OHP Level 2
Recently, babies often manifest underdevelopment of speech. It can take place in different ways and in different stages. In any case, the necessary correctional work with children, which is the individual and group work with children. One of the most dangerous stages is OHP Level 2. How to recognize this disease in a child?
Grades 1 and 2 of the OHP are considered the heaviest. In general, speech disorders are manifested in the inconsistency of words, sometimes the absence of sounds and meanings of speech. Subsequently, the shortcomings of oral speech will be manifested in dysgraphia and dyslexia at school.
Underdevelopment of speech grade 2 is manifested by the following symptoms:
- gestures, babble,
- sometimes simple sentences appear
- the poverty of the dictionary, and the words that the child knows are very similar in meaning,
- difficulties with speech consistency, often missing the plural, cases,
- the sound pronunciation is distorted, the child replaces the sounds, does not clearly pronounce them.
What can a child diagnosed with underdevelopment of speech 2 degrees?
- says simple words that are similar in meaning (fly beetle, insects, tuff shoes, sneakers, boots, etc.), i.e. one word combines several concepts
- hardly identifies parts of the body, objects, dishes, words with diminutive meaning (most often such words are missing or are present in limited quantities),
- hardly determines the attributes of an object (what it is made of, color, taste, smell),
- compiles a story or retells only after leading questions from an adult,
- statements are little understood, the sounds are distorted.
The characterization of OHP makes one wonder why such violations occur. Causes, as a rule, lie in the physiological sphere and do not always depend on the mother or her child:
- hypoxia during pregnancy or childbirth,
- rhesus conflict
- head injuries.
Correctional work, the forthcoming speech therapist and the parents of the baby, is very painstaking. It is necessary to form speech from the ground up almost from scratch. How are remedial classes conducted?
Work with a speech therapist
If by 3-4 years the child’s speech is not formed, it is necessary to visit a speech therapist and a neurologist. Diagnosis and characterization of OHP is carried out by several specialists.
A neurologist will help determine the cause. If treatment or additional fortification is needed, the doctor will prescribe drugs to stimulate the speech centers and the nervous system as a whole. To determine which drugs your baby may need, you will need to do an MRI scan of the brain. However, such an analysis is not always required. Sometimes a neurologist after a conversation with a mother is quite clear why speech does not develop, and how you can help the child and his family cope with the illness.
After a visit to a neuropathologist, consultation with a speech therapist is necessary. If possible, classes should be continued individually or in special groups for the correction of speech. What will the teacher do with the baby?
The general direction will consist in the development of speech activity and its understanding, the formation of phrases, sound pronunciation, clarification of how words are pronounced, the use of lexical and grammatical forms.
Speech therapist may need help from the family, because several classes a week may not be enough to form speech. A speech therapist can demonstrate to her mother the direction of work in the family circle. For example, to correct a sound pronunciation, you will need to constantly ask the child to utter a word in a singsong, and everyone in the house should say the same.
In more detail, remedial work will consist of the following exercises:
- The pronouncing of difficult-to-pronounce words sings out in a drawn way so that the child can hear all the sounds and can repeat them. It is desirable that everyone in the child’s environment, and not just in the classroom, speak in this manner. This will allow the child to better capture the sound composition of words.
- Study words by subject groups based on images. For example, a speech therapist shows the child pictures of pets and clearly calls them, causing the baby to repeat the names. So the child gradually begins to systematize the phenomena and objects of the surrounding world.
- Comparison of the same grammatical forms of different words belonging to the same part of speech. For example, we rode: on a sled, by car, on a hill, etc.
- The same is done with verb forms: Kolya wrote — Kolya writes — Kolya will write.
- Testing changes in nouns by numbers. The teacher shows images of objects in singular and plural numbers, calls them and asks the child to show.
- Separate work is done with prepositions. Speech therapist inserts them into phrases similar in structure, for example: going to the forest, to visit, to the mountain, etc.
- Work on distinguishing voiced and deaf sounds, distinguishing them in speech.
- Definition of sound in a word by ear for the development of phonemic hearing.
It is known that a child communicates in completely different ways with adults and with his peers. With the latter, he feels freer, his interests coincide with them. If your child with OHP does not attend kindergarten, the reason for the lack of development of speech may also include the lack of communication. Try to enroll the child in the development group, the kids club, where they are trying to fully develop the children. A circle of contacts will appear here, and artistic perception of the world, songs, physical exertion will create the optimal environment for improving speech.
It is very difficult to predict how the development of speech in the baby will go. Much depends on the degree of development of the disease and the cause that provoked it.
Start work as early as possible. Already at the age of three, if the baby does not speak, or makes inarticulate sounds, it should be clear to parents that they should go to an appointment with a neuropathologist. Without a concrete diagnosis and medication, even intensive sessions with a speech therapist can be powerless.
If all necessary measures have been taken, and the NRO is not running, there is hope, the child will begin to speak. However, his further education in the mass school becomes impossible. Parents will have to either teach him at home, or give to a specialized educational institution for children with speech problems.
Much depends on the temperament and sociability of the baby. In many ways, they determine how much he will become accustomed to the school team, find a common language with peers, and how teachers will relate to him.
Correctional work with children with underdevelopment of speech 2 degrees, should be carried out exclusively by a specialist. Parents do not need to intervene in the process or try to solve the problem on their own. All the more terrible to let problems take their course. The kid needs qualified help, otherwise in the future he will have problems with contacts.
OHP Level 2
The study of speech levels in children with logopathology was advanced in 50-60. last century, Professor of Speech Therapy R. E. Levina. She singled out three levels of speech underdevelopment: 1– speechless, 2 - the appearance of common speech, 3 - detailed phrase speech with lexical and grammatical (LH) and phonetic-phonemic (FF) errors. Thus, the second level of speech development is distinguished by higher linguistic abilities as compared with OHP level 1. However, a low degree of proficiency in speech means (grammatical, lexical, phonetic, phonemic) requires their further development by methods of special correctional education. Later, a fourth level of speech development was added to this classification, characterized by residual signs of FF and PH of underdevelopment.
Without purposeful training, children with OHP Level 2 experience marked difficulties in mastering the school curriculum. Against the background of the underdevelopment of linguistic components, specific disorders of school skills are formed - agrammatic dysgraphia and dyslexia. Due to poor possession of phrasal speech, the child cannot fully communicate with peers and establish itself in the children's team. Children with limited speech activity are aware of and are seriously experiencing their defect, which negatively affects their personal and mental development. Despite the primary preservation of intelligence, in the absence of timely correction of OHP, borderline intellectual insufficiency may occur.
Speech therapy examination includes the study of medical history, assessment of the status of all components of oral speech. At the first meeting with the child and the parents, the speech therapist needs to find out the likely causes of speech underdevelopment, the degree of understanding and mastery of the child's speech, especially the motor and mental development. Diagnosis of oral speech includes the study of the level of formation:
- Connected speech. The child is asked to retell the text he has listened to, make a story on visual aids, and answer questions. At the same time, semantic and syntactic errors, incorrect order and connection of words in a sentence, violation of logic and sequence of presentation are revealed. Even with the help of leading questions, prompts of a speech therapist, the child is not able to accurately convey the content of the story.
- Lexical and grammatical processes. When performing tasks, there are difficulties in selecting the right words, lack of knowledge of geometric shapes, colors, generalizing categories, synonyms and antonyms. With the same amorphous word, a child can denote a whole series of objects that are close in purpose or function. The phrase is constructed agrammatically, with violations of agreement, improper change of words in numbers and cases.
- Syllable structure and phonetic-phonemic processes. Difficult for sound and syllable composition of words pronounced distorted. The number of syllables is reduced to two or three. Statements are obscure due to multiple defects in sound pronunciation. In children with OHP Level 2, up to 15-20 sounds of almost all groups can be disturbed. Tasks for sound analysis and synthesis of a child are not available.
The second level of speech development is differentiated with other degrees of speech impairment (OHP 1 and OHP level 3), as well as hearing loss, systemic underdevelopment of speech during mental retardation and oligophrenia. When conducting diagnostics, it is important to understand what kind of speech pathology underlies the NRO - the forms and methods of the correction process will depend on this.
Prognosis and prevention
In most cases, the speech prognosis for OHP level 2 is favorable. In the process of remedial education, there is a gradual expansion of verbal activity and an increase in the level of speech development. When going to primary school, children should continue to study at the school’s log-point, since they constitute a risk group for the formation of violations of writing and reading. Primary prevention of OHP is to prevent early damage to the speech centers and organs, leading to severe logopathology. In order to prevent learning difficulties and lagging behind in cognitive development, timely detection of severe speech defects and their correction is necessary.
General concept of NRO
ONR - speech disorder, which refers to the pedagogical-psychological classification. Such children have completely normal hearing and intellectual abilities, however there is a clear impairment in the speech system. Children with ONR include both a completely silent child and toddlers who tend to have the pronunciation of words, as well as children who have understandable phrasal speech, but the phonetic direction of the word is poorly developed.
The manifestation of various speech defects has very standard manifestations. In such children, the first words are formed by about three to four years, in rare cases by five. Speech is characterized by agrammatic sound and incorrect phonetic design. It is very difficult to understand such children, although they often understand the questions asked to them.
Due to the fact that such a child develops complexes, from a psychological point of view, it is necessary to eliminate such defects at the first manifestations.
These speech defects affect the sensory, intellectual and volitional aspects of a child’s character. Such children cannot fully concentrate on a particular subject, and their normal ability to memorize is also affected. They can not remember the instructions received, as well as sequential tasks.
Correctional work with children with OHP is aimed at developing analysis, comparison and generalization. Somatic weakness is supported by defects in motor activity, which is manifested by a lack of coordination, reduced speed of movement and insufficient dexterity.
A visit to a speech therapist must be made if by three or four years the child does not have speech formation. In this case, the diagnosis, detailed description and correction of the NRO is formed by more than one specialist.
With the help of a neurologist, the cause is determined. If necessary, the treatment or prescription of vitamins, the specialist may prescribe special drugs that will have a stimulating effect on the speech centers and the nervous system of the child. Most often, an MRI of the brain is recommended. In some cases, a conversation with parents will be enough for a doctor.
After a consultation with a neurologist, it is necessary to visit a speech therapist. Most often, the specialist identifies the child in a special group, but under certain circumstances individual lessons can be used.
The main goal of correctional work is the development of active speech, improvement of its understanding, as well as the formation of phrases and their correct sound pronunciation. As a reinforcement, some speech therapists turn to their parents for extra classes with their family, as two or three classes a week may not be enough.
As an example, you can take a simple exercise in which the child needs to pronounce certain words in a singsong, and the parents must then respond to him in the same way. This exercise will not only help get rid of speech defects, but also bring the family closer together.
The main directions of correctional work:
- Improving the pronunciation of difficult words for a child in a drawn-out manner, for better sounding of all letters and sounds,
- the need for the distribution of words into groups, which are combined depending on the subject, for example, when displaying pictures with pets, the child should clearly name everyone. This approach helps children to systematize,
- comparative forms of different forms that belong to one part of speech, for example, we walked: in the park, in the field, in the garden, and so on,
- the same approach with the verb, for example, mother painted - mother draws - mother draws,
- working out an understanding of the difference between singular and plural,
- Improving the perception of the difference between deaf and voiced sounds.
There is a huge difference in the manner in which children communicate with adults and their peers. And if the baby may feel squeezed when talking with an adult, he will be more calm and open when talking with the child, especially if their interests coincide.
However, with a sufficiently large development of the defect at the beginning of correctional work, individual classes are applied, which eventually flow into group ones, thereby slowly preparing the child for entry into society.
In some cases, the development of grade 2 OHP is observed in children who do not attend kindergarten, which is explained by the lack of communication. In such cases, it is recommended to write the baby into various circles, in which not only his social circle will increase, but also the artistic perception of the surrounding world will begin to develop, which will entail an improvement in speech.
It is practically impossible to accurately predict a violation in the development of speech in children. Most often it depends on what caused the development of the disease and the degree of its development.
That is why, in case of incomprehensible babble or complete absence of speech in three years, it is necessary to contact a neuropathologist. After all, in the presence of disorders of the nervous system, even everyday exercises with a speech therapist may not give the desired result, because the child will need medication.
With the timely adoption of all necessary measures, the child will begin to speak. But often these children are not able to study in a regular school, so parents will have to choose between home schooling or a special school, which is designed for children with speech disorders.
The most important thing is to remember that support is important for the baby in the process of remedial work, which he should receive from each family member. This will help not only get rid of maturing complexes, but also speed up the process of eliminating defects, because the baby will see approval from close people, and therefore, will begin to strive for a better result.
It is known that, normally, a child, by the age of five, is already free to speak and build rather complex sentences. У малыша формируется хороший словарный запас, он может склонять слова, правильно ставить окончания в своей устной речи, формируется нормальное звукопроизношение.
Однако подобная картина бывает не всегда. У некоторых детей наблюдается та или иная степень недоразвития речи, при этом интеллектуально они ничем не отличаются от своих сверстников. Such a violation of all components of speech is called general speech underdevelopment (OHP).
The manifestations of OHP depend on how the patient’s speech system is formed. The child may not speak at all, but may speak quite coherently and logically, but with elements of a slight phonetic or grammatical underdevelopment.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of the results of a special speech therapy examination. Correction ONR includes activities aimed at increasing vocabulary, developing an understanding of someone else's speech, the formation of a full pronunciation of letters, sounds, words, sentences and a number of others.
There are the following forms of underdeveloped speech:
- OHP Level 1. The child is completely absent connected speech. In the medical field, the characterization of the NRO at this level sounds like “speechless children”. The child tries to convey his thoughts to others with the help of gestures or extremely slurred, simplified speech.
- OHP Level 2. The patient has an initial speech, but the vocabulary of children with OHP is extremely poor. The child spells most words incorrectly, making mistakes. The maximum that a patient with this stage of the disease can do is to make and pronounce the simplest sentence of several words.
- General speech development 3 levels. The patient is well able to make sentences, but pronounces words with errors, and the meaning of the sentences may be incomprehensible to others.
- OHP Level 4. The patient speaks well, can make sentences. The speech of a child with OHP at this stage practically does not differ from his peers. Problems appear only in the preparation of long phrases.
In addition, a classification has been adopted in medicine, according to which the following types of disease are distinguished:
- uncomplicated ONR - observed with a slight violation of brain activity,
- complicated OHP - diagnosed against the background of a psychiatric or neurological disorder,
- general speech underdevelopment in children associated with pathologies of speech centers of the brain.
Causes of general speech underdevelopment
Usually, the causes of development of this pathology are various provoking factors that can affect the child's body during different periods of his life.
These factors include:
- genetic predisposition - the likelihood of developing OHP increases if the parents have hormonal disorders, mental illness, mental retardation, severe metabolic disorders,
- problems during pregnancy - rhesus conflict between the mother and the fetus, viral diseases of the mother, the threat of miscarriage, falling on the stomach, the presence of bad habits (alcohol abuse, smoking), severe stress, taking certain medications during pregnancy,
- complications of childbirth (prolonged or too fast delivery, cesarean section, fetal asphyxiation, mechanical injuries received by the child during the passage through the respiratory tract, etc.),
- some diseases suffered by a child in the first years of life (meningitis, pneumonia, dysentery, chronic otitis media, bruises and concussions, intoxication of the body as a result of poisoning and a number of others),
- the influence of social factors (early start of learning a second language, improper upbringing, severe long-term stress, mental trauma, poor living conditions, and so on).
In its pure form, OHP is observed infrequently. Usually the disease is accompanied by neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as somatic problems.
Incomplete speech or its complete lack of a negative impact on the overall development of the child, the formation of his communication skills, intelligence.
Symptoms of OHP
With OHP, there is a violation of all speech skills. Connected speech in children with OHP is absent. When talking, the child makes elementary mistakes, which should no longer be at his age.
The dynamics of speech in such children lags behind the development of their psyche. At the same time, in general development, preschoolers with ONR are practically not inferior to their peers. They actively explore the world around them, respond adequately to different situations, play with their parents and other children, understand what others are saying to them.
Typical manifestations of OHP of children of senior preschool age are:
1. In psychological development:
- scattered attention, reduced concentration,
- poorly developed memory, not memorizing someone else's speech,
- violation of the necessary algorithm of actions, inability to remember fairly simple instructions,
- difficulty in trying to analyze the signs and properties of objects, their comparison with each other.
- incomprehensible, unintelligible speech or its absence,
- the child starts to speak late (at 3-5 years old),
- small for his age vocabulary
- incorrect construction of phrases and sentences.
3. In the development of motility (small and large):
- loss of orientation in time and space when performing special tasks for movement,
- inaccurate performance of the necessary movements,
- lack of rhythm
- frequent freezing in one position, inhibited actions.
Prevention of OHP
In order to minimize the likelihood of the development of this pathology in a child to a minimum, the following recommendations should be observed:
- during pregnancy it is necessary to abandon alcohol abuse and smoking, to comply with all the recommendations of doctors, to avoid falls and injuries (especially on the stomach),
- after birth, it is necessary to monitor the health of the child, try to avoid serious somatic diseases,
- study with the child, follow his speech, correct the wrong pronunciation,
- when the first suspicious signs are detected, consult a specialist and be examined - this will help start treatment on time, which will significantly improve the prognosis of the disease.
For each level of general speech underdevelopment, doctors determined a number of characteristic signs indicating that pathology belongs to this stage. In addition, a child suffering from any of the forms of manifestations of OHP also has associated symptoms:
- he is not good at memorizing anything (words, names, sequence of actions, etc.),
- there is no interest in learning new things, learning new facts and exploring the world around you,
- attentiveness and concentration are at a very low level
- mental activity is lower than that of peers.
Distinctive symptoms of the second level of pathology include the following manifestations:
- using phrases and phrases, the child uses only simple constructions, their distortion often occurs,
- general vocabulary is significantly lower than peers,
- no word formation skills,
- with OHP level 2, dysarthria is observed: phonetics suffer and the child cannot distinctly pronounce individual sounds and words, some of them are “swallowed”, some are pronounced with unnatural voice pressure, etc.
Important! Even if you see that your baby has some or all of the above symptoms, do not diagnose it yourself! Only a competent specialist will be able to correctly determine the degree of speech development impairment and give appropriate recommendations and references: for example, a speech therapy conclusion - OHP Level 2 requires referral for treatment to a specialized physician.
Correctional work on OHP Level 2 is a whole range of measures aimed at comprehensively developing the baby’s ability to express itself through speech. In order for the treatment to be effective, the speech therapist must compile an individual route for a child with OHP Level 2: it takes into account all the features of the child’s personality, character, temperament, and the external environment in which the baby resides.
The long-term plan for working with OHP Level 2 includes:
- therapy is aimed not only at improving the quality of pronunciation, but also at the child’s ability to fully understand what he says,
- improves the pronunciation of individual sounds and their combinations,
- the child learns to form meaningful phrases (not only to pronounce memorized combinations of words, but also to understand the semantic features of these or those constructs),
- development of lexical and grammatical understanding of the language.
Important! The main rule of success in performing corrective tasks for OHP Level 2 is their clear sequence and distribution by complexity. The speech therapist who conducts the lesson should understand well what stage of development the speech is at, and exclude too difficult, or vice versa - too light exercises.
Taking into account the degree of ONR, there are 4 levels of speech development:
- 1 level of speech development - “speechless children”, there is no commonly used speech.
- 2 level of speech development - the initial elements of common speech, characterized by a poor vocabulary, phenomena of agrammatism.
- 3 level of speech development - the emergence of expanded phrasal speech with the underdevelopment of its sound and semantic sides.
- 4 level of speech development - residual gaps in the development of the phonetic-phonemic and lexical-grammatical sides of speech.
A history of children with OHP often identified:
– intrauterine hypoxia,
- rhesus conflict,
- birth injuries
And in early childhood - traumatic brain injury, frequent infections, chronic diseases.
Unfavorable speech environment, ignoring child disorders, attention deficit and communication even more inhibit the course of speech development.
For all children with OHR, the first words are late to appear by 3-4, sometimes by 5 years. The speech activity of children is reduced, the speech has an abnormal sound and grammatical design, is not well understood.
But the most dangerous thing in this violation is that due to the defective speech activity suffers memory, attention, cognitive activity, mental operations. Children begin to lag behind their peers in general, intellectual development. Children with OHP inadequate development of motor coordination, general, fine and speech motility.
That is why there are several stages of the correction of OHP with different goals. Each of these stages has its own purpose within the framework of the general rehabilitation program of the NRO. But in order to have a stable result of the ONR correction without consequences, which can have a bad effect on the teaching of reading and writing a child at school, it is necessary to integrate it into the program:
- Neuropsychological correction,
- Certified professional speech therapy massage,
- Neuroacoustic stimulation according to the Tomatis Method according to the ONR and FFNR correction program.
One of the main stages of the correction of OHP is a neuropsychological examination and correction.
Neuropsychological correction - this is the most effective today drug-free method of helping children, and therefore not having any side effects. With a competent professional approach, the most effective and sustainable, because it is based on the training of the Brain and its specific zones.
The correction program is developed individually for each child based on classical neuropsychological methods using the elements of body-oriented therapy, as well as the most effective techniques borrowed from related disciplines (defectology, speech therapy, sensory integration, physical therapy, art therapy).
In the NeuroLogopedichesky Center “Above the Rainbow”, the program of the classical neuropsychological correction integrates:
- more than 18,000 educational and educational games,
- more than 20 educational simulators,
- more than 30 types of innovative equipment,
The program of neuropsychological correction is built strictly on the basis of the individual characteristics of each child, the goals and objectives of the correction, and is prescribed by the specialist strictly individually for each child on the basis of neuropsychological diagnostics and hardware examination by instruments.
The program of neuropsychological correction includes the motor (psychomotor) part, the cognitive (tasks at the table or on the carpet for the development of memory, speech, thinking, writing, reading, etc.), as well as a block that includes work with Innovative Equipment or Special Programs .
Neuropsychological correction allows the child to overcome the difficulties of development or communication, speech disorders, and the underdevelopment of higher mental functions — memory, perception, thinking, attention, motor skills — without medication.
There are a number of speech disorders (ONR, dysarthria, certain types of dyslalia, alalia) in children that cannot be resolved without professional certified speech therapy massage. The work of a speech therapist in these cases will be unnecessarily prolonged and ineffectual, and the child will lose time, which in consequence will be very difficult to catch up.
Specialists of the center conduct a special speech therapy massage of the articulatory muscles involved in the formation of speech and pronouncing sounds. In the NeuroLogopedichesky Center "Above the Rainbow" probe, manual, mixed and massage with probe substitutes are performed.
Speech therapy massage is indicated for children with alalia, dysarthria, rhinolalia, speech development delay, stuttering, ONR, ZRR.
Difficulties experienced by a child in reproducing certain sounds can be caused by a violation of the tone of the articulation muscles — the muscles of the tongue, lips, and soft palate. If these muscles are undeveloped or insufficiently innervated, the child will pronounce the sounds incorrectly and experience discomfort from it, which will subsequently lead to gross mistakes on writing and readingbecause phonemic hearing the child is also broken. Problems with insufficient tone or development of the musculature of the vocal apparatus can be caused by various circulatory disorders of congenital or acquired nature and neurological nature.
In the course of the massage, the nervous system of the child is also stimulated, the massage causes the corresponding reflex reactions that mobilize the body's resources.
But it must be remembered that speech therapy massage only in integration with competent speech therapy work of a specialist, designed and specially selected program gives a high-quality and sustainable result.
In NeuroLogopedichesky Center "Above the Rainbow", experts in addition to traditional staging, massage and universal probes use in their work vibrating massagers Z-Vibe®, DnZ-Vibe®, Z-Grabber ™, ARK Animal Menagerie.
The principle of operation of the Z-Vibe is to affect the (tongue, inner and outer surface of the cheeks, forehead, cheek, chin) of a person with high-frequency vibrations.
Allows you to very effectively stretch the "bridle".
And also support the language, massage the tongue of the tongue to help in the formulation of sound C and much more.
This massager allows you to "put" the sound P to a person during 1 session.
Speech therapist Z-Vibe, according to many speech therapists, is the best equipment in the world for performing speech therapy massage and preparing human articulation muscles for special exercises.
This electric massager, with the right and constant speech therapy massage, can reduce the time spent on the correction of the child's speech at least 3-5 times compared with traditional massage probes.
An experienced diagnostician thinks out the program of correction and massage for each child.
Speech therapy work carried out by a single algorithm for all children can lead to a serious loss of time, to fix incorrect stereotypes that will be very difficult to correct, it will take a lot of time and effort and delay the correction time.
The Tomatis method is another important method for correcting general speech underdevelopment (ONR).
The Tomatis method is an auditory training system that acts on the brain with high frequencies. The purpose of the method is to improve the ability of the brain to perceive and process information that is heard.
The field of application of A.Tomatis method in children is very extensive and includes therapeutic programs for children aged from 24 months to 12 years.
Auditory training with high filtered frequencies using the Tomatis method is designed to train the brain to perceive the auditory information more efficiently and organized.
If classes with a speech therapist do not bring a noticeable result, it is necessary to undergo neuroacoustic stimulation according to the Tomatis Method. Auditory stimulation improves the perception of sounds and speeds up the process of mastering the correct sound pronunciation. With the help of training according to the Tomatis method, the listening process is reprogrammed.
These workouts are assigned to children with speech and speech disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, delayed speech and psychomotor development, impaired balance function.
Many children have disturbed the perception of sounds, because the child does not clearly hear the consonant sounds, and the formation of his own speech is significantly disturbed. Often the child does not assimilate the information due to the fact that his brain cannot separate important auditory information from the secondary. And the problem lies in the fact that the child’s brain does not perceive speech (of an adult) against the background of surrounding noise (in class, in everyday life).
There are also children who are able to perceive information mainly with the right ear, there are those who listen mainly to the left. The right ear is connected to the left hemisphere of the brain, in which located speech zones. Если же ребёнок слушает левым ухом, то информация сначала поступает в правое полушарие, а только потом в левое. На это уходит больше времени. Кроме того по пути звуки искажаются, особенно звуки высоких частот. This is VERY DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTANDING THE HEARD.
With the help of audiovocal training, which, through the air (ear) and bone (skeleton) conduction, affect the brain, you can influence the classroom system of the brain. This leads to an improvement in the ability to perceive information, which means learning, development of attention, communication skills, ability to read, and understanding what is heard, helps the brain to better process the information received from all senses.
In children with OHP Level 1, phrasal speech is not formed. In communication, children use babbling words, one-word sentences, supplemented by facial expressions and gestures, the meaning of which is almost incomprehensible. Vocabulary in children with ONR level 1 is sharply limited, mainly includes separate sound complexes, onomatopoeia and some everyday words.
With OHP Level 1, impressive speech also suffers: children do not understand the meaning of many words and grammatical categories. There is a gross violation of the syllable structure of the word.
Articulation is fuzzy, pronunciation of sounds is unstable, many of them are inaccessible for pronunciation. Phonemic processes in children with OHP Level 1 are rudimentary in nature: phonemic hearing is grossly impaired, the task of phonemic word analysis is unclear and impossible for a child.
In the speech of children with OHP 2 levels, along with babble and gestures, simple sentences consisting of 2-3 words appear. However, the statements are poor and of the same type in content, more often express objects and actions. With OHP Level 2, there is a significant lag in the qualitative and quantitative composition of the dictionary from the age norm: children do not know the meaning of many words, replacing them with similar meanings. The grammatical structure of speech is not formed: children do not correctly use case forms, have difficulty agreeing parts of speech, using singular and plural numbers, prepositions, etc. In children with OHP level 2, the pronunciation of words with a simple and complex syllable structure is still reduced. concord consonants. Sound pronunciation is characterized by multiple distortions, substitutions and mixes of sounds. Phonemic perception in OHP Level 2 is marked by severe insufficiency; children are not ready for sound analysis and synthesis.
Children with OHP level 3 use unfolded phrasal speech, but in speech they use mostly simple sentences, making it difficult to build complex ones. Understanding of speech is close to the norm, the difficulty is the understanding and assimilation of complex grammatical forms (involved and adverbial turns) and logical connections (spatial, temporal, cause-effect relationships). The volume of vocabulary in children with OHP level 3 increases significantly: children use almost all parts of speech (mostly nouns and verbs, less adjectives and adverbs), typically inaccurate use of object names. Children make mistakes in the use of prepositions, coordination of parts of speech, use of case endings and stresses.
With an OHP level 3, the sound pronunciation and phonemic perception are still disturbed, but to a lesser extent.
With OHP 4 levels, children have specific difficulties in sound pronunciation and repetition of words with a complex syllable composition, have a low level of phonemic perception, make mistakes in word formation and inflection. The vocabulary of children with OHP Level 4 is quite diverse, but children do not always accurately know and understand the meaning of rare words, antonyms and synonyms, proverbs and sayings, etc.
In independent speech, children with OHP level 4 experience difficulties in the logical presentation of events, often miss the most important and “get stuck” on minor details, repeat what was said earlier.
In children with OHR, it is imperative to conduct a neuropsychological examination for the diagnosis of aural-speech memory and other mental processes.
ONR should be distinguished from delayed speech development (LRD), in which only the pace of speech formation lags behind, but the formation of language means is not disturbed.