborns - 10-27 - 33 × 10 9 / l.
- From birth to 1 month - 7-8-13 × 10 9 / l.
- From 1 to 3 years old - 6.0 - 17.0 × 10 9 / l (according to other sources of norms - 5-12 × 10 9 / l).
- From 3 years to 6 years - 5-10 × 10 9 / l.
- School children under 16 years old - 5-9 × 10 9 / l.
- Adults - 4-9 × 10 9 / l.
Diagnosis of leukocytosis in newborns is carried out according to plan, as part of the schedule for blood collection for prophylactic purposes. Decoding and interpretation of indicators is the prerogative of the physician, most often leukocytosis in infants is defined as the physiological norm.
The tests, which are shown to newborn babies, are, in fact, mandatory screening of their health, an integral part of the standard examination, preventive diagnostic measures for the timely detection or exclusion of all possible diseases. With early diagnosis, almost all diseases can be successfully treated, and the risk of complications is minimized.
Первый анализ получают буквально сразу полс родов, когда производят забор материала из пуповины для уточнения группы крови новорожденного. The analysis taken from the baby's foot (heel) is performed on the third or fourth day of stay in the maternity hospital to exclude hereditary pathologies (neonatal diagnosis). Blood material taken from the heel can also show changes in the baby’s health, hemoglobin level, ESR (ratio of protein fractions or erythrocyte sedimentation rate), white blood cell distribution, including leukocytosis.
As a rule, such diagnostic measures help to track and neutralize various inflammatory, infectious diseases, diseases of bacterial etiology in time, to see how successfully the infant's body adapts to new conditions of life outside the womb. In addition, a newborn's blood test shows how the baby can tolerate the first vaccination protocols prescribed by the protocols (BCG, against hepatitis B). Retesting, capillary sampling determines the body's response to the weakened inoculum strain introduced. The analysis is taken on an empty stomach, since feeding the baby can distort the clinical picture and the revealed leukocytosis will be associated with the nutritional factor. Additional diagnostic examination is indicated if indicated, in cases of suspected serious pathology or when leukocytosis refers to the reactive type. A urinalysis, X-ray, blood biochemistry, an ultrasound examination of the organs are added to the list of events, extremely rarely a biopsy, puncture of the bone marrow material.
Usually, re-analysis reveals results within the normal range, the leukocyte counts in an infant quickly return to the indicated standards, and a happy mother can be discharged home 5-6 days after birth. All information that was determined in the analysis of the infant is recorded in the epicrisis and entered into the baby’s personal medical card.
Instrumental diagnosis involves the determination of the norm or pathology with the help of special equipment, leukocytosis is detected in another way - blood sampling. In the context of this article, when we consider an increase in the level of leukocytes in newborns, the blood is taken in a sterile disposable scarifier, most often from the leg, foot of the infant. Hardware diagnostics can be assigned as a supplement when the primary OAA (general clinical blood test) showed significant and persistent deviations from normal boundaries.
It is a little more detailed that reveals OAK and that instrumental diagnostics can reveal.
- Neonatal mandatory blood examination (or heel test) is necessary to determine genetic diseases, congenital abnormalities - hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex, hypothyroidism, phenylketonuria, disruption of the pancreas, liver, cystic fibrosis and others.
- Cord blood sampling to find out the leukocyte formula to identify or eliminate hepatitis B, venereal diseases that the mother could transmit to the child in utero.
- Instrumental diagnostics in the form of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) for the purpose of further examination of babies with injuries sustained at birth, with suspected central nervous system diseases, malformations and development of the brain, hydrocephalus, lung disease, abdominal cavity, bone system.
- Echocardiography as an instrumental diagnostic method is indicated for suspected cardiac malfunction, CHD is a congenital heart disease.
- Ultrasonography of the abdominal organs, if there are signs of deformation or insufficient development of the corresponding vital organs.
In most cases, instrumental diagnostics in the diagnosis of the health of the infant is not used. For a complete prophylactic examination of a newborn to a doctor, a simple visual examination is sufficient, comparing anatomical and physiological data with age norms, a general clinical blood test and monitoring the development of a child over time.
Differential diagnosis of leukocytosis helps to clarify the root cause of changes in leukogram. A blood test is not considered a direct reference to a diagnosis, just as an increase in leukocyte count cannot be considered a specific symptom of a disease. This is especially important in the differential diagnosis of the health of newborns, in whom the formula, the composition of the blood can literally change every minute. Organs and systems of the infant after childbirth go through a difficult adaptation stage and work in an unusual mode, which can not but affect blood indices.
Differentiation of analytical information requires specification, comparison of the number of leukocyte species (neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils), anamnesis, and other information about the baby. The practical experience of the obstetrician, his ability to see the overall clinical picture and to identify the main parameters that may threaten the health of the child also plays an important role in the differential diagnosis.
Recall the basic basic concepts of leukocytes and leukocytosis.
Leukocytosis is usually called the activation of leukopoiesis (the process of blood formation), when the indicators of certain subspecies of white blood cells deviate from the specified norms. There is a conditional distinction indicating the boundary between physiologically explainable disorders and pathologies - leukocytosis and hyperleukocytosis.
- Hyperleukocytosis. Leukocyte hyperplasticity in an adult is 40,000–50,000 in 1 mm 3
- Leukocytosis. In physiological types of changes in leukograms in adults, the level of leukocytes can be 8000–9000 in 1 mm 3
Differential diagnosis of leukocytosis in newborns is due to the difference in the functioning of leukocyte species. For example, elevated lymphocytes are likely to indicate the presence of a virus in the body, and an increase in the level of neutrophils indicates the introduction of bacteria, reactive leukocytosis in the form of a large number of leukocytes is a disease of an infectious nature. However, in the case of a newborn, this information requires clarification, specification, taking into account the specificity of the norms of the blood of infants.
Let us consider in more detail the most typical signs, indicators of leukogram, which may correspond to certain diseases:
- Elevated lymphocytes, the level of which significantly exceeds the norm in combination with a decrease in neutrophilic protection, may indicate an acute viral disease. At the same time, the number of monocytes remains virtually unchanged. Also, such indicators, which do not change in dynamics, are one of the signals of an intracellular parasitic infection (for example, mycoplasmosis).
- The desire for the upper limit of norms from the side of monocytes and LYM (lymphocytes), to the lower one from the side of neutrophils can be a sign of a chronic protracted process or IUI (intrauterine infections).
- A significant excess of the boundaries of the normal level of neutrophils and monocytes and simultaneous inhibition of lymphocytes is a sign of a purulent bacterial process, especially if such indicators are combined with the release of mucus from the nose, eyes, and cough.
- Increased neutrophil counts against a background of decreased lymphocyte activity, but not striving for extreme limits, may indicate a chronic infection of a bacterial etiology (for example, a local bacterial disease of the sinuses).
In any case, the differential diagnosis of leukocytosis in newborns requires an integrated approach. In addition to the analysis that determines the indicators of the blood structure, the doctor may prescribe a child’s examination by narrow specialists, additional instrumental diagnostics (ultrasound, tomography, x-rays), biochemical blood tests, smears to detect bacterial microflora.
Treatment of leukocytosis in the newborn
Treatment of leukocytosis in newborns is not carried out due to the fact that excess of the norm of leukocyte indicators is not an independent disease.
Leukocytosis treatment is more likely a root cause treatment that provokes a shift in leukogram. Therapeutic appointments are directly related to the type of pathology, disease and its etiology, it depends on the condition of the child at the time of birth and the identification of the pathological process, and with other factors.
Inflammatory processes in different forms and stages are treated with specific drugs that do not have side effects, infections are stopped by a group of the latest generation of antibiotics, transient physiological leukocytosis is in principle not treatable and does not require any medical procedures.
A little more about the treatment of leukocytosis in newborns, depending on the type and the identified condition, the disease:
- The relative shift in leukogram, the physiological type of leukocytosis is a normal phenomenon, which is neutralized with the disappearance of the provoking factor. For example, myogenic leukocytosis, when a baby screams for a long time. As soon as the baby calms down, literally after a few hours, the level of white blood cells comes to normal values. A similar reaction from the blood formula can be observed in the food factor that causes leukocytosis. Elimination of problems in the nutrition of the newborn, the saturation of the necessary substances of the body of the baby leads to the normalization of leukogram.
- Reactive view of changes in the structure of the blood requires further examination. If the doctor still diagnoses any pathology, such groups of drugs may be prescribed to the newborn:
- antiviral drugs,
- steroid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,
- group of antihistamine drugs.
In more serious situations where there is a threat to the health and life of the infant, cytostatics (chemotherapy), leukophoresis, plasmaphoresis and other procedures associated with diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs can be prescribed.
Medications that can be prescribed to reduce the level of white blood cells are selected based on the identified disease, psychometric parameters of the infant and the severity of his health condition. It should be remembered that the immune system of the newborn is only being formed and is not yet able to function as a complete protection, including from drug poisoning. Therefore, medicines for babies are selected very carefully and only in cases where the doctor has a choice - to give the opportunity to develop and work immunity, or to preserve health and life in general.
It should also be remembered that almost the entire group of antibiotics is able to inhibit a specific link of immunity and suppress nonspecific resistance (resistance) to infectious pathogens. This information is especially important in the treatment of newborns, as their protective system is imperfect and has a low level of resistance.
Consider some types of drugs, indications for their purpose, dosage and possible consequences of their admission.
- Antibiotics that are prescribed for leukocytosis associated with the inflammatory process. According to statistics, it is purulent-inflammatory pathologies that provoke reactive, prolonged leukocytosis, such diseases are diagnosed most often in premature babies. Such babies have undeveloped cellular and humoral links of the immune system, protective functions are reduced. As a rule, in 80% of small infections are detected - a rash in the form of pustules, otitis media, pneumonia, pemphigus and meningoencephalitis are much less frequently diagnosed.
Characteristics of drugs that can potentially be used in the treatment of inflammation and infections in newborns:
- Penicillin group is prescribed extremely rarely, drugs in this category are considered obsolete and carry many side effects, especially for a newborn baby. Benzopenicillins can only be used as a preventive measure for suspected congenital TORCH infections, mixed infections of unknown etiology, urinary tract infections, or syphilis. The babies are predominantly aminopenicillins. Ampicillin as a drug is effective for streptococcal infection, when detecting a massive staphylococcal infection. However, the ampicillin group may be unsuccessful due to its ability to hydrolyze with lactase. The period of taking ampicillin to newborns should not exceed 7 days, it is prescribed in combination with gentamicin. Side effects may be:
- local skin rashes,
- airway spasms
- convulsive syndrome
- Aminoglycosides. The most common drugs in this group are amikacin, neomycin, gentamicin. Drugs have a wide range of effects on foreign infectious agents, especially effective against streptococci, Enterobacteriaceae –Enteroviruses, Pus sygnosis. Do not work in case of detection of anaerobic infections. The adverse effect of these drugs is expressed in otitis, renal intoxication, overdose is fraught with diseases of the central nervous system (central nervous system). The safest in this sense, the latest generation of antibiotic - netromitsin.
- Cefazolin from the cephalosporin group. This medicine of the first generation of cephalosporins, effectively neutralizes pneumococci, streptococci of group A, some types of staphylococci, Klebsiella. Certain specifics of the appointment of cephalosporins to newborns due to the ability of drugs to break down under the influence of gram-negative microbial infection. Cefazolin may be indicated as the drug of choice in the sporadic form of a bacterial infection, in pyoderma.
2nd generation cephalosporins for newborns are contraindicated and are not prescribed, unlike ceftriaxone, which already belongs to the third generation of this category. Klaforan, ceftriaxone are capable of stopping staphylococcus aureus strains, epidermal infections, meningococcus. Most often, this group of drugs is prescribed as an addition to the penicillin group, 7 days after the initial treatment as a stabilization measure. The most effective such method in identifying generalized infectious inflammation, meningitis of bacterial etiology. Dosage: newborns before the 14th day of life - once a day at a dose not exceeding 20-50 mg / kg of the baby. The duration of the course, as a rule, does not exceed 7 days. Possible adverse reactions - rash of an allergic nature, fever, erythema polymorphic, diarrhea, vomiting. Quite often, the infant's body reacts to antibiotics of such a series by leukocytosis, which is considered to be a normal indicator of immunity resistance.
- Acute viral diseases in newborns are treated with interferon-group drugs. Drugs in this category are available in various forms; candles, suppositories and suspensions are most convenient for babies. Interferons have antiproliferative effects, stimulate the immune system, stop viral infections. Viferon, Genferon are well combined and interact with drugs of other groups, almost no negative effects on the body in the form of side effects.
Vitamins in the treatment of newborns are almost not used, especially when it comes to leukocytosis. If the baby is born without visible deviations in development, without pathologies and receives breast milk, he does not need additional vitamins. It receives all complex of vitamins and micro-substances from mother’s milk or artificial milk formulas. An exception may be a deficiency of cholicalciferol (vitamin D), its deficiency is fraught with rickets, fragility and vulnerability of the musculoskeletal system of the infant. Also, the newborn may feel the need for an additional amount of vitamin K, this happens when taking antibiotics or steroid drugs. The required dose for newborns is 11-12 mcg, if phylloquinone (vitamin K) is not enough, the child faces hemorrhagic hemorrhages. Vitamin deficiencies can be replenished either by taking supplemental food (dry mixes) or by using a rational, balanced nutrition for the mother, which gives the baby all the necessary things in the form of breastfeeding.
Vitamins for a newborn who has leukocytosis:
- Vitamins are needed to maintain an immature immune system. The doctor usually prescribes a multi-complex drug that works to compensate for the deficiency of trace elements, a certain group of vitamins.
- Vitamins are prescribed for the prevention of diseases, such as rickets.
- Vitamins are necessary for the newborn in cases where leukocytosis is a sign of acute inflammation, the baby has undergone comprehensive treatment and needs supportive therapy, including vitamin therapy.
Note that in nature there are no vitamins that can reduce or increase the level of leukocytes in the blood of an infant. If the doctor diagnoses avitaminosis in a newborn, it is more likely evidence of a mother’s vitamin deficiency, including in breast milk. Consequently, it is necessary to take vitamin preparations for a nursing woman, a specific dosage, the regimen prescribed by the attending gynecologist or pediatrician who monitors the development of the newborn.
Физиотерапевтическое лечение новорожденных, у которых определен лейкоцитоз, обычно не назначается. Это объяснимо свойствами процедур, аппаратуры, которые не оказывают влияния на уровень лейкоцитов.
В педиатрии физиотерапия считается довольно популярным методом поддерживающей терапии. Such procedures have practically no side effects, they are safe, effective with their proper purpose. The target impact on the systems and organs of the baby can be a good, tonic reception, allowing to restore the health of the baby after the disease.
However, in leukocytosis, physiotherapy is not used because of such contraindications:
- High body temperature, which often happens when leukocyte levels rise as a reaction to inflammation or an infectious disease.
- Cardiovascular diseases, a sign that may also be leukocytosis in newborns.
- The presence of infection in the body, including bacterial.
- Bleeding, hemorrhage, blood loss.
- Suspected genetic etiology of the disease.
- Tumor process, oncopathology, diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs.
- Sepsis, intoxication, including medication.
- Any disease with obvious symptoms and in acute form.
Physiotherapy as a general strengthening procedure is often prescribed to premature babies at the stage of their adaptation, when the body weight is already within the normal range, the body seeks to recover.
Rules of physiotherapy procedures for newborns:
- All procedures are scheduled in the morning or within the first half of the day.
- physiotherapy is not carried out before feeding, procedures are shown 1-2 hours later after a meal (in this case, breast milk or formula).
- The course of physiotherapy for an infant is usually 5-7 procedures.
Indications for physiotherapeutic treatment of newborns are determined by an obstetrician, taking into account the history, anatomical and physiological parameters, the level of nervous excitability, the presence of possible deviations from the norms, including in the blood formula.
What can be assigned to the baby as physiotherapy?
- Local administration of drugs in combination with exposure to electric current, or electrophoresis. This method allows you to adjust the dosage of the drug, it is also suitable for the introduction of agents that activate blood flow.
- Laser physiotherapy (infrared radiation). The procedures have wound-healing effect, anti-edema effect, and also contribute to the redistribution of lymph in the tissues. Less commonly, laser therapy for the newborn is shown as an additional anti-inflammatory method. Laser treatments work great as postoperative rehabilitation therapy.
- Magnetic physiotherapy is prescribed for inflammatory processes in the respiratory system, respiratory organs, when recovering after treatment of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Massage is the most popular method of physiotherapy in newborns in pediatrics. Regular massage treatments well treat almost all diseases associated with the musculoskeletal structure. Massage is also effective in detecting excessive nervous excitability, in some cases - after the treatment of pneumonia (according to indications).
In principle, popular treatment and the status of the newborn should not be considered together in a serious discussion. Especially, if we are talking about a newborn baby, who has elevated white blood cells. Changes in the composition of the blood, in principle, are not a disease that should be treated, including traditional methods. This is a diagnostic criterion, one of many, indicating both a physiological, temporary factor, and a possible disease.
Nevertheless, there are "curious" mothers who continue to experiment and apply all sorts of folk treatment to their baby. Therefore, it is worth recalling once again that such a leukocytosis, how it manifests itself, what it says and whether it can be eliminated with the help of folk methods and recipes.
Elevated white blood cells are primarily a sign of the protective functions of the body, the answer to various factors that are uncomfortable for the baby.
Leukocytosis may be temporary, one that is considered physiologically acceptable and pathological.
- The relative type of shift in the level of leukocytes is associated with physical exertion, temperature factor, food intake or, on the contrary, lack of nutrition.
- Reactive leukocytosis may indicate an already developed disease or its onset, it all depends on what type of white blood cells has gone beyond the normal range.
If leukocytosis in newborns is caused by infection, inflammation, other serious diseases, the treatment of the root cause is prescribed by a doctor. This rule for the treatment of newborn babies should be unshakable. Neither the advice of friends, acquaintances, parents, nor, especially, recommendations from the Internet, can be considered acceptable as a baby therapy.
Folk treatment can be applied only with the permission of the obstetrician and most often it can be an external way to use herbal medicine. For example, bathing in a decoction of herbs, lotions, wiping with a napkin dipped in a herbal infusion. Internal use of herbal remedies is limited to drinking dill water with increased flatulence. Perhaps this is all that can be used as a popular treatment for a newborn baby. As for leukocytosis, it cannot be eliminated or neutralized by means of phytotherapy, moreover, the uncontrolled use of such methods can harm the baby.
Adult patients whose leukocytes are elevated in a blood test can try additional means to the baseline therapy, including from the category of “popular treatment”.
- Decoction of horsetail, which contains silicon, potassium salts, carotene, tanning elements, saponins, vitamin C, flavonoids. 2 tablespoons of dry herbs pour 400 ml of cold water, insist in this form for about an hour, noticely boil for 10 minutes. The cooled liquid is taken in a teaspoon three times a day, the course is two weeks.
- Infusion of lime, lime blossom. The flowers are rich in flavonoids and essential oils, also includes carotene, some vitamins of group B, tannin, phytoncides, glucose, antioxidants. Infusions are prepared just as tea is brewed. A handful of lime blossom is poured into the container, poured with boiling water, covered and kept the liquid closed for about 5 minutes. Strained lime tea can be drunk at will, as much as you want in two weeks.
- Some decrease in white blood cells can occur if you regularly drink broth hips and raisins. This combination activates the immune system, strengthens the cardiovascular system. A handful of raisins are poured into a thermos with a capacity of 1, 5 liters, a tablespoon of dried rosehips, pour boiling water, cover and incubate for 6 hours. Broth drink in the form of heat 100 ml twice a day. The course can last up to 21 days.
Help to cope with the negative factors that cause leukocytosis in newborns, can either eliminate the causes of the physiological nature (food regime, good nutrition, comfortable environment, warmth), or drug treatment. Breastfeeding can also strengthen the protective functions of the child’s immunity. It contains enough substances that contribute to the normal formation of organs, tissues, and the gastrointestinal tract, including the cellular and humoral components of the immune system.
Herbal treatment of a child aged from birth to six months (up to 1 year) is most often not used. An exception may be the external use of herbal decoctions, infusions (bathing), compresses, less often - drinking a special decoction of fennel seeds with excessive gassing.
In case of leukocytosis, herbal treatment does not apply, however, the effect of the composition of breast milk on the protective functions of the infant’s body must be taken into account. That is, a nursing mother can try to add herbal remedies to the diet, if it really improves the quality of milk. Consequently, herbal treatment of the mother can indirectly affect the health of the newborn.
Recipes that fall under the category of “herbal treatment” should be carefully studied and tested, better in collaboration with your doctor obstetrician. We must not forget that the myth of the safety of herbal medicine is really a myth. There are many plants that can harm the body, including quite serious.
Consider several methods of phytotherapy, the use of herbal infusions, decoctions:
- The mother of the baby can try a course of treatment with a decoction of the berries and leaves of the cranberries. This method strengthens the immune system, improves the composition of breast milk. Lingonberry is rich in nutrients, vitamins (vitamin C), it has a lot of components that have antipyretic effects. There are trace elements that tone the nervous system, improve the structure of the blood. The external use of lingonberry broth helps as a wound healing agent. The decoction is prepared as follows: 50 grams of dry leaves or 1, 5 tablespoons of berries are poured with a glass of boiling water. The infusion is left for 30 minutes, then placed in a saucepan in a water bath and boiled again for 20-25 minutes. Cooled to room temperature means taken before meals for a teaspoon - 2-3 times a day for 10-14 days. A nursing woman should consult a pediatrician and a gynecologist before using cowberry broth.
- Birch buds - a unique natural remedy that helps in many pathological conditions, of course, provided competent and metered use. The kidneys contain essential compounds, betulinic acid, flavonoids, iron, calcium, magnesium, carotene, vitamin C, tanning trace elements, saponins. Such a rich composition of the kidneys allows them to be used as an additional treatment in inflammatory processes, as a general tonic, as a prescription for stopping a bacterial infection, as an anti-edema phytopreparation. Also, a decoction of birch buds and leaves has a positive effect on the rhythm of blood circulation, is involved in the regulation of the blood. How to cook a decoction? A tablespoon of raw materials (preferably purchased in a pharmacy, tested and packaged in proper conditions) is poured with 1, 5 cups of hot boiled water. The liquid is boiled for about 20 minutes in the “slow fire” mode. The filtered means is used as a drink after a meal (in 30-40 minutes), the dosage is a tablespoon, in the morning and in the evening, the course is 10 days. Then there is a break for 2 weeks and the course can be repeated as a general strengthening and prophylactic method against viral and infectious diseases.
- A mixture of dried chamomile flowers and nettle is also quite an effective means to help strengthen the body and cope with various kinds of inflammatory processes. A tablespoon of chamomile and a teaspoon of crushed dry nettle are placed in a thermos (1 liter), poured boiling water and infused for 1 hour. Hot chamomile tea is drunk half a glass twice a day, a course of not more than 10 days, then you should see a doctor and undergo a routine examination. Such a prescription is not an independent type of treatment, it only complements the basic course of therapy.
Nursing mother before taking broth birch leaves and buds should consult with a pediatrician and your gynecologist. Birch buds - this is a fairly strong tool, so the appointment of the dose, the mode of receiving the decoction should still be entrusted to the doctor.
On the one hand, homeopathy is considered to be a popular and safe method, on the other hand, it is still a little-studied and not generally accepted method of traditional treatment. Homeopathy and leukocytosis is a combination that is rarely seen in the practice of pediatric neonatologists. Perhaps this is explained by the fact that homeopathic medicines are more often prescribed to older children. As for newborns, they are given a chance to cope with elevated levels of white blood cells on their own, with the help of an emerging immune system.
However, homeopathic doctors claim that their dosage forms are effective in treating many diseases, including diseases of newborn babies.
Selection of homeopathy for nursing babies is a serious matter, requiring detailed information about the child himself, as well as about his parents. The main principle for a homeopath is traditionally the rule - the minimum dose and the fastest possible effect. An experienced doctor will surely ask mother and father about their state of health, then about all the features of the baby, about its anatomical and physiological parameters. A visual examination of the newborn is also necessary to specify the choice of the drug, the dose and the course of treatment.
What problems of the newborn can homeopathy solve?
- Correction of the adaptation process after birth. Violation of adaptation functions often provokes leukocytosis in newborns. An auxiliary agent in such cases may be Etuza cyanatum. Method of application - dissolve 3 grains in a teaspoon of boiled water. Give as a drink for 15-20 minutes before the planned feeding. Course duration can be up to 14 days.
- Regulation of the digestive process. Antimonium drug Krudum helps to cope with unwanted air intake during sucking, belching. 2 grains are dissolved in breast milk or boiled water (a teaspoon), give the baby to drink twice a day with a course of 5-7 days until the symptom is neutralized.
- Irritability, crying, physical stress can provoke leukocytosis in a newborn. To cope with this condition will help Nux vomica. The drug is prescribed only by a doctor, who determines the dosage - how many drops and in what mode you can give the baby. As a rule, doctors recommend using the drug sublingually, prescribing 1 drop three times a day to newborns before feeding, in a course of 10 days. Then check the indicators of health, it is possible and the delivery of a routine blood test. If necessary, receive Nux vomica extended for another week.
Homeopathy in the treatment of diseases provoking leukocytosis is the responsibility, knowledge and practical experience of the obstetrician. Independent use of homeopathic medicines is unacceptable as well as self-treatment with other medicines, especially when it comes to the health of a newborn baby.
Prevention of leukocytosis in newborns - these are measures that help the formation and strengthening of the baby's immune system. Also important is the prevention of the healthy state of the mother, on which much depends, first of all, how long the baby will receive the breast milk that he needs so much.
Reduction of the leukocyte formula to normal is a complex process, since leukocytosis is not considered a diagnosis, it is just one of the indicators of deviation from the boundaries of the leukogram and a sign of a possible disease. Thus, the prevention of leukocytosis is the neutralization of the risks of various diseases in the baby.
Here are some recommendations for prevention:
- A pregnant woman should undergo regular check-ups at a gynecologist, and should be tested in time to determine or rule out the presence of IUI (intrauterine infections)
- Good, nutritious nutrition and lifestyle of the future mother is also an important component in the prevention of potential infant diseases.
- Rejection of bad habits should be mandatory for a pregnant woman. Smoking, taking alcohol can play a sad role in the inadequate, pathological formation of organs and systems of the baby.
- The newborn baby has the full right to breastfeeding. Mother's milk is one of the most important factors affecting the healthy growth of organs, bone and muscle tissue and the formation of immunity.
- Timely examination, blood tests help in preventing and reducing the risk of disease in the newborn. A leukogram that deviates from the norm may be a single case when leukocytosis is due to a physiologically acceptable factor. Pathological leukocytosis requires repeated tests and more detailed diagnosis. These measures are also included in the complex for preventing the development of inflammation and infection of the child’s body.
- Mandatory routine vaccinations help your baby cope with the potential threat of serious illness. Vaccinations against hepatitis, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis and other pathologies should be the norm, and not the desire or subject of doubt for a caring mother.
Prevention of leukocytosis in newborns is a complex measure that concerns both the period of pregnancy and the first year of a baby’s life, when the threat of diseases is quite high and the baby’s body is very vulnerable.
The prognosis is favorable in 85-90% of cases. It is possible to speak about an unfavorable outcome in identifying an increased level of leukocytes in the blood only in the case of a serious pathology - a tumor process, diseases of the blood, blood forming organs, hereditary deviations, TORCH infections.
Physiological leukocytosis passes very quickly, the blood test returns to normal as soon as the provoking factor disappears. A more serious indicator - a reactive increase in the level of white blood cells is also not considered to be a full-fledged reason for an unfavorable prognosis. Diagnosis, the definition of a specific nosology, adequate treatment in conjunction with the protective functions of the immune system of the baby allow us to hope for almost a 100% favorable outcome and prognosis.
Лейкоцитоз у новорожденных чаше всего является реакцией на изменения в функционировании органов и систем младенца. Как один из признаков, аналитических параметров, лейкоцитоз нуждается в дополнительной информации для уточнения диагноза или подтверждения допустимых физиологических возрастных отклонений. Leukocytosis is not a reason for parents to panic, but only information that a doctor needs for proper and competent management, monitoring the formation of the body and the condition of the child.
Leukocytosis in term and preterm infants
For a more concrete understanding of what is leukocytosis in newborns, it is necessary to say a few words about the age rate of white cells in the main body fluid.
For the neonatal period is characterized by the widest range of their number compared with any other age, and ranges from 8.5 to 24.5 billion in 1 liter of blood. As the crumbs grow, this spread gradually decreases and, finally, is set at 4-9 billion (the adult norm).
These vast boundaries of this indicator are related to the fact that a child is dipped from a virtually sterile womb into a world in which all sorts of bacteria and other microorganisms are swarming. Both full-term and premature babies adapt to new living conditions. The load on the body during this period is enormous. And therefore not so surprising and high values of the norm of leukocytes.
Leukocytosis in premature infants immediately after birth is much lower than in children born at term. Fluctuations in the number of white cells during the first year of life in these children are also weakly expressed.
The white blood of preterm contains many young elements of the leukocyte series, but there are almost no eosinophils in it. The number of monocytes is also lower and only at the end of the year reaches a normal value.
Causes of high leukocytosis in newborns
The reasons provoking a leukocytosis at newborns can be both pathological, and physiological. So do not immediately raise a panic, if suddenly a child showed an increased level of white blood cells. But letting the matter take its course should not be. But to listen to the doctor - what you need. Although it is often difficult to find out what exactly was the impetus for this state, it is not so easy even for a specialist.
Leukocyte number may increase as a result of changes in temperature, overheating of the body, bathing in a hot bath. Their role is also assigned to the quality of nutrition and the intake of certain drugs.
The development of the described state is affected by emotional outbursts. Short-term leukocyte jumps are observed with experiences, especially in children, who are melancholic or choleric in temperament.
Quite often, causes associated with immunity cause leukocytosis in a newborn baby. The latter is not yet mature in infants and is only being formed: first, babies receive antibodies along with milk from the mother, but over time the number of breastfeeding decreases and the immune system weakens. Therefore, in children of less than a year the rise of white blood cells in the blood is a very frequent phenomenon and in many cases is considered as the norm.
From pathological conditions, various kinds of infectious processes can lead to the appearance of leukocytosis. First of all, these are diseases that cause viral particles, such as SARS or influenza, measles or rubella, etc. However, diseases that are bacterial in nature and diseases caused by fungal flora can also lead to the condition in question.
High leukocytosis in the blood of a newborn is also characteristic of allergic damage to the body. It must be said that allergy is considered the most frequent cause of an increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood of infants. The existence of any allergic reaction is indicated by an increase in the number of eosinophils (one of the forms of white cells).
Do not forget about the inflammatory processes. If inflammation occurs in any organ, many white blood cells can also be found in the blood test.
In addition, they start up the work of the defense systems and, as a result, any damage to the bones, tissues, and skin of the skin, including thermal damage, leads to an increase in the white blood components.
Very serious causes of leukocytosis in a newborn are oncological diseases. Among the latter, in the first place, it is necessary to distinguish leukemia and leukemia. With the development of such ailments, the indicators characterizing the content of white blood cells can exceed the norm even more than 10 times.
From the foregoing, it becomes clear that there are quite a few factors that contribute to the emergence of a pathological condition such as leukocytosis in medical practice. Only an experienced specialist can understand what exactly is taking place in a particular case.
Consequences and treatment of neonatal leukocytosis
The effects of leukocytosis in newborns are usually associated with the root cause of its occurrence. The most formidable are the consequences of inflammatory and infectious processes (especially intrauterine), sepsis, and also abundant blood loss.
As complications, ischemic vascular diseases may occur, among the manifestations of which are frequent headaches, sleep disturbances, and developmental delays.
The consequence of the pathology that caused leukocytosis can be hydrocephalus, which results in myalgia, mental retardation, disability.
Physiological increase of leukocytes in children does not require any therapy, because is a variant of the norm. If for some reason pathological leukocytosis develops in newborns, treatment is necessary in all cases.
Specific methods of dealing with this condition always depend on the provoking factor. Therapy by and large is not aimed at eliminating leukocytosis, but at suppressing the pathological condition that led to the appearance of a change in the blood composition in the crumbs. Which is quite logical, because if the main disease is defeated, then the leukocyte formula will return to normal.
This fact underlines the importance of diagnosis. It is carried out not only by blood analysis, which suggests the cause. To clarify, additional methods are assigned, the whole set of symptoms is studied, the history of the child’s development is analyzed.
Leukocytosis in the newborn is in many cases treated with antibacterial agents. Such drugs are well suited to combat the infectious component that caused the condition in question. In addition, these medicinal substances do not allow sepsis to develop.
In order to relieve the effects of inflammation, anti-inflammatory drugs (including steroid drugs) are used to lower white blood cells.
In relatively rare cases, for effective treatment, they resort to such a procedure as leukopheresis (extraction of leukocytes from the bloodstream).
What can you do
Only a doctor should deal with the treatment of an infant. When the first signs of the disease from the parents are required:
- immediately show the baby to the local pediatrician,
- pass the necessary tests
- strictly follow all the recommendations of a specialist,
- daily wet cleaning in the house,
- regularly air and humidify the air,
- breastfeeding mother adhere to the basics of healthy eating,
- lead a healthy lifestyle,
- observe the rules of personal hygiene of the baby,
- timely change bedding and hygiene items,
- take all necessary measures to strengthen the immunity of the crumbs.
What can a doctor do
A doctor with leukocytosis in a newborn usually prescribes a complex treatment, which includes the following important points:
- use of antibiotics. This, of course, is undesirable, but the inflammatory process is not always treatable without antibiotic therapy. Therefore, the specialist makes a decision based on the state of the baby and the results of the examination.
- taking antihistamines to prevent the development of allergic reactions, including antibiotics,
- enterosorbents help clean the baby's body of toxic substances, the use of probiotics will help to normalize the digestive system and avoid disorders of the chair,
- at high temperatures, it is necessary to maintain an abundant drinking regimen to prevent dehydration (dehydration) of the child’s body; in difficult cases, chemotherapy may be prescribed.