At what age does a child have a temperament
Adults involved in the upbringing of the baby, even in early childhood, it is very important to feel, to understand, which features are inherent in one or another crumb.
Only on the basis of correct conclusions can we build an exact system of education for a diversified personality, which will comfortably exist in society. Otherwise, you can break the nature of children in early childhood, engender in the soul of the kids self-doubt, hatred, or fear of the world around them.
In fact, to change the nature of the child is almost impossible. This is how to make a brunet blond or a representative of the Negroid race turn into Caucasians. Outwardly, some changes are possible, but the genotype will remain the same. And the new hair will grow the color of the gene that is present in the human DNA.
Therefore, the very notion of “character education” in the literal sense is practically not used. Usually, this phrase means the education of the child's perseverance, honesty, perseverance, that is, some qualities necessary for the development of a successful personality.
4 types of characters in children
The future of a person who will grow out of crumbs depends on how truly adults determine the tendencies laid at birth, the features of a baby. Psychologists around the world are trying to classify the nature of children.
There is a variant of division of children (and all people) into four types:
- sensitive (sensitive),
Sentential (sensitive) type
Each type of character corresponds to certain features. And they begin to appear in early childhood.
For example, it is believed that the punitive nature of young children is determined by their heightened expression of emotions, sensitive spiritual organization, and susceptibility to the experiences of other people. Such kids react painfully to their failures, they are very upset even because of small failures. Such children should not once again be ashamed, ridiculed, mocked at them, punished, tugged at the time of the manifestation of emotions.
And certainly it is not necessary to distract the upset kid, trying to make him laugh at the moment when he is going through another storm of emotions. Moreover, you shouldn’t show him the intensity of your passions associated with events that the baby cannot change or influence.
The positive characteristics of a child of a sensitive type are the possibility of influencing him by manifesting his dissatisfaction with mimicry or just a few words describing his sad mood: “I am upset ...” or “How ashamed I am for you!” need to scold, cry out to his feelings, and the more punished.
However, this type of character of the child develops in him self-doubt, tightness, fear of doing something wrong. Therefore, they are usually unsociable, shy. This is not the best quality. And if you do not correct these traits of a child’s character, then you can hardly hope that he will subsequently grow into a self-confident, successful person who is able to make decisions on his own, to do things.
It is very important to achieve understanding with such a kid. He should feel that people live nearby, who also experience the same way that they also have failures. But they know how to deal with them.
Let the kid communicate with children of this type - you should not force him to be friends with leaders, rude and powerful children who will suppress him. But to cultivate self-esteem should begin from early childhood. If necessary, the child should be able to resist violence, refuse, say "no."
Typically, these children grow up creative individuals: artists, writers, musicians. A lot of sensitive natures appeared doctors, teachers, psychologists. Yes, and scientists often in childhood were inclined to sit on the sidelines alone, while others broke toys, climbed onto the roofs of garages or ruthlessly fought each other.
The name of this variety of character already speaks for itself. The main character traits of a child of an active type are mobility, curiosity, and sociability. They are always in motion, they are bored to sit still even for a minute, they want to constantly do something, to learn. Often these aspirations are fraught with broken toys, torn pants, knocked down knees. At the slightest weakening of attention from adults, babies can mess things up, inventing a game that is risky for life.
Features of the nature of the child of the active type lies in the fact that for him the main thing is action, not experience. It is impossible to influence his behavior with flattened eyebrows or unhappy shaking of the head. And stronger methods are not very effective. Screams, abuse, punishment can embitter a baby. And often he simply adopts such a manner of behavior and in response begins to rude, scream, intimidate, threaten.
Adults should make every effort to ensure that preschool children of the active type are constantly engaged in useful work. Praise as an incentive for new achievements - this is the only way to bring up positive qualities in a child.
Usually from these children grow true leaders. Therefore, it is important to teach the child to be a leader, to direct his irrepressible energy in the right direction. If a child is inculcated in responsibility at an early age, then a successful, confident person who can achieve a lot in life can grow out of it.
The complexity of the educational process is that the qualities of the character of a child leader without responsive leadership can nurture a notorious hooligan, a fearless and reckless organizer of a criminal group, a ruthless and stubborn egoist.
By comparing the kinds of character of the child, it is possible to establish some similarities between them. The communicative type is rather close to active. Indeed, in both cases, the child lives not with emotions, but with actions. Only if the active type is inherent desire to command other people, then the main goal of the communicative kid becomes precisely knowledge. Such children cling to everything, everything is interesting for them, they love to start. But the routine, routine, they sickened.
If an active child can be accustomed to order, using praise, reward, encouragement, then the communicative one doesn't care for it all. On the contrary, even the usual repetition of familiar actions causes a protest in him.
What about such a baby for whom chaos is the norm? How to teach him to order? How to ensure that the little man brought the started business to the end? Probably, there is only one option - a change in the course of action, the inclusion of a touch of novelty in any activity. Began to remove toys, quickly tired, quit, went to play with the kitten? Do not scold him and read his notation! You can simply add a game element to the cleaning routine: “An emergency evacuation of all toys has just been announced - a tsunami is coming! Here is the ship (box for toys), which sails in five minutes! It is necessary to quickly load all the toys on board! ”
It is worth remembering that if the second time such a game works, then for the third time it will definitely be useless. And adults should come up with a new story.
It should be noted, and positive traits of the child of the communicative type. They are usually very sociable, able to adapt to the environment, easily converge with other people. Since routine is alien to them, these children themselves make a variety of any activity. It is they who infect the entire crowd with the desire to turn off the usual road and ride ice floes on the river during ice drift or measure the depth of the puddle with their boots ...
However, they do not care if others will go after them, because they can roll alone. The main thing is that they will go unbeaten. Pioneers, climbers and divers, archaeologists and geologists often grow from such people. Often, they make writers and actors, but only if everything works out right away. To work on what has been written, to sort and lay everything out on the shelves, to repeat the route is not for them.
Therefore, in such children, first of all, perseverance, patience, perseverance should be developed. It is not that simple. But probably. They just should be allowed to take breaks in work with the change of occupation, more often rearrange the furniture in the room, change the cover of the notebook, clothes.
This is probably the most convenient type of character for educators. After all, children with a receptive type of character adore rules, constancy, rhythm, mode, repetition of the same actions. They are easy to “manage” in kindergarten and at school, they easily get up in the mornings, wash and brush their teeth without reminders, easily cope with tasks that have been carefully worked out. But here are situations when a novelty suddenly appears, when you need to be smart or perform some kind of action that is not previously agreed, “block” the psyche of the child. These children make great performers, but they will never become leaders. Making their own decisions for them is akin to committing a feat.
Considering the nature of the behavior of children belonging to the receptive type, it should be noted that, like babies belonging to the sensitive type, they are sensitive and prone to feelings. These are very sensitive and responsive kids. And if you skillfully cultivate in them the ability to make independent decisions, then they make wonderful family men, true friends.
You can start to raise independence in early childhood. For example, you should allow them to buy something in the store, pay for the purchase on their own, choose a gift for a sister or educator. Even the choice of clothes in the morning is an act. Any small actions that the baby will perform himself, guided by his desire, should be encouraged. And in no case need to offend with distrust the little man in the event that he makes a mistake. Explain - yes, show another option - yes. But do not scold, do not punish, do not make a mockery.
Are there “pure” character types?
Of course, it is impossible with a hundred percent certainty to attribute a child to one particular type. In one personality, features that are characteristic of both two and three types get along together. For example, the active leader may well be inherent sensitivity and emotionality. Otherwise, where would the leaders of organizations for the protection of homeless animals? The same leader may well have such a character trait as hatred of routine and order. The desire to do everything quite differently from what it was before, played into the hands of many leaders: it is they who make the breakthrough, introducing the new regime into the plant’s work, changing radically even the very direction in the output.
Or, for example, a person of a sensitive warehouse may well be a half receptive lover of order and dimension. As, however, often in such a person may be the desire for change.
Type of character accentuation
Excessive manifestation of the main typical character traits in an individual is called accentuation. These are the very children who are more relevant to a particular subgroup. There is even a test for the type of character, compiled by K. Leonhard and N. Shmishekom. It looks like a questionnaire of 88 statements, which should be grouped into 10 scales. On the basis of the obtained results, it is possible to give an answer to which type the person most of all belongs.
What can I say, to carry out such a test to determine the nature of the child in a year is impossible; he is just beginning to understand the articulate speech. It is also quite difficult to test for the type of character with a preschool child, because not only will he not be able to answer many questions, but he will not even understand the meaning of many questions!
Although attentive adults may well be content with their own observations of their children and make independent conclusions. For example, how would a baby before a year react to the fact that a grandmother would suddenly wear glasses for the first time? A child of a sensitive and receptive type will cry or just get upset, but the communicative one will immediately begin to “get acquainted” with the new granny. An active baby will also not stand aside, but will try to take away and study the “new toy”.
You can also make a conclusion on how the crumb reacts to a new toy. The receptive warehouse of character does not allow you to immediately take a new thing in your hands - you first need to get used to it, look closely. Sensitive emotional children sometimes react to new things very violently, especially if this mechanical toy moves or makes sounds. It is possible that the baby will never accept her, bursting into tears on the day of the first acquaintance.
The communicative type of character is always happy with everything new, so if a kid happily accepts any toy from the hands of even an unfamiliar person, know that such a little man grows in you.
But if the crumb does not just enjoy the new thing, but seriously frowns the edge, trying to tear off the doll's head, or forcefully throws it on the floor, it should be concluded that he is not just hooligans, but trying to know what is inside her After all, this is an active type of character, and nothing can be done about it.
Other gradation of character types
Some psychologists consider it necessary to subdivide people differently than was described above. They believe that children should be divided into:
- with practicality
- prone to learning
- prone to management,
- talented craftsmen.
It is fairly easy to determine which of these types a particular child belongs to. One prefers to learn everything new, easy to train. Everything is clear and without clarification.
The other, regardless of his knowledge and skills, constantly lectures everyone, everywhere he is in front - the one who has led. It is clear that this is the future leader, after all, the tendency towards management is obvious. Although often learning and leadership coexist perfectly well in one person.
The third is very neat, scrupulous, obligatory in everything. This one certainly has practicality! But where is it written that he will not be inclined to learnability and there is not an ounce of desire to command in him?
Actually, it is quite difficult to find “pure” creators. Usually, artists and writers do not come from people who do not like to learn new things.
8 role types of character
And some psychologists believe that all children should be divided not into 4, but into 8 subgroups:
- secret leader,
- night watchman,
- hearth keeper
- hard worker.
A leader is a typical leader whose behavior patterns were considered above: initiative, freedom-loving, decisive.
An interesting type of "secret leader". He is a leader who does not know how to lead, he dreams of winning power, but he is inactive and does not possess any quality necessary for this. He usually implements his craving for family power. This is a family tyrant. And parents should pay special attention to this fact. After all, it is from these types of children that maniacs, home-grown sadists, and criminals are obtained. Therefore, sometimes you should even work with a psychologist to prevent undesirable consequences.
The artist is a creative person. Often in the team is the "black sheep". But with close people - relatives, friends, loved ones - artists are tender and immense.
The night watchman is an “owl”, active in the evenings, waking up in the mornings with difficulty, often an idle and fearful person.
Hunter - a tough personality, domineering, fast, active. In essence, this is a leader, but does not feel the desire for leadership. Therefore, despite the fact that he often heads the team, it is quite possible to act alone.
The keeper of the hearth is the same receptive type of a measured, pedantic performer. Hates innovations, loves animals, children, order in everything.
Politician - a pronounced communicative type. Sociable, greedy for praise, able to smooth out conflicts and easily solves life problems. But it may, out of boredom, create intrigue itself, make a scandal “out of nothing”. He studies well, but only in those subjects that are interesting to him. It requires careful attention to oneself, since one can never be sure that a “policy” comes to mind in the next minute.
The hard worker is a physically strong child, but with some deviations in mental and sometimes moral development. Motivated and pugnacious enough brave. With a lack of attention from educators and parents can grow into a bully and bully. But essentially kind. Therefore, with the right upbringing, an excellent family man arises from him, a good performer is a hard worker, in a word.
Summarizing the above, it can be noted that all types of characters are intertwined with each other, that each child is an individual. Therefore, there are no specific strict rules for all occasions. The educator is the creator of the personality, the sculptor of the soul. Поэтому от того, как точно он подберёт подход к конкретному ребёнку, зависит результат.
Еще в раннем возрасте можно заметить, что один ребенок отличается от другого не только визуально – рост, вес, цвет глаз. Дети различаются по типу темперамента. Темперамент не приобретается с возрастом, а является врожденной особенностью человека, поэтому его сложно изменить или скорректировать. But to know the temperament of the child is necessary - this will allow the child to properly understand and reckon with his features.
Temperament is the psychological characteristics of a person. The newborn child has already formed a nervous system, the individual characteristics of which in the future will affect the development of the psyche and the emotional nature of the child. In addition, temperament determines how quickly and correctly the child learns new information, whether he is diligent, what preferences he has and what kind of activity he is more inclined to.
Is temperament transmitted from parents
The temperament of the child is often similar to the temperament of one of the parents. Whether temperament is inherited or whether children simply copy the behavior of their parents - there is no definite answer. But many children inherit temperament from relatives, whom they have never even seen. Such a legacy is manifested not only in terms of temperament, but also in external similarity. Sometimes a child inherits temperament from both parents equally. This explains the emergence in the family of children of different types in temperament.
When temperament of the child is shown
In the first years of life, as a child grows and develops, acquires new knowledge and skills, his temperament changes and affects adaptability to the environment, as well as emotional self-expression. Upon reaching school age, the character of the child and his temperament are already more formed and obvious to people close to him, therefore, in the future, he should not change drastically. Inborn characteristics of a person do not depend on the pedagogical skills of parents. But still the behavior of a child of preschool age should be periodically subjected to a delicate adjustment by the parents.
Many scientists believe that the basic properties of the character and temperament of the child manifest themselves in the period of the formation of the personality - from 2 to 3 years. But to determine the type of temperament is possible only after 3-4 years. It cannot be said that a person is a representative of one type of temperament (sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric or melancholic). The division into 4 types is conditional. Psychologists say that all four types of temperament can be characteristic of one person, only one will still be in the lead.
1. Light character
Children with similar inclinations easily adapt to external conditions: they are calm, they are well accustomed to the daily routine, parents do not worry about how to put them to bed.
Such kids do not suffer from the fear of strangers, they feel great on their mother's hands. Grown up crumbs also cause no problems: they are friendly and easily infused into the children's team.
2. Average character
Babies with an “average” type of character are a little harder to get used to change, they have a negative attitude towards strangers.
Parents will have to put more effort to accustom the crumbs to a certain mode, put to sleep. However, in general, such children do not give mom and dad much trouble.
3. Heavy character
“Heavy-character” children categorically do not observe the daily routine, they adapt to new conditions of life with great difficulty, constantly require parental attention.
Such kids are often called “tame”, they most often react extremely negatively to strangers. Yes, and it is incredibly difficult to put a child in the crib, so sometimes falling asleep turns into a marathon lasting many hours, after which the mother feels practically exhausted.
Characteristics of the character of newborns: 5 main types
We, in turn, identified five types of character of the child, based on the main personality traits inherent in newborn babies.
Our classification will help you to understand which features and qualities are especially pronounced for your children. Such information will certainly be useful in the difficult process of educating children.
1. Sunny child
You brought home a tiny ray of happiness and joy from the hospital? Some kids are good-natured and docile in all respects. Most likely, your sunny baby is strong and healthy, has excellent appetite and is not naughty when laying.
Such crumbs positively relate to the touch of strangers, come to the real delight of travel, new situations. However, remember that even the most unpretentious and cheerful baby needs a sense of security and safety. In general, we can say that you were lucky - the real sun settled in your family.
2. Grumpy baby
Is your child more like a grumpy old man than a sweet little angel? It seems he is always dissatisfied with everything, no matter what you do? Some babies are very difficult to please, even if mom spends so much effort on it.
First of all, you need to satisfy the physical needs of the child, to make sure that he is well-fed and rested. Already then it is necessary to work what to create for the crumbs a calm, predictable environment, adhering to the schedule convenient for it.
Such a grumpy baby has a negative attitude to new situations, so treat this particular character with understanding.
3. Sensitive child
If your child is sensitive to every loud sound or the appearance of a stranger, we can say that you have a super sensitive baby. His tears cannot be explained by banal colic, it just gives a much brighter response to any stimulus or stimulus.
Try to predict how the child will behave in new or not so pleasant situations. Stick to a set schedule whenever possible, and gently let your baby down to the inevitable “trouble”.
For example, gently and gently speak with the baby, stroke him before entering a room full of strangers.
Thus, you can facilitate his addiction to the children's team at an older age.
And, of course, consult a pediatrician to make sure that the whims and tears of the child are not associated with real diseases.
4. Energetic baby
Some kids "give heat" in the womb. If your newborn every minute tends to move, kick, kick, knock off its legs and arms, it's safe to say that you have an energetic kid growing up. He is quite demanding and loud and is likely to become ahead of the norms of physical development.
An energetic baby before his peers will begin to turn on his tummy, crawl and sit down. Therefore, try to create an environment at home so that the baby can safely and safely explore the world.
To avoid problems with falling asleep and eating, find activities that calm your energetic child. Perhaps he likes to hear you sing or read fairy tales, does he like to take a bath? At bedtime, such a child is best to swaddle so that he can fall asleep faster.
5. Predictable child
Of course, there is no “typical” baby, but some babies are quite predictable in their actions and desires. Such a child reaches the age standards strictly on schedule - not too early and not too late. His whims are justified: for example, the crumb will sulk if tired or hungry, but will not cry without a reason.
A predictable child adapts quite easily to the environment, and you can always find advice on his education in any psychological book.
Of course, it is not easy to find an exact description of the nature of the newborn baby, since each baby is already a bright personality.
That is why the previously shy and quiet baby can subsequently become an energetic and sociable preschooler. Monitoring the characteristics of the nature of your offspring will help you find its strengths and overcome weaknesses. In general, try to love the crumb the way it is - with all its advantages and disadvantages.
How to determine the nature of the child: 4 simple test
Absolutely all parents without exception are always interested to know what the nature of their child is. This will help identify the simplest popular tests that will reveal to you all the secrets of thinking of your child.
This applies to both girls and boys. The simplest tests will show how the child thinks in difficult situations. These tests are absolutely painless from all points of view. They are simple and understandable for you and harmless to the child. Some tests will help identify the leader, some will help assess the creative potential of the individual. Anyway. You will get answers to all or most of your questions about the nature of the child and the type of behavior.
Why do you need it
The nature of the child is recognized in order to direct him on the right path in life. For example, if a child is dynamic and has a large supply of energy, then he can be given to the sport. If he thinks super non-standard, then his path lies through creativity. Whatever your child, he can find his true path in life. Your task is to help him or her use his character’s strengths for his own benefit.
When you know your child well, you understand what you can expect from him in a given situation. You will stop scolding the child for some mistakes and will begin to be encouraged for some special victories. Education will be more effective, so it is necessary to analyze the child.
Test one: determination of left-handed or right-handed
Only your observation is important here. At first, when the child is still quite small. Need to watch him. After one and a half or two years, the baby begins to manifest itself from this point of view. The hemispheres of his brain are becoming more active, so you can find out which of them is responsible for the image-motor functions.
Up to 3-4 years is better to just watch the child, but then you can ask him or her to do a couple of simple exercises:
- cross your arms (the one above the main),
- collect fingers into the lock (the thumb determines the main hand when it closes the other thumb from above).
These two exercises are needed not even to determine left-handed or right-handed, but to determine the ambidexterity of the baby. This term means that a person uses two hands at the same time. If your child opens something with his right hand, throws everything with his right hand, but these two simple tests show that he is left-handed, then your child is left-handed and right-handed.
The definition of left-handers and right-handers is very important, because many scientists believe that it is impossible to re-educate a child in any case. If he is left-handed, then let it remain. If it is ambidexter, then you can try to retrain. The fact is that it is better to leave the developed hemisphere developed, after all, left-handers grow up as creative people, while right-handers choose more standard directions of development.
Test Two: Leadership
It is important to understand how the child views the majority opinion. For this test, you will need at least three adults and a child. To speak about the test, of course, is not necessary. The recommended age of the child is 5-6 years.
You cook porridge at all. Porridge must be necessarily sweet. Everyone sits down at the table and starts to eat. Then one of the adults says that the porridge is salty. Then the other and the third and so on. You demonstratively try porridge and pretend that it is really salty, but not sweet. Then transfer attention to the child, and then ask him what he thinks about porridge. Here it is important to track his actions:
- if the child fully agrees with you from the first time that the porridge is salty and not sweet, it will mean that they sacrifice their opinion for the common good. They do not want to be different from everyone, so they will not contradict you,
- If the child shows any doubts, but then still recognizes that the porridge is salty, then this will mean that a real diplomat grows out of him. The child tried porridge again and made sure that she was sweet, but decided not to talk about it. So do not very many
- if the child will fight for the truth, then he is a real leader. It is important for him or her to prove that he or she is right. This shows the strength of character that will eventually develop into something positive.
There are no bad outcomes here either, because we are all different. The first type of children does not mean that they will be led all their lives. It’s just easier for them to agree than to waste their energy on idle chatter or searching for evidence.
Test Three: Definition of Introverts and Extraverts
Introvert - a person who is focused on himself. This is not an egoist, as many supporters of clichés and stereotypes believe. Such people think very deeply.
An extrovert is a sociable person who can easily turn to the people around for help. Share your feelings.
It is better to do this test either after 5 years of age, or twice in three years and after 5 years. For young children will need a set to build a house of colorful cubes or parts. For those who are already "big" will need a picture for coloring.
Little test subjects need to build a house, and those who are bigger need to color the drawing as they wish. Next, we look at the results:
- extroverts assemble a house from parts of a chaotic color. When they paint a picture, they often go beyond the field, they are careless,
- Introverts make buildings of about the same colors. When they paint a picture, they are extremely careful, so they never go beyond the bounds of the lines, or at least try.
Test Four: Strength Test
A child must be 5 years or more. Every kid has a favorite sweetness. The test is to give the child sweetness, but do not allow it to eat from the very beginning. First, you explain to the child the rules of the game: if he or she lasts for 15-20 minutes, sitting in front of a yummy, then you give the baby another tasty thing. A child can eat it right away, but get nothing more. You need to sit still and do nothing, that is, the baby cannot go about his business.
Ideal conditions are when there are several test children. The winner is the one who will stay the longest and not eat what lies before him. If you have friends with children of about the same age, then it is better to do so. If not, you can use the first option.
What are the possible outcomes:
- the child immediately eats yummy,
- the child thinks for a long time, then eats,
- the child suffers and gets more.
If the “present” was immediately eaten, then the child will be very generous in life and very simple in communication, in work. Those who first suffered, but then ate goodies, are people inclined to analyze. They weighed the pros and cons for a long time, but then they realized that it was better to take everything now. This is the most common type of children. Those who knew how to wait are very strong emotionally. It will be difficult to catch them in adult life. They are economical and always think a couple of steps forward. Such a little less than a third.
So, all these four tests can be easily carried out at home by yourself. This is their charm. For a child, they may also be interesting. You will learn something new about your son or daughter that will allow you to start developing the right habits, choose a sport for your child, an interesting activity. Good luck and don't forget to press the buttons and
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These kids are very vulnerable and ready to cry for any reason, and for no reason. Parents of sad crumbs need to be made so that all changes relating to the baby, proceeded very smoothly and almost imperceptibly for him, because any changes for such a child - a kind of stress. And as you grow up, you need to teach the child to the fact that change is inevitable, and you should not be afraid of it.
It is very easy to recognize a capricious baby: he quickly gets tired of everything, he may not get off his parent’s hands all day and cry for no apparent reason. As they grow up, parents should carefully adjust the character of the baby, identifying the positive traits of his character and develop them through praise.
The child is under constant protection.
In this case, the parents of the newborn baby are always on the alert: all the needs of the baby are met in a timely manner, the child feels the constant presence of the parents, which means that he feels comfortable and safe. With this approach of parents to education, the child will undoubtedly grow up with the most positive traits of character - self-confident, kind, and responsive.
The child is left to himself
In this case, unfortunately, the newborn child is very often ignored: they try to pay less attention to whims and crying, they rarely take it in their arms, they practically don’t try to calm the child, arguing that the child will calm himself. Such an approach will lead to the fact that the child, not knowing love and attention, will grow up cruel and indifferent.
The child is often punished
In this case, the parents can not agree among themselves, and make the most terrible mistakes - praise and scold the baby for the same action. For example, a mother regrets a baby when he fell and it hurts him, while his father at this time scolds him for not paying attention and not looking at his feet. Such an approach will lead to the fact that the child will grow up very insecure, doubting all decisions made and actions performed.
Конечно, бывают такие черты характера, которые ребенок легко может унаследовать от близких родственников – родителей, бабушек и дедушек. Но главная роль в формировании характера маленького человека принадлежит родителям. Только от них зависит, каким вырастет их дитя, насколько он будет добрым, справедливым и открытым. The sooner the mother of a newborn baby understands the traits of his character, the easier it will be for her to make contact with her baby and guide the upbringing of the child in the right direction.
1. Little rebel
This baby certainly can not be called appeasable. He quickly gets tired of everything and is often naughty for no apparent reason. Such a kid delivers a lot of trouble to his parents, who do not know what surprise can be expected from him.
The first advice to the parents of the "little rebel": do not be upset. Encouraging good behavior plays a huge role in shaping the character of a capricious child. Notice the positive traits and focus on them.
2. Active kid
Such kids strive to break the mode of the day, which they are entitled to! And with respect to such children, all perseverance is contraindicated. The actions to be taken must be soft and not coercive. Only such measures can give the desired result! If you succeed in gently training an active child to order, it will also help develop his independence in adult life.
3. Sad baby
If your child reacts very sharply to every slightest change in his environment, and any changes in life make him cry, then you have a representative like “Sad Baby.” Here in the behavior of parents just need to add smoothness and regularity. This means that every change should occur as imperceptibly as possible with partial preservation of the old conditions. The main thing is to make it clear to the kid that in his life there is still a lot of new things waiting for him, and you should not be afraid of that!
4. Gentle baby
This type can be attributed to babies with a very sensitive perception of the environment. They sharply react to loud, harsh sounds, bright light, etc. Parents of such children are advised to protect their child from external stimuli and from communication with people alien to your child and causing his negative reaction.
5. Small adult
Such a character is easy to distinguish. If your baby often frowns and rarely smiles, then it can be attributed to this type. Here your observation can play the main role. Carefully follow the child: if he frowns, but it does not show that he is uncomfortable, then there is nothing to worry about. If the baby’s gloomy expression is accompanied by crying, this can serve as a signal of health problems and the need to see a doctor.
Of course, among the readers of this article may be those who have not seen a suitable description of the nature of the newborn. And it is completely natural! After all, loving parents will always consider their child unique! Therefore, the most practical advice is this: love and give warmth to your child every minute. Then all the problems that will occur on this difficult path of raising a child will not seem so serious.
By the way, if you work as a class teacher at a school, head teacher, a psychologist-teacher or a social teacher, then you often need to write characteristics on your students (psychological, pedagogical and psychological-pedagogical), describe personal qualities, character traits of the student, and young teachers sometimes causes difficulties. So, now the writing of characteristics of any kind is not a problem, we found a selection of 70 (!) Templates with samples and recommendations for writing characteristics - 70 characteristic templates + forms, templates and recommendations for writing them - http://5psy.ru/raznoe /psixologicheskaya-xarakteristika-uchenika.html.
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The concept of character and temperament
Temperament - these are the features of the human nervous system, given to him at birth. Properties of temperament are visible in deeds, emotional behavior. Temperament, as well as life experience acquired, is the foundation that forms the basis for character formation.
Character is a combination of all mental personality characteristics, especially their manifestation is noticeable in the actions and emotional behavior of the baby. The following circumstances have a significant effect on the formation of character in children:
- education in the family (personal example of parents),
- communication outside the family (kindergarten, school).
From the moment of birth begins the formation of the characteristic features of the baby, whose further behavior will depend on the people around him. The initial observation of parents, as significant adults in his life, goes later to copy their behaviors.
If in a family all issues are resolved with the help of a shout, it is not surprising that the baby demonstrates aggressive behavior. An apple does not fall far from an apple tree - this popular wisdom confirms that everything good or bad in a person’s character originates in the family.
For the formation of the necessary behavioral traits, it is necessary from early childhood to bring up a strong harmonious personality, to correct the shortcomings of character that have arisen due to the influence of the environment. Children 4-5 years old are sensitive to the advice of parents. With children of preschool age, in order to form positive character traits, actions and actions that should be performed in various situations should be discussed.
Types of temperament
Knowing the strengths and weaknesses of temperament, you can develop, strengthen the useful properties of the character and correct deficiencies. There are 4 main types of temperament:
- Sanguine - kind, active, cheerful, easily learns new knowledge. Practically not naughty. Sanguine are leaders in companies. When excessive care can grow inactive performers.
- Phlegmatic - calm, thorough, never in a hurry. Pretty inert: such a child needs time to get used to the new changes. To educate the phlegmatic person is one of the most “convenient objects". It is enough for him to set a task for the kid to start concentrating on her decision. The main problem is slowness and slowness in action.
- Choleric - very emotional, overly excitable. Its activity resembles a sanguine person. Disadvantages: it quickly lights up, and then it easily gives up the work begun, without bringing it to completion. Very conflicted, does not like quiet activities. Such children are prone to adventurous actions.
- Melancholic - vulnerable, shy, it is difficult to find a common language in the new team. Creative person with a rich imagination. Positive features: punctuality, non-conflict. It is difficult for such a kid to find friends, the task of parents is to help him improve relations with others.
It should be understood that temperament is an innate property of a person that cannot be changed. Temperament is not the cause of bad inclinations. How to bring up the character of the child - this question is of concern not only to the parents. Proper education will help direct character flaws into a constructive direction. Negative moments can be offset by the development of strengths of character.
Types of character
If all scientists and teachers agree with the division of temperament in 4 types, then the gradation according to the types of character causes disputes.
- Sensitive type. Hypersensitivity, increased emotionality. Excessive demands on themselves, along with low self-esteem, lead to insecurity, the fear of doing something wrong. The slightest mistake is experienced as a catastrophe. Very shy, afraid to start any relationship. Any criticism to your address is very difficult.
Communicating with a baby with increased sensitivity requires special tact and attention: you should not scold him or talk to him in elevated tones. The kid intuitively understands the mood of the parent by the expression of the face. It is worth still in early childhood to cultivate self-esteem, increase self-esteem. It is necessary to explain that everyone has failures, the main thing is not to give up and look for a way out of the situation.
- Active type Curious, restless, sociable kid. The main thing is action. He will not sit and dream, his element is movement. Keeping it in place is almost impossible. It should be for a short time to leave the baby unattended, he will definitely come up with a new game that can be life-threatening.
Punishment can cause not only bitterness, but also a response in the form of hysteria and threats. A useful business can be carried away from new pranks, for success in which a kid should definitely be praised. From an early age one should bring up responsibility for his actions and deeds in him, direct irrepressible energy into a useful channel. And the result of this approach to education will please parents in the future. Being able to control themselves, active, purposeful people achieve a lot in life.
- Communicative type. Close enough to active type. Emotions are secondary, the main thing is actions and deeds. A communicative child never seeks to command, he is not interested. It is important for him to find, research something new. He likes to get new toys and meet new people. Such children are constantly clinging to different things, but not one is brought to the end. They do not recognize the order and schedule of the day.
Perseverance, patience - those qualities of character that should be developed in a communicative child. Often take breaks in classes, invent new interesting things.
- Receptive type. They are loved by teachers and educators. Their behavior is the pride of their parents. They easily wake up, go to school with pleasure. Never forget to wash and brush your teeth. They do everything on schedule, like to follow the instructions of adults. The kid of receptive type has the property to experience and sympathize, sensitively catches the emotions of others.
Totally unable to take initiative. When a situation arises that requires an immediate solution, it is lost and stops any action. As early as possible should be raised independence. Learn to make a choice: which movie to watch, which gift to choose, to trust the child to pay for small purchases in the store.
Watching the behavior of children, everyone can see not only positive, but also negative traits.
Honesty, attentiveness, respect for others - these moral qualities are transferred from parents, who by their own example form the moral basis of behavior. The ability to fight back, stand up for themselves, stand up for friends - all of this children learn, communicating with their peers.
Pedagogical science has systematized and formulated the basic principles of character formation in children. Only when applying an individual approach can you achieve the best result. It is necessary to take into account the age of children. A child of 5-6 years old requires a different relationship than a baby of 2-3 years.
The main determining role - parents. No one can do more for a baby than a significant adult. This imposes a certain responsibility on the parents themselves. It is not enough just to love your child. We must be demanding of ourselves, set a good example not in words but in deeds, because the kid is watching the behavior of the parents. And if in words the parents teach respect for the elderly, and in the bus they do not give way to the grandmother, the child will take this model of behavior as a basis. In the character of the baby will appear such features as lies and rudeness.
- A game. The first years of life consist of games, so there is no specific time to play and to educate. The games themselves develop the disposition of the baby. After playing in the cubes or cars, you can offer to remove the equipment in the garage, as adults do. Offer to care for flowers, because in one of them lived Thumbelina. What if she comes back? Flowers must wait for the hostess. So in the game you can create cleanliness, diligence.
- The establishment of boundaries. Having barely learned to crawl, the baby begins to check the boundaries of his world: what can be done and what cannot. He reaches for the sockets, tries to reach the glass vase, puts all the toys he finds in his mouth. Not always border violation is safe for the baby. Therefore, it is important to promptly explain and show him what can and can not be done. The established rules should be strictly followed. Very often, restrictions, prohibitions protect children from unpleasant consequences and make their lives easier.
- Classes in circles and sections. A great way to form a character is to write a child into a section or circle. To attend classes will require discipline, responsibility. To achieve the results, purposefulness and responsibility are formed. Independence will be formed when the child starts on his own, unaccompanied by adults.
- Group education. Communicating and interacting with children in the yard, in kindergarten, the child forms new character abilities. The ability to make friends and share, interpersonal skills or isolation - all this is manifested in the group. The task of adults is to direct the baby to the path of correct education. Simple rules of communication in such groups will be the basis for the formation of such features as responsibility, decisiveness.
- Creating conditions for the formation of character traits. To develop and shape the character of the child, stable behavioral traits, it is necessary to remember that skills are consolidated only with constant repetition. It is necessary to gradually add the load to better consolidate the positive features: not once to remove the toys, but to do it all the time.
The nature of the child is formed in the joint work of parents and teachers. Negative features of character can be changed, but it takes time. No need to hurry and put pressure on the baby. Requires sensitivity, sensitivity and patience. The most important thing for a child is to know that they love him.
The set of formed features will become the basis for the formation of a successful personality.