Changes in the reproductive organs of women are cyclical. Initially, the growth and development of the egg occurs, and the endometrium in the uterus changes in parallel - he is preparing to receive the fertilized egg. In the subsequent two options are possible: the onset of pregnancy, or the rejection of the endometrium and the launch of a new cycle. Folliculometry monitors the changes that occur, helps determine the day of ovulation and is a diagnostic procedure for determining the pathologies of the ovulatory process.
What is folliculometry, how and when is it performed?
This is a study of ultrasonic sensors, which allows you to track the folliculogenesis in dynamics during one menstrual cycle. The doctor may use a transabdominal or vaginal sensor. Women need to know how folliculometry is performed by various sensors in order to properly prepare for it.
The doctor conducts an examination on the surface of the abdomen, examining it from the pubis to the sternum, so you should choose clothes that allow you to quickly expose the desired surface.
For the procedure, you need to grab a towel or diaper, they are laid on a couch, and a package of paper napkins to wipe off any excess gel. Immediately before the examination, it is necessary to fill the bladder, for this purpose, over an ½ liter of plain water is drunk for an hour and does not urinate.
The sensor is inserted invaginally, with some discomfort.
Before the study, it is necessary to have a toilet of the genitals. It is not necessary to fill the bladder, it is recommended to urinate before starting the procedure. They take a towel or diaper, a disposable condom (special for ultrasound, or the usual smooth).
To clarify some parameters you may need to use both sensors. An increased amount of gas in the intestines can make it difficult to diagnose, so before research you need to adhere to a special diet: exclude legumes, all types of cabbage, black bread, alcohol and carbonated drinks.
How does follicle mature?
For the first day of the cycle take the first day of menstruation. At the beginning of folliculogenesis, several follicles grow, all of them do not exceed 2 mm in diameter. On the tenth day of the cycle one can already see one or several follicles that exceed the rest in diameter (up to 15 mm) - they are called dominant. The remaining follicles begin to regress (the opposite of the development process) and soon decrease to their original level.
The dominant follicle continues to develop and reaches 18–25 mm in diameter by the time of ovulation. Next, luteinizing hormone is released, under the action of which the egg leaves the follicle and exit into the peritoneal cavity with a small amount of follicular fluid. In place of a ripe follicle, a yellow body is formed.
Dates of the study
On which days of the cycle folliculometry is performed, depends on the menstrual cycle. To determine favorable days for conception in women, whose cycle lasts 28 days, the first ultrasound should be carried out between 8 and 10 days from the start of menstruation.
For longer or, on the contrary, a short cycle, the date is calculated based on the following data: the cycle length varies due to the first phase (the duration of follicle maturation), the second phase is 13-14 days, the study should be carried out 5-6 days before the estimated ovulation date .
Example: the woman has a stable cycle, its duration is 32 days. Calculate the date of the first ultrasound for folliculometry: 32 - 14 = 18 (estimated date of ovulation), 18 - 6 = 12 - on the twelfth day of the cycle, the first study is conducted.
If the cycle is irregular, the date of onset of folliculometry is given 3-5 days after the onset of menstruation. In total, it may take from 3 to 6 visits to the doctor, examinations are appointed with an interval of 2-3 days.
Signs of ovulation
The doctor notes the changes in the follicle and determines the date of ovulation from their dynamics. The release of an egg occurred if:
- A steady growth of the follicle to a size of 18-24 mm was observed.
- The follicle disappeared, in its place in the ovary formed a yellow body.
- Free fluid is visualized in the abdominal cavity.
- One week after the expected ovulation date, there is a high level of progesterone in the blood.
The persistence of the follicle can transform into a follicular cyst. In this case, the enlarged follicle does not stop growing, but continues to grow (at the same time there is an accumulation of follicular fluid). If the follicle exceeds 25 mm in diameter, the doctor can make such a diagnosis during the folliculometry.
Lack of follicle development
In some cases, the follicles may not develop at all, or begin development at the beginning of a cycle, and then regress without the formation of a dominant.
In the absence of ovulation, pregnancy cannot occur, because the egg does not enter the uterine cavity and cannot meet with the sperm cell. Women who are diagnosed with anovulation should undergo a comprehensive examination to identify the cause of the pathology. It is rather difficult to restore the childbearing function, but with a great desire, normalization of nutrition, lifestyle change and compliance with medical recommendations, a woman has a chance to become a mother.
How do - ways
There are two types of pelvic ultrasound:
- abdominal, which is done through the abdominal wall with a filled bladder,
- vaginal, where a special sensor is inserted into the vagina, here on the contrary, before the procedure, it is necessary to urinate.
Which of them to choose, you decide yourself, taking into account the material possibilities. The second method of pelvic ultrasound for folliculometry is considered more informative, so it costs more.
Check with your doctor to choose a method for pelvic ultrasound for more efficient folliculometry
Consider the process of folliculometry:
- The menstrual cycle begins on the first day of menstruation. At this time, the follicles are about 2 mm in diameter and several.
- Gradually, as it grows, 1 or 2 of them break out.
- In a normal rhythmic cycle of about 7 days, folliculometry shows a liquid vesicle of about 15 mm.
- Further, according to the decision of the doctor, 3-4 ultrasounds are performed with an interval of 1-2 days until the dominant reaches a degree of maturity of 18-25 mm in diameter, or the fact that the cell is released will not be recorded.
Purpose of the study
With pelvic ultrasound, folliculometry does not set the sole purpose of monitoring the development of the egg.
Folliculometry also helps:
- confirm ovulation
- calculate the day of the cycle when the cell comes out, thereby indicating a favorable time for conception,
- predict the sex of the child
- prevent or increase the chance of multiple pregnancies,
- trace the thickness of the endometrium
- evaluate the usefulness of rhythmic processes,
- identify signs of irregularity,
- diagnose some diseases (fibroids, cyst),
- control the results after treatment by hormone stimulation.
With a cycle of 28 days
If the cycle lasts more than 28 days, on which day of the cycle to do folliculometry, it is determined by counting from the day of the next critical days, taking away from the estimated date 14. This fixed value is the duration of the second phase. The first study is prescribed 5-6 days before it.
For example, the cycle lasts 30 days: 30-14 = 16, 16-5 = 11. This means that on the 11th-12th day of the cycle, the first pelvic ultrasound is performed, with the same intervals and in the amount indicated by the doctor.
With a short cycle
With a short menstrual cycle, the days for folliculometry are calculated in the same way. The duration of the second half of the cycle does not change and is still the same 14 days, but the first phase is shortened, respectively, the procedure starts earlier. So, with a cyclical period of 22 days, we carry out similar calculations and find that the analyst needs to be done on day 4.
Results of folliculometry
Let's see what can be determined by follicular ultrasound, and what the doctor concludes after the procedure.
The obtained results are able to show or confirm:
- normal ovulation, which is characterized by the presence of 1-2 dominant follicles 18-25 mm, on the eve of the estimated date. After ovulation, they are no longer determined, and there is a small amount of free fluid in the pelvis and signs of the corpus luteum in the ovary,
- the liquid bubble has grown to the desired size, but does not burst and may not change even after menstruation,
- a follicular cyst, when the vesicle, instead of breaking, begins to grow, filled with fluid,
- the normal egg sac is still intact, and the yellow body is already growing in its place,
- reverse follicle development, when it, having already reached its normal size, suddenly stops growing and begins to decrease,
- there is no development of bubbles at all, they stand still, not increasing at all.
Depending on the results of folliculometry, the attending doctor takes the necessary measures in case of deviations. Sometimes it is necessary to do additional examinations to finally solidify the cause of failure. In the future, according to indications, hormone therapy may be prescribed to stimulate the desired process.
Minus folliculometry in his schedule, which can not be broken. This can create certain inconveniences for the modern woman. The multiplicity of research is also not entirely pleasant, and the most painful is a material question. The study requires certain costs. But when it comes to the birth of a child, no price can stop future parents.
Folliculometry allows you to monitor the growth and maturation of the follicle until the moment of ovulation. The procedure has its own indications and dates. This event does not require special preparation and does not create any inconvenience. The necessary days for folliculometry can be calculated independently, but it is better to leave it to the gynecologist for a decision.
What is the essence of research
Folliculometry is the observation by ultrasound of changes in the ovaries during one or more menstrual cycles. At the same time, the state of the endometrium is recorded. This method allows you to assess the ovarian reserve and determine the presence of ovulation. With it, you can plan the date of conception, make a decision on the stimulation and use of assisted reproductive technologies.
There are various methods for determining ovulation: the measurement of basal temperature, the use of test strips, and ultrasound. Ultrasound on different days of the cycle with folliculometry is the most informative way to register ovulation. It is quite popular due to its simplicity, security, availability and accuracy.
Who should do
Folliculometry is not a screening or prophylactic examination. It is used for indications that are:
- Infertility. No pregnancy for 12 months or more with regular sex without contraception.
- Violations of the menstrual cycle. Irregular menstrual cycle, the intervals between menstruation 40 days or more, amenorrhea, scanty and / or short (1-2 days) monthly, intermenstrual bleeding.
- The presence of diseases in which ovulation may be absent or other disorders of the menstrual cycle (scleropolycystic ovary syndrome, pituitary adenoma, luteal phase of the cycle, etc.) occur.
- Refinement of the ovarian reserve before stimulating ovulation, sperm insemination, in vitro fertilization.
- Register ovulation for planning a conception date.
- Planning the floor of the future baby.
- Determination of the ovarian reserve to assess the ability to self-conceive, to obtain an egg with the stimulation of ovulation, predict the age of menopause.
What can research tell
The main task of folliculometry is to determine the presence or absence of ovulation in a given woman.
- This study determines the time of ovulation, which can help in choosing the date of conception.
- During examination during the cycle, it is possible to evaluate the process of folliculogenesis.
- Attention is drawn to the presence of a dominant follicle, to the formation of the corpus luteum after ovulation.
- Estimate the ovarian reserve.
- In parallel with the registration of changes in the ovaries, the state of the endometrium is monitored during the cycle.
All the above factors must be considered in the programs of assisted reproductive technology.
What day of the menstrual cycle to spend
Answer the question "When to do folliculometry?" Is impossible without knowledge of what changes occur in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. This type of research is carried out a specified number of times in the required periods, depending on the objectives and goals.
The decisive moment for choosing the day of the study is what exactly the doctor wants to see with this particular woman. Therefore, to determine the period of the survey should be guided by the prescription of a doctor, and not by your own desire.
Normally, between puberty and menopause in the ovary, ultrasound examines follicles with a diameter of 1-2 mm or more. They are dispersed throughout the ovarian tissue in the form of anechoic formations.
Every woman is born with a certain reserve of primordial follicles, some of which, under the influence of hormones, turn into a dominant follicle and give life to the egg cell. They are so small that they are not visible on the ultrasound. Under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone, 5–12 follicles grow and mature. Of these, one or two live to ovulation. These follicles are called preantralny and antraktnyh, they are already clearly visible on ultrasound.
- The first study can be scheduled for 2-3 days of the menstrual cycle to assess the ovarian reserve. During this period, a certain number of follicles with a diameter of 2 to 8 mm are visualized in the ovaries. Their number from 10 to 26 indicates a good ovarian reserve and a favorable prognosis when stimulating ovulation.
- The second examination can be scheduled for 5-7 days from the beginning of menstruation. In the ovaries, 2-3 follicles with a size of 5 to 10 mm are found.
- Starting from the 10th day of the menstrual cycle, an ultrasound scan is performed to register the maturation of the dominant follicle and to establish the fact of accomplished ovulation. The dominant follicle at this stage should already be expressed. Its growth during this period is active and is 2-4 mm per day. The dominant follicle reaches a size of 20-25 mm in diameter before ovulation.
- To confirm the accomplished ovulation, ultrasound is done every two days. This is evidenced by the formation of an irregular shape in the place of the dominant follicle and a small amount of fluid in the dorsal space.
- The next inspection can be carried out on the 21-23 day of the menstrual cycle (with a 28-day cycle). In the ovary in place of the dominant follicle is determined by the yellow body. Its dimensions are 15-20 mm. The corpus luteum produces progesterone, which contributes to the preservation of pregnancy.
Evaluation of results
According to the results obtained using folliculometry, we can conclude about the work of the ovaries. These data will help the doctor to understand whether a woman can conceive a child herself or whether it is necessary to use assisted reproductive technologies, to find the cause of menstrual disorders and infertility.
During normal operation of the ovaries on ultrasound, the formation of a dominant follicle is observed, which subsequently collapses, releasing the egg cell, and a yellow body forms in its place. Deviations of the ovaries are:
- Persistence of the follicle. This happens when, for some reason, it did not burst and a yellow body did not form in its place. This condition persists until the next menstrual cycle.
- Luteinization of a neovulatory follicle. In this case, the ultrasound does not register ovulation, and the follicle turns into a yellow body.
- Atresia of the follicle. In this case, it does not burst and gradually shrinks and resolves; no signs of ovulation and a yellow body are found on ultrasound.
- Formation of a functional follicular cyst. The follicle, not breaking in the middle of the cycle, continues to grow actively and reaches sizes from 25 to 100 mm in diameter.
- Cyst of the corpus luteum. It forms on the site of the ovulated follicle instead of the corpus luteum.
The question of how many follicles should be on ultrasound in a woman of reproductive age is extremely important. This number indicates the possibility of self-conception, determines the success and risks of stimulating ovulation, predicts the age of menopause. В норме должно выявляться10-26 фолликулов на 2-3 день менструального цикла. Фолликулярный аппарат не выражен при их количестве менее 4. This situation indicates a very low probability of an independent pregnancy and the absence or weak effect of stimulating ovulation.
What and how does folliculometry measure?
This procedure consists of a series of examinations, which in dynamics allow us to trace regular cyclical processes in a woman’s body. According to the results of observations, it was concluded whether ovulation occurred on the observed period (on which day of the cycle specifically), how the inner surface of the uterus mucous membrane grew (it is called the endometrium).
Apply the equipment for diagnosing (scanner, sensor) - an apparatus for conducting ultrasound. Everything happens according to the usual methods of ultrasound (ultrasound), widely used in medicine. This technique successfully replaced the old and very approximate ways of determining the date of ovulation in gynecology.
Who can this procedure help?
Folliculometry should be done if:
- A woman has regular sex without using any contraceptive, but pregnancy does not occur within a year.
- Identified deviations in the hormonal region (changes in the development and operation of the ovaries, anovulation, etc.).
- There are indications to stimulate egg maturation.
- A couple wants to increase the likelihood of a baby of a certain gender (or twins). It is established that with intimacy in ovulation, the chances of giving birth to a boy are higher.
- It is necessary to determine the most optimal time for conception.
- In vitro fertilization procedure is planned.
The technique is applied immediately after IVF to control the process of fixing a fertilized egg inside the uterus. The interpretation of the results is carried out by the doctor of ultrasound diagnostics and gynecologist.
The disadvantages of the technique
To obtain accurate and high-quality conclusions, it is necessary to conduct an examination every 3-4 days throughout the entire menstrual cycle. To many, this seems tedious and expensive, but this rule gives a very high accuracy of the results. Patient women always achieve the goal - the birth of a healthy child.
The folliculometry procedure does not require special training. For all the time of research, products that stimulate excessive gas formation in the intestine (which would prevent the follicles from seeing) are excluded from the patient's diet: beans, all kinds of cabbage, rye bread, alcoholic and carbonated drinks. It is not recommended to take alcohol.
On the day of the examination, you should check with the doctor how the examination is carried out. There are two methods:
- Transabdominal (scan right through the abdominal wall). The patient settles down on a couch, having opened for a survey a stomach (from a breast to inguinal area). The scanner moves through the body from top to bottom. Before the test, a liter of any water without gas is drunk. Internal organs on the background of a filled bladder are seen more clearly.
- Vaginal sensor. This is a more accurate and informative method. For its successful holding free the bladder and intestines in a natural way or forcibly (drugs, enema).
Analysis of the collected information
Such a long and thorough process of studying the patient's menstrual cycle, plus additional laboratory tests (determining the level of sex and many other hormones) gives the doctor the opportunity to comprehensively evaluate the work of the woman's reproductive system and prescribe an effective treatment (if needed).
Diagnosis options are as follows:
- Ovulation is normal. This means that follicles normally appear and go through all stages to full maturity (folliculogenesis). The woman is healthy, and conception can occur in the near menstrual cycle.
- Persistence - means that the follicle is properly formed and has grown enough, but did not break at the right moment, but “stayed” until the next cycle. This process affects the amount of hormones in the blood: high estrogen, low - progesterone. The treatment in this case is not carried out. Usually in the next cycle the follicle goes through a chain of its transformations and is differentiated to the end.
- With atresia of the dominant follicle, this cell formation suddenly ceases to develop and grow. The follicle sharply decreases in size and then disappears, the yellow body does not form. It is in this case that ovulation is stimulated.
- Luteinization means that the follicle, having missed the stage of ovulation and not releasing a ripe egg cell, immediately turned into a yellow body.
- The complete absence of follicles (speaks of very serious violations in the reproductive system, hormonal or congenital plan).
- Follicular cyst is a phenomenon where the dominant follicle has not undergone the procedure of ovulation and continues to grow uncontrollably. Only ultrasound folliculometry, due to its monitoring, can distinguish it from healthy.
They say that the survey is beneficial and helps women who have already lost hope to become pregnant.
Repeated visits to the medical center throughout the entire menstrual cycle, in spite of their state of health and mood, deter many. A large number of procedures (material factor) and their frequent passage (psychological moment) is the only drawback of ultrasound folliculometry. It does not imply special and difficult preparation, it is simple and safe on all days of menstruation.
To an experienced and thoughtful doctor, the results of ultrasound folliculometry will tell you how the ovaries work and the uterus functions in a particular woman, whether maturation occurs at all, and in what condition the inner mucosa of the reproductive organ (endometrium) comes to each phase of the cycle.
The purpose of the folliculometry
The method is carried out to assess the work of the ovaries in the dynamics, state of the endometrium. Folliculometry monitors the process of maturation of follicles, reveals the dominant, makes it possible to determine the moment of ovulation, the formation of the yellow body during one month cycle. The study determines the state of the endometrium, predicts a successful or unsuccessful attachment of a fertilized egg - implantation into the uterus.
The indications for folliculometry are:
- infertility along with the absence of obvious pathologies of the reproductive system,
- hormonal disorders and related pathologies - anovulation, luteal phase deficiency, polycystic ovary syndrome.
The study is conducted in the process of stimulating ovulation, while preparing women for artificial insemination, IVF procedures.
Objectives of using folliculometry:
- ovarian performance evaluation,
- determination of the maturing follicle,
- identifying the moment of ovulation,
- designation of the optimal day of conception,
- determining the feasibility of stimulating ovulation,
- impact on the sex of the unborn child (sexual intercourse a few hours, during ovulation increases the chances of having a boy, while sex a few days before it allows you to give birth to a girl)
- preventing or increasing the chances of multiple pregnancies,
- overall assessment of the menstrual cycle
- identification of causes of cycle irregularities, causes of infertility,
- identification of pathologies of the reproductive system, gynecological diseases associated with the inability to become pregnant,
- treatment control.
Ways of carrying out folliculometry
The study can be carried out transabdominal, vaginally. In the first case, the diagnosis is carried out as usual ultrasound. A woman lies on her back, her stomach is smeared with a special substance that allows you to better see the picture. The specialist drives the sensor along the belly from the sternum to the pubis. A picture appears on the monitor, after which the computer summarizes all the images and displays the results. The second method of research - vaginal, allows you to see a more complete picture. The sensor is located in close proximity to the ovaries, uterus, endometrium. A special device is inserted into the vagina. The woman during the study may feel some discomfort, but in general the procedure is painless. What kind of monitoring will be carried out, determines the specialist. He also determines the timing of the procedure, since the time of the folliculometry has a certain framework.
Special serious preparatory activities are not carried out. On the eve of the study, the woman needs to perform a hygienic procedure of washing away. If folliculometry will be performed externally, you need to fill the bladder. To do this in about 45 minutes to drink tea, coffee, mineral water. Such drinks stimulate the production of urea. When conducting a vaginal examination, on the contrary, care must be taken to ensure that the bladder is empty.
In order to increase the effectiveness of the research results, a woman needs to stop using food for 1–2 weeks, which causes increased gas formation and bloating. This situation somewhat distorts the results of the study. Do not use:
- fresh cucumbers,
- black bread,
- carbonated drinks,
- whole milk.
In general, proper nutrition increases the chances of the normal functioning of the reproductive system; therefore, a woman must ensure the correct diet if there are problems with conception and a regular cycle.
Dates of folliculometry
A woman has to go through 6 research procedures for a complete picture of the menstrual cycle.
- It is necessary to do folliculometry on the 5–7th day of the menstrual cycle for the first time. Immediately after the end of menstruation. During this time, the development of the egg begins. In one of the ovaries, 2-3 follicles are detected, ranging in size from 5 to 9 mm. Already during this period one can reveal the dominant one, but they are not in a hurry with conclusions. The structure of the endometrium is homogeneous, the thickness reaches 2 mm.
- The second ultrasound is performed on days 9–11. It is recommended to do folliculometry for this day of the cycle for the following reasons. Of all the follicles formed, one begins to grow more confidently - it is commonly called dominant. During this period of the cycle, its dimensions reach 10 mm, while the others barely reach 9 mm. Every day the follicle will increase by 2-4 mm. At the end of the development of the egg diameter will be about 22 mm. The structure of the endometrium is linear, 5 mm thick. By the end of the maturation of the follicle, three layers will be clearly visible. If the second ultrasound study did not detect a dominant follicle, there is no point in making folliculometry on the 13th day of the cycle. The menstrual cycle will be without ovulation.
- The third study should be conducted on the 13th day of the monthly cycle. The main goal is to determine the pre-ovulatory state of the follicle. Its diameter is 22–32 mm. To do folliculometry on this day of the cycle is necessary in order to determine the moment favorable for conception. The thickness of the endometrium is 12 mm, there is a clear structure in 3 layers. If there is a deviation in the formation of the endometrium, the probability of pregnancy is low. Because the uterus will not be able to receive the egg. Conception happens, implantation is not.
- It is recommended to do folliculometry on the next day of the cycle for explicit detection of ovulation. There is no expressive follicle. A free liquid is found instead. In this form, the egg after fertilization is a few days. The follicle is present - a study should be conducted every day until it becomes clear - ovulation does not occur.
- Do folliculometry on the 15-17th day of the cycle, subject to the implementation of ovulation. Instead of a bursting follicle, an asterisk-shaped yellow body is observed. The thickness of the endometrium is 11 mm, the structure of the three layers is lost. The uterus is ready to accept the yellow body.
- On days 21–23 of the monthly cycle, the implantation of a fertilized egg occurs. The purpose of the study is to determine the state of the corpus luteum, endometrium. The size of the yellow body increases, the lining of the uterus again becomes homogeneous structure. In this case, the implantation will occur successfully, which is the beginning of pregnancy. Deviations in the development of the corpus luteum are grounds for assuming that pregnancy will not occur.
It is necessary to do folliculometry on a certain day of the cycle in order to understand how ovulation occurs, the formation of the corpus luteum, the implantation of an egg cell. After a thorough diagnosis, the specialists decide to stimulate ovulation, if the ovary is imperfect, to take hormonal drugs to ensure the full development of the follicle, egg, and the readiness of the sexual organ for pregnancy.
The results of the study of the presence of ovulation
During a normal menstrual cycle, the follicle reaches a large size, the egg cell comes out, a special fluid is formed, it is found with the spermatozoon, a corpus luteum appears, then implantation, pregnancy. However, the situation may develop in a different way, then the onset of pregnancy becomes impossible.
- The follicle reaches the desired size, but does not burst, but begins to decrease in size - atresia of the dominant follicle. Ovulation does not occur. In this case, hormonal stimulation should be carried out.
- The follicle reaches the dominant size, remains so until the end of the menstrual cycle. No ovulation. The situation was called the "persistence of the follicle."
- The follicle continues to grow after reaching the dominant size. The egg cell does not go out, ovulation does not occur. Instead, a follicular cyst is formed, which may remain for several months, then disappear.
- The follicle fully develops. And at the moment when ovulation should occur, begins a gradual wrinkling. There is an early luteinization of the follicle.
Folliculometry allows you to determine all these deviations. Draw conclusions, conduct a full treatment or artificial insemination. In any case, the diagnosis should be carried out if, with full sexual intercourse, pregnancy does not occur within 1 year.
What is a study?
Unfortunately, not all women can quickly become pregnant. In some cases, when planning pregnancy prescribe testing, known as folliculometry. What is this study? In fact, it is an ultrasound monitoring that allows you to monitor the development and maturation of the follicle from the beginning to the end of the menstrual cycle.
To date, such a study is considered one of the most accurate methods to determine the days of ovulation and, accordingly, increase the chance of fertilization of the egg. This technique is widely used in gynecology, not only for tracking the menstrual cycle, but also for the diagnosis of certain disorders of the reproductive system.
Folliculometry: when to do? Indications for the procedure
First of all, a similar procedure is used in family planning centers. The most accurate results are what folliculometry helps to achieve. When to do this procedure? For a start, it is worth noting that monitoring makes it possible to determine the fact of ovulation, as well as its exact dates. This is extremely important for women who have an irregular menstrual cycle.
In addition, ultrasound is used to determine the cause of the disturbance of the normal functioning of the reproductive system and the failure of the menstrual cycle. The same study is prescribed in order to trace the effect of hormonal drugs on the ovaries. And the procedure combined with some other tests is used to diagnose female infertility. In addition, folliculometry is often carried out before in vitro fertilization.
Do I need special training?
Of course, many patients are interested in whether any special preparation is required before ultrasound. Folliculometry does not require complex preparations. For girls who have not yet had sexual intercourse, an ultrasound scan is usually carried out through the abdominal wall - in such cases, shortly before the procedure, it is worthwhile to drink 0.5-1 liters of water. A full bladder ensures maximum visibility of the pelvic organs.
In some cases, transvaginal ultrasound will be more informative. In order to ensure maximum accuracy of the study, women are recommended at least a day before the procedure to abandon products that increase the formation of gases in the intestine - this is primarily cabbage and legumes, as well as some fruits and dairy products. It is advisable to clean the intestines with piercing candles or enemas with overcooked water.
Folliculometry: on which day of the cycle is the study prescribed?
Naturally, in order to properly assess the condition and functioning of the reproductive system, it is extremely important to start on time and to make a diagnosis correctly. There is a very important question that interests all patients: on which day to do folliculometry? Immediately it should be noted that the study will probably have to be repeated more than once. Women with a normal menstrual cycle, which lasts 28 days, as a rule, the first ultrasound is prescribed on the eighth or tenth day. Естественно, в этот период трудно выделить нужный фолликул — тем не менее, можно определить наличие некоторых отклонений, в частности, диагностировать фолликулярную кисту.
For patients who have a stable cycle that lasts more or less than 28 days, the first examination is prescribed six days before the supposed onset of ovulation. In any case, in the future will have to repeat the procedure every two or three days. Repeated studies are carried out either until the period of ovulation, or until the end of the menstrual cycle.
How is the procedure?
As already mentioned, the study can be performed both through the abdominal wall and transvaginally - the physician performing the test selects the appropriate method. Basically, the procedure is the same as the usual ultrasound. Folliculometry is a common examination of the pelvic organs. Follicle monitoring takes very little time, and the procedure itself is absolutely painless.
Of course, there are some data that allow you to determine how successfully folliculometry was performed. What are these indicators? As a rule, during the first study, the doctor may notice one, rarely several, enlarged follicles. In any case, only one egg matures - its dominance is determined after only a few days. On average, the diameter of the follicle is 12-15 mm. But its size is constantly increasing - at the time of ovulation, they often - 25 mm. It is these details and draws the attention of the doctor.
Moreover, immediately after the rupture of a ripe follicle and the release of an egg, a yellow body forms in its place, which can be examined for several more days during ultrasound. After ovulation, a small amount of free fluid is present in the space. In any case, after folliculometry, a control blood test for hormone levels is required - normally an increase in the amount of progesterone is observed.
What disorders can a similar study help determine?
This technique helps to determine the exact time of ovulation. But the possibilities do not end there - there are plenty of other discoveries that folliculometry allows. What are these important facts?
First of all, continuous monitoring allows the doctor to evaluate the work of the uterus and ovaries. Using ultrasound, you can determine the presence of various tumors, including, for example, a cyst, etc. There are other diseases that can be detected during folliculometry. For example, some patients are diagnosed with myoma and other diseases. Using the results of such a study, the gynecologist has the opportunity to determine the cause of infertility. Moreover, the technique is used even during therapy, as it allows you to carefully monitor the impact of certain drugs on the reproductive system.
In fact, it is difficult to overestimate the value of this study, because it helps the specialist to make the correct diagnosis and select the best treatment methods.
Reviews and additional information
Today, more and more patients are prescribed folliculometry. Reviews of experts suggest that this is the most accurate and effective method of diagnosis and monitoring. This technique is indispensable for couples who want to have a child, as well as for patients suffering from certain violations. In any case, the procedure is painless and does not take much time. The disadvantages can only be attributed to the fact that the procedure must be repeated every two days (this is not convenient for everyone). You can do it in special diagnostic institutions or family planning clinics. As for the cost, it varies depending on the city, the equipment used and the pricing policy of the establishment. On average, one ultrasound procedure costs about 300-500 rubles.