Gynecology

How to recognize the symptoms of cysts on the ovary?

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Pain in the lower abdomen and an irregular menstrual cycle should alert every woman. Ovarian cyst in women - A serious disease of the urogenital system, which does not always have pronounced symptoms, but will necessarily lead to serious consequences without timely treatment.

What is an ovarian cyst? This tumor is a small diameter in which fluid accumulates. Placed on the ovary, the formation occurs from a mature follicle. Many cystic formations do not constitute a serious threat to the health of the woman, they are temporary, and disappear on their own. This type of neoplasm on the ovaries is called functional cysts.

Causes of ovarian cysts in women

The cause of the appearance of functional cysts is a violation of the ovulation process. In the absence of pathological processes, inflammation of the appendages and diseases of the genitourinary system, temporary cysts are themselves. But, if one of the above pathologies is present, the neoplasm may burst, there is a risk of its twisting and the development of internal bleeding. These complications require the immediate hospitalization of women and treatment.

The second type of cyst is abnormal tumors. The reason for their appearance on the ovaries - a violation of hormone production. An abnormal tumor is called, which does not pass on its own three months after its appearance. For their treatment used drug therapy or surgery. It all depends on the severity of the process and the presence of possible complications.

More details about the causes of ovarian cyst will tell you the professor, MD Ter-Ovakimyan Armen Eduardovich:

Types of neoplasms

Ovarian cyst is a benign tumor (neoplasm). The reason for the occurrence is an excessive accumulation of secretion produced by the tissues of the ovaries. In the absence of cyst pressure on the internal organs of the genitourinary system, medication is prescribed for treatment. If there is a high risk of developing pathologies of neighboring organs, an operation is performed to remove a cyst. The size of tumors range from a few millimeters to 12 cm.

  • Follicular type - a tumor is formed in the absence of ovulation. This type of formation is found mainly in young girls of puberty (puberty).
  • Neoplasm on the yellow body. Formed due to a violation of the process of outflow of blood, because of which in the center of the yellow body is the accumulation of hemorrhagic fluid. The size of the cyst is from 6 to 8 cm.
  • Cyst paraovarial (mucinous) type - is localized on the appendages and fallopian tube. The tumor has one chamber and thin walls. The size is 12-20 cm.
  • A dermoid type cyst is a special type of neoplasm in which hair, fatty cellular tissue, and parts of cartilage can accumulate. The tumor is closed in a thick capsule. One of the largest types of tumors, which reaches a diameter of 15 cm.
  • Endometrioid ovarian cyst. Formed in the endometrium, which grows on the ovaries. The largest type of cyst. Sizes from 4 to 20 cm.

Causes of ovarian cyst formation in women:

  • Early puberty (11 years old).
  • Improper maturation of the ovarian follicle.
  • Hypothyroidism, an imbalance of the hormonal system.
  • Numerous cases of medical abortion.
  • Cycle irregularity.
  • Cases of recurrence of cysts.
  • Taking Tamoxifen (prescribed for the treatment of breast tumors).
  • Uneven fat accumulation. Deposits accumulate in the upper body.

In women who use oral hormonal drugs as contraceptives, cyst formation occurs much less frequently. This is due to the active work of the eggs.

Clinical picture

Ovarian cysts, the symptoms of which may not appear for an extended period of time, are detected on a routine inspection. The first symptoms appear when a cyst is formed, the size of which exceeds 4 cm. Large neoplasms, pressing on the organs of the urogenital system, provoke discomfort and pain that women cannot ignore. Signs of ovarian cysts:

  • Sudden pain in the lower abdomen. Appears pain during intercourse, or after physical labor.
  • Frequent urination, which are false.
  • In some women, the growth of tumors can cause a sharp weight gain.
  • Feeling nauseous, gagging.
  • Heat.
  • Feeling of tension and pain in the stomach.
  • Tachycardia.
  • Discharge of blood clots.
  • Violation of the menstrual cycle.

Pain syndrome is localized on one side of the abdomen. Many women note an unpleasant feeling of heaviness in the pelvic region. When a cyst ruptures or is twisted, the pain suddenly increases, gives to the coccyx and rectum. Pain occurs during urination.

Frequent urging to the toilet due to the fact that the tumor exerts pressure on the bladder. May cause constipation. When a tumor builds up on the blood vessels surrounding the ovary, varicose veins develop.

Irregular onset of menstruation is characterized by a long absence of menstruation, not associated with the onset of pregnancy. In severe cases, an ovarian cyst whose symptoms are expressed in violation of the cycle, can provoke amenorrhea - the complete absence of menstruation. Menstruation in women are very painful, differ in the abundance of discharge, up to uterine bleeding.

Another sign of ovarian cyst development is hirsutism. (pictured below is a woman with hirsutism). In women, facial hair begins to grow intensely, the voice becomes coarser, the clitoris increases in size. The reason for the development of hirsutism is the pressure of the cyst on the ovary, which, in turn, begins to produce an increased amount of male hormone.

Signs of ovarian twist and rupture

The reason for the rupture or twisting of ovarian cyst in women is sudden movements, excessive physical activity, too active lovemaking. The main symptom is severe pain in the lower abdomen. Rupture of neoplasms is dangerous for health, if rupture requires immediate hospitalization of a woman.

Ovarian rupture - symptoms:

  • Excessive bleeding. It occurs in case of a cyst grazing in the deep veins.
  • Unbearable abdominal pain. Arises on the side where there was a neoplasm. Combat syndrome gives into the rectum and lower extremity.
  • Sudden decrease in pressure due to the discovery of severe bleeding.
  • General weakness of the body.
  • Symptoms of severe intoxication.
  • Dizziness.
  • Fainting.
  • The emergence of cold sweat.

The severity of pain syndrome in the twisting of the ovary depends on the degree of rotation. The greater the degree of rotation - the more pain. There is a rapid intoxication of the body. A woman's body temperature rises rapidly, vomiting begins. Without timely medical care, peritonitis begins. If the leg of the cyst is rotated 90 degrees, the symptoms will gradually increase.

The leg of the cyst can twist around itself. In this case, the circulatory process is disturbed in the small pelvis. The patient has a sudden vomiting, acute pain. A symptomatic picture may occur suddenly, or it may be progressive, and a woman may not immediately understand what is happening to her, confusing her condition with poisoning.

Treatment methods

Symptoms and treatment of ovarian cysts depend on its characteristics. Leaving a tumor without treatment, which did not disappear on its own within a few months, is extremely dangerous for health. Many cysts, despite the fact that the education is benign, can lead to the development of malignant tumors, and cause female infertility.

A tumor formed on the corpus luteum and the follicular type of a neoplasm is treated with medication. For this type of cysts, the waiting tactics are used, the behavior of the cyst is studied. In the absence of growth of education, the patient is prescribed a vitamin course, oral contraceptives of a monophasic type are prescribed. Vitamins that contribute to the treatment of ovarian cysts - vitamins A, B1, B6, C, K. Self-medication can lead to serious complications.

An important role in the treatment of ovarian cysts and formations on the yellow body, is played by physiotherapy and therapeutic diet. In the absence of a positive result from these methods of treatment, the patient will be asked to remove the cyst by surgical intervention.

Surgical removal of an ovarian cyst is carried out in the case of the formation of a dermoid, mucinous and endometrioid type of cyst. Depending on the size of the cyst and the presence of complications, the operation can be performed with a large incision, or by laparoscopy.

The main methods of surgical removal of cysts:

  • Laparoscopy is the most common type of surgery. It is used only when there is no pathological processes of a malignant nature in the cyst (in this case, the cyst is removed only by a band operation).
  • Ovariectomy method - used for serious complications. Implies a complete removal of the ovary with a cyst.
  • Tubectomy - removal of the fallopian tube, which formed the tumor.
  • Conduct adnexectomy - removal of all adnexal organs of the reproductive system.
  • Cystectomy procedure - surgical removal of an ovarian cyst with maximum preservation of the soft tissues of the ovary. The capsule of the cyst is taken from the tissue bed in which it is located, while the soft tissue of the ovary is preserved and functioning without changes.
  • Conducting a wedge resection - complete removal of the ovary with the surrounding soft tissues.
  • Biopsy - a procedure for taking biological material - part of the cellular tissue of the ovary. Conducted in case of suspected malignant nature of the tumor.

All types of cysts, except follicular neoplasms, are to be removed from women who are planning a pregnancy. This is due to the increased risk of rapid growth of cysts during pregnancy due to the active production of hormones. The tumor is removed surgically in women who are in menopause or menopause, as there is a high risk of malignant tumors.

After the operation, a rehabilitation period follows, during which physiotherapeutic procedures are prescribed. In some cases, the patient is prescribed homeopathic medicines.

Folk remedies

All recipes, using medicinal herbs, can be used exclusively as an additional treatment to the main one - medical, or during the recovery period after surgery. Before using the chosen method of treating ovarian cyst with folk remedies, it is imperative that you consult with your doctor. Any self-medication can cause serious harm to the body.

The following folk herbs and flowers are used to treat cysts:

Dandelion roots, juice from its stem, or leaves can be used to prepare agents that promote resorption of a follicular cyst. To prepare a dandelion tincture of water, you will need thoroughly washed and dried roots, which must be ground in a blender, grinder, or cut into small pieces with a knife. Pour the ingredient with a glass of boiling water, insist 15-20 minutes. Before use, pass through cheesecloth, cool to room temperature. Take a third of the glass in the morning for an hour before meals, and a few hours after the evening meal. The course is 5 days before the onset of menstruation.

Borovaya uterus - a well-known healing herb in gynecology, which has a therapeutic effect on the internal organs of the genitourinary system. Relieves inflammation, helps restore ovarian function and normals hormones. The same spectrum of action has a red brush and a wintergreen. Recipes healing tinctures and decoctions based on these herbs are the same.

You will need a teaspoon of dried grass (uterine boron, red brush, or wintergreen), which is stirred in a glass of boiling water. Insist 20 minutes. Before use, strain, cool to room temperature. For effective treatment of tumors and other gynecological diseases, it is important to carefully follow the course of taking decoction:

  1. The first week of admission is to drink a third of a glass of broth from the uterus boronov morning, afternoon and evening for an hour before meals.
  2. The second week - a red brush is taken, in the same dosage as the first week.
  3. The third week - taking the decoction based on a wintergreen (repeating previous dosages).

During the monthly broths do not take, continue the course after their completion. To enhance the healing effect of decoctions, it is recommended to add a teaspoon of honey to the decoction, or a few drops of vitamin E, which can be purchased at the pharmacy.

For the preparation of decoctions of burdock will need its juice, which can be obtained from the squeeze of leaves. The leaves are washed under running water, dried, torn into small pieces, and passed through a meat grinder. The resulting gruel is good to give. You can immediately skip the pieces of leaves through a juicer. Burdock juice must be stored in a can on the shelf of the refrigerator. Shelf life - no more than three days.

Burdock juice for the treatment of ovarian cyst must be a special course:

  1. The first two for after menstruation take a teaspoon before lunch and dinner.
  2. The third and fourth days after menstruation - a teaspoon of juice in the morning, afternoon and evening.
  3. From the fifth day after the end to the first day of the beginning of the next menstrual period, take a tablespoon of juice three times a day.

Do not take juice during menstruation. When menstruation is over, a woman needs to do an ultrasound to monitor the effectiveness of burdock juice when treating an ovarian cyst. The course of administration is repeated several times.

Ovarian cyst is a dangerous dangerous pathology left without treatment, can cause serious complications, up to the development of oncological tumors. Every woman should be extremely attentive to her health, and when the slightest, atypical signs and symptoms appear, you should seek medical help.

CHECK YOUR HEALTH:

It does not take a lot of time, according to the results you will have an idea about the state of your health.

What is an ovarian cyst?

A cyst on the ovary is a round, benign tumor in the form of a cavity containing a transparent secretory fluid. Such bubbles can appear both in the ovary itself and on its surface.

Most tumors disappear without treatment for several cycles of menstruation. But there are cystic cavities that do not dissolve, but accumulate fluid and grow, reaching a size of 20 cm in diameter.

Most often pathology develops in women of productive age. After menopause, the likelihood of the appearance of a functional cyst is almost minimal. Exceptions are congenital formations, they can show up at any age.

Usually, except for irregular and painful menstruation, an ovarian cyst does not manifest itself. Women learn about her existence by chance during a medical examination. Often, these cavities prevent conception and are detected during examination to identify the causes of infertility.

But the cyst is not always harmless. Growing and inflaming, it delivers strong pain, squeezes the internal organs, disrupts the usual rhythm of life. If the cavity bursts or twists, it threatens with bleeding, peritonitis, and surgery.

Types of ovarian cysts

A cyst is able to form on the right, left and on both ovaries at once. The appearance of several cystic formations is possible and then diagnosed. polycystic.

A cyst may occur due to impaired follicle maturation. This is a follicular, hemorrhagic, luteal (corpus luteum) cyst. Such an education is prone to self-resorption and can be easily cured with proper therapy.

Non-functional educationconsisting of altered tissues (dermoid, endometrioid tumor) most often provoke complications and are usually removed after detection.

Yellow body cyst

During ovulation, a healthy follicle, releasing an egg cell, turns into a gland (corpus luteum), produces a hormone, and then dies. When the process is disturbed, the follicle continues to accumulate fluid and grow. This forms the cyst of the corpus luteum.

This type often occurs as a result of hormonal changes after taking the drug Postinor or drugs to stimulate ovulation. Also, luteal cyst can develop from the abuse of low-calorie diets.

Signs of this type of education are failure of the monthly cycle and pain in the groin area.

Typically, the pathology passes over several cycles of menstruation.

Follicular cyst

Follicular cyst is one of the most common types of benign ovarian formations. It is formed from a ripe follicle with an impaired ovulation process and an egg release.

Education occurs only in one of the ovaries and does not degenerate into malignant.

A small sized follicular cyst is accompanied by irregular monthly, bloody daubs and soreness in the intervals between cycles.

Larger sizes make themselves felt with high temperature, pain in the lower half of the abdomen during active sexual contact and physical exertion.

There is a follicular tumor as a result of hormonal changes caused by pregnancy, fertility drug therapy, contraceptive use.

Also, the development of cysts is influenced by inflammatory processes in the organs of the reproductive system, which has arisen due to surgical intervention, infection, blood circulation disorders.

Such tumors can be a congenital abnormality. This happens if the mother's hormones change during the period of pregnancy or childbirth. In half of the cases, the congenital follicular cyst disappears two months after birth.

Endometrial cyst

Endometriotic cells that have fallen on the surface of the ovary, with each monthly cycle begin to grow rapidly and accumulate blood in themselves. These overgrown cells with darkened blood contents are the endometriotic cyst.

This type of education appears more often in nonpartum women of productive age.

An endometrioid cyst is diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound, which allows it to be distinguished from dermoid and luteal tumors. Also need a blood test for cancer.

Symptomatic signs of pathology are manifested in the form of minor bleeding in the intervals between menstruation, pain, aggravated by sexual contact or with increased stress. Unsuccessful attempts at conception can also be attributed to the symptoms of an endometrial tumor.

Dermoid ovarian cyst

Dermoid ovarian cyst looks like an oval, less commonly a rounded neoplasm with a thickened membrane and containing mucus-like fluid with parts of hair, fat, and teeth.

Such a pathology can be revealed at any age, but more often teenagers and women face it after the onset of menopause. In most cases, the dermoid cavity is a congenital abnormality and is formed at the time of intrauterine development.

Such a tumor develops over the years and usually goes unnoticed until it reaches an impressive size.

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Then there are such signs:

  1. Violation of intestinal motility
  2. Frequent urination, with pain and burning sensation
  3. Feels heavy and aching pain in the lower abdomen.
  4. There may be an increase in the size of the abdomen.
  5. The dermoid cyst has no effect on the menstrual cycle.

If the formation is inflamed, then the woman grows weak, there is a sharp pain in the lower abdomen, and fever begins.

Paraovarial cyst

The paraovarian cyst arises from the tissue of the appendage and is located between the ovary and the uterus tube. It is a congenital anomaly and is found in adolescents and women aged 25 to 40 years.

A feature of this formation is the inability of the cavity to dissolve, but the paravarial cyst also cannot be reborn into a cancer tumor either.

A small neoplasm that does not cause pain, as a rule, is not treated. A cyst of considerable size is subject to planned removal using laparoscopy.

Long-term exposure to ultraviolet rays and the abuse of hot baths can provoke an increase in the size of the paravarial tumor.

Cyst of the right ovary

Cystic formation in the right ovary may appear as a result of surgical intervention when an appendix is ​​removed and is characterized by the appearance of the following symptoms:

  • insufficient volume of urine with frequent urging,
  • the appearance of abdominal pain on the right,
  • excretion of blood in between cycles
  • increased tone of the anterior abdominal wall.

Cyst of the left ovary

The presence of a cystic tumor on the left ovary can be determined by the presence of such signs:

  • feeling of heaviness in the abdomen,
  • left abdomen soreness
  • ineffectual trips to the toilet,
  • blood in the middle of the cycle and pain
  • developing fullness.

Inflammatory diseases of the intestinal sections can provoke the appearance of a cavity in the left ovary.

Why ovarian cyst occurs?

The cause of the development of cystic cavities in the ovaries has not yet been fully studied, but most often the pathology appears under the influence of such factors as:

  • hormonal changes with increased production of male hormones,
  • endocrine system diseases
  • hereditary factors
  • congenital anomaly,
  • damage to the abdomen as a result of surgery or injury,
  • inflammation or infection of the reproductive organs,
  • low body resistance to infections,
  • impaired blood supply to the pelvic organs.

Risk factors

Pathologies are more susceptible to women of reproductive age. With the onset of menopause, the risk of neoplasms is dramatically reduced.

The greatest likelihood of a tumor developing in the ovaries is observed if there are the following reasons:

  • early puberty
  • the use of Tamoxifen for the treatment of oncology,
  • overweight,
  • failure in the hormonal system
  • irregularity of the monthly cycle,
  • prolonged psychological stress,
  • infertility, abortion or history of a cyst,
  • bad habits and sedentary lifestyle.

Symptoms of ovarian cysts

Most often, the presence of an ovarian cyst becomes a real surprise for a woman, because many people did not even know about the pathology that developed in them before an accidental medical examination. Indeed, significant signs indicating the appearance of pathology begin to be observed only with an increase in the size of the cavity. Most cysts develop imperceptibly.

When formations of small size occur such symptoms:

  • menstruation becomes irregular and painful
  • pain may occur in the middle of the cycle, and blood may be released,
  • urination,
  • there is pain in the groin during physical and sexual activity,
  • the belly grows fat.

If you do not take action in time, the situation worsens, and such frightening signs appear:

  • abundant periods,
  • severe pain in the lower abdomen,
  • general weakness and fever
  • unquenchable thirst and dry mouth,
  • frequent urging to the toilet,
  • hair growth is observed on the face.

Torsion of ovarian cysts

An enlarged cystic sac may twist around its axis. A 360 degree overturn is called complete, and half a turn is incomplete. Twisting the stem, partially or completely, interferes with the blood supply to the tumor, which causes its necrotization and inflammation of the neighboring organs (intestines, appendages, uterus and fallopian tubes).

The reasons for the development of such complications can be:

  1. Any sudden movement.
  2. Abdominal trauma.
  3. Weakened abdominal muscle walls.
  4. A large length of the leg cysts.
  5. Prolonged bladder or bowel overflow.
  6. Gestation period
  7. Sharp weight loss.
  8. Problems with defecation.

Symptoms of cyst twist

The symptoms of both types of torsion of the sac of the pouch differ only in intensity of manifestation. With a full turn of the leg of the tumor, the pain symptom is more pronounced.

You can determine the twisting by such manifestations:

  • unbearable pain arises in the lower abdomen, radiating to the back, anus, perineum, or leg,
  • fever appears with cold sweat
  • integuments turn pale, weakness increases,
  • dry up in the mouth, and always feel like drinking,
  • bouts of vomiting, flatulence, constipation,
  • heartbeat quickens,
  • there may be a release of blood drops.

Ovarian cyst rupture

If the cyst is not detected in time, fluid continues to accumulate in it, and the neoplasm significantly increases in diameter. Under the influence of external factors, the shell of the cavity does not stand up and breaks.

  1. This can occur due to a jolt or bumps in the peritoneal cavity.
  2. Lifting, frequent deep bending or jumping, in a word, overstrain during physical activity can provoke a break.
  3. Another contributing factor is sexual contact.

The symptoms accompanying damage to the walls of the cyst are quite intense and do not go unnoticed.

Sensing the characteristic signs of apoplexy (rupture of education), an ambulance team should be urgently called in:

  • severe pain in the abdomen or groin,
  • growing weakness
  • arrhythmia
  • temperature rise to 38-39 degrees
  • appearance of blood from the vagina.

If a follicular cyst begins to burst, the pain is aching and spreads to the rectum. Heat may be absent, but a migraine appears.

Apoplexy of the corpus luteum is accompanied by gagging, and the pain gradually increases. A rupture of a dermoid or endometrioid cyst is a particular danger, since everything that was inside the neoplasm of the tumor falls into the peritoneum. The temperature rises sharply to 39 degrees. Often, amid severe pain, fainting can happen.

As a result of intra-abdominal bleeding, the pressure drops, the lower half of the abdomen becomes bluish.

This situation requires early medical intervention.

Diagnosis and analysis for ovarian cysts

If an ovarian cyst is suspected, a complex of diagnostic studies is assigned:

  1. Examination on the gynecological chair in conjunction with the collection history.
  2. General clinical studies of urine and blood help detect inflammation and hidden bleeding.
  3. Blood test for tumor markers to determine the likelihood of oncology.
  4. With the help of the test, ectopic pregnancy is excluded.
  5. MRI and ultrasound are performed to detect cystic formation and determine the type of cyst.
  6. In severe cases, puncture prescribed to detect the blood contained in the peritoneum.
  7. Research using a laparoscope. During the procedure, if necessary, the cyst can be removed.

Based on the analysis of the patient's complaints and the results of the examination, a decision is made on the appropriateness of drug therapy or the need for surgical intervention.

Can I get pregnant with an ovarian cyst?

If cystic formation on the ovary is a functional type of tumor (corpus luteum cyst, follicular) and there is no tendency to increase in size, then pregnancy is possible. There is even a possibility that the bag may self-dissolve.

But because of the risk of complications during gestation, it is better to plan conception after removal of the neoplasm. It will be safer for women and for the fetus.

Ovarian cyst during pregnancy

Pregnant women with an ovarian cyst are carefully monitored by a doctor and undergo an ultrasound examination regularly to monitor the state of the tumors.

During pregnancy, there are often complications in the form of torsion of the legs of a cystic tumor, or damage to the cysts, which is an indication for surgery.

If, during the observation period, the cyst does not dissolve, but on the contrary, has increased in size over 8 cm, or high onkomarera CA-125 indicators have been observed in the analyzes, then the decision is made to remove the pathological mass.

The operation is carried out not earlier than 4 months of pregnancy, so as not to provoke an interruption. With a significant size of the pouch, laparotomy is performed with excision of the abdominal wall. If the tumors are small, then laparoscopy is used, and the cyst is removed through punctures in the abdominal cavity. After which a sample of the contents of the cavity is subjected to a histology test.

Drug method

If there is no need to urgently remove the pathological cavity of the ovary, and the tumor does not grow in size, drug treatment of cystic formations is used.

Therapy may include drugs to relieve inflammation and eliminate symptoms. Usually prescribed:

  1. Antispasmodics (Baralgin, No-shpa).
  2. Anti-inflammatory drugs.
  3. Drugs to improve immunity.
  4. Drugs containing hormones (Danol, Duphaston, Gestrinon).

Actively applied physiotherapy:

  1. Laser therapy
  2. Magnetic therapy
  3. Mud wraps.
  4. Phonophoresis
  5. Baths with therapeutic infusions.
  6. Douching

Additionally allowed to resort to recipes of traditional medicine.

In the course of treatment, regular monitoring of the condition of the cavity is carried out using ultrasound.

Ovarian cyst removal

The indication for surgery is:

  • lack of results of drug treatment,
  • large size of the cyst and its mobility,
  • polycystic
  • severe pain,
  • planned pregnancy or infertility due to the development of a cystic tumor,
  • cyst representing the danger of degeneration into a malignant tumor (dermoid, endometrioid, mucinous),
  • a bursting cyst, its inflammation or twisting of the legs.

Removal of the tumor can occur without excision of the abdominal wall, using a laparoscopic probe - laparoscopy. Also used abdominal surgery - laparotomy.

Planned laparoscopy

Held at the beginning of the monthly cycle. This operation usually does not take longer and lasts approximately 30 minutes. After anesthesia, several punctures in diameter from 0.5 to 1.5 cm are made in the abdominal cavity of the patient.

Through the holes in the peritoneum, carbon dioxide is injected and a laparoscope probe equipped with a camera is inserted. After that, the contents of the tumor and its shell are removed. Subsequently, the removed cyst tissues undergo histological examination.

After the operation for 10 days, bed rest is observed. In the future, women are advised to adhere to proper nutrition and to avoid intense physical exertion and sexual contact for a month.

Laparotomy

It is used for large tumor sizes or in case of rupture of the cyst membrane and pouring the contents into the abdominal cavity. Also, the indications for laparotomy include a malignant tumor, purulent cyst and adhesions in the abdominal cavity.

This operation requires dissection of the anterior abdominal wall and lasts from 1 to 4 hours depending on the complexity of the case. It is performed under general anesthesia.

Operational situations:

  1. In the process of laparotomy, only a tumor can be removed. cystectomy.
  2. If necessary, the affected part of the ovary is removed along with the cyst - wedge resection.
  3. If the ovary is impossible to save, then remove it completely - ovariectomy.
  4. If the cyst is malignant, then it is necessary to excise not only both ovaries, but also the uterus and nearby tissues - hysterectomy.

Is it possible to cure a cyst without surgery?

In many cases, follicular cystic formations are able to resolve themselves independently over several menstrual cycles.

An effective method of eliminating the pathology is the appointment of hormone treatment with the help of therapeutic drugs containing progesterone or oral contraceptives. Such hormone therapy should be carried out for at least six months.

The home remedies in the form of ointments and medicinal tinctures from medicinal herbs, bee products, oils, as well as the use of tampons with honey, onion juice or aloe can also have a supporting effect, and nettle extract is also effective.

All the above methods should be used only after consulting a gynecologist.

What is dangerous cyst on the ovary?

A growing ovarian cyst not treated in time can cause many complications:

  • twisting the legs, leading to necrosis of the tumor,
  • damage to the walls of the cyst, resulting in possible bleeding and peritonitis,
  • failures in the menstrual cycle
  • the formation of adhesions in the abdominal cavity,
  • hormonal changes,
  • infertility
  • reincarnation into a malignant tumor.

The menstrual cycle is disturbed more often against the background of the development of a follicular tumor and cyst of the corpus luteum. There may be delays of different durations and be accompanied by aching pains, swelling of the mammary glands. Monthly, usually very abundant.

Unsuccessful attempts to conceive a child on the background of cystic formation are explained by a violation of the release of an egg. This is a false sterility and completely curable hormonal therapy. If the cyst is started and there is inflammation of the ovaries and surrounding organs, the pregnancy may never occur. This is called true sterility.

Soldering processes in the fallopian tubes and ovaries may occur with a cyst or after its removal. Adhesions are a serious obstacle to conception. Detect their appearance during a medical examination.Other symptoms, except for the irregular cycle, are not observed.

There are several stages of development of adhesions:

  • Grade 1 - the passage of the egg through the tube is not difficult,
  • 2 degree - there is a spike between the ovary and the tube, which prevents the advancement of the egg,
  • Grade 3 - the tube of the uterus is completely impassable.

Removal of adhesions is carried out with a laser, electrocautery or water jet under high pressure.

Contraindications for ovarian cyst

The presence of pathological cystic formation on the ovary imposes a number of restrictions in the woman’s usual life.

Before the cure of the disease should be excluded such actions:

  • dangerous temperature effects on the body, you need to avoid visiting saunas and taking hot baths,
  • the use of heating pads and other methods of heating the abdominal cavity,
  • long stay in the bright sun or hiking in the solarium,
  • squeezing the stomach tight clothing or during the procedure wraps,
  • taking drugs containing hormones,
  • weight lifting, doing deep bends and exercises for abdominal muscles,
  • frequent sex with a man.

Disease prevention

In order to maximally protect oneself from the onset of cystic formations, it is necessary to make it a rule to undergo an annual examination by a gynecologist.

Additional preventive measures include:

  • not to start and simultaneously treat diseases of the reproductive and endocrine system at the same time,
  • prevent the penetration of infections through the genitals,
  • adjust the diet, the food should be low-calorie and contain all the necessary nutrients
  • take vitamin complexes and drugs to increase the body's defenses
  • prevent abortions and their consequences,
  • taking drugs containing hormones should be agreed with the doctor,
  • dynamic observation and regular examinations are necessary for all women who received during life treatment for follicular and paraovarian cysts, corpus luteum cysts,
  • pass the ultrasound control,
  • do not self-medicate

Careful attention to your own health, not ignoring the manifestation of the initial symptoms of the pathology will prevent the development of complications and normalize the state and work of the ovaries.

The treatment of a disease at an early stage of development is always faster and easier than the correction of a neglected disease.

It is believed that oral contraceptives can prevent the occurrence of cysts on the ovaries, so it is worth discussing the choice of such funds with a gynecologist.

It will be useful to increase the motor activity. This will eliminate congestion in the pelvis, improve blood circulation and make the body more resistant to infection, which as a result reduces the likelihood of a cyst.

Ovarian cyst - what is it

Ovarian cyst is a true or false fluid formation. The true include benign proliferation of the epithelium in the form of a cavity filled with fluid. In turn, the false or functional formations are the result of the transformation of the follicle or corpus luteum and are not related to the tumor.

Types of ovarian cysts

In the majority of cases, young women are diagnosed with simple liquid cystic forms: corpus luteum and follicular. These formations are also found in the premenopause against the backdrop of hormonal changes. A growing follicle with an egg cell or a corpus luteum becomes the source of tumor-like transformation of the ovaries. Disruption of the hormonal balance changes the cyclical nature of the natural processes, which leads to a cystic change in the ovaries.

Varieties are verified based on the following parameters:

  • wall feature
  • the presence of blood flow
  • the presence of chambers and partitions,
  • determination of the nature of the contents of the cavity.

Epithelial tumors have a leg in which the feeding vessel passes. In functional - leg missing.

Types are determined on the basis of the diagnosis: ultrasound, laboratory methods, history taking from the patient.

Retentional

In a small number of women, a simple follicular cyst does not undergo self-destruction. The inner granular layer, which produces estrogens, gradually atrophies, and the formation becomes true. Such forms are called retention.

Their walls are more dense, have a thickness of up to 1 mm, over time, cystic degeneration of the ovaries does not increase in size. In addition, the size of the retention form is smaller than the follicular one from which it was formed.

Serous cystadenoma

Among the true epithelial tumors in women, serous cystadenomas are leading. They are most commonly found over the age of 40. Cystadenoma with serous contents is almost always one-sided, single-chamber, has smooth walls, its contents are anechoic on ultrasound. This form is rarely malignized.

If outgrowths are defined on the inner walls, then the cyst is called papillary. The presence of inclusions in the cavity, papillae on the walls, several chambers is considered an adverse symptom.

The size of a cystic tumor reaches an average of about 10 cm.

Mucinous cystadenoma

Unlike a serous cystoma, mucin is produced by cylindrical cells of the inner wall of the formation. The secret has a sticky consistency. Mucinous cystoma, as a rule, is multi-chamber, has a thick wall, partitions, large size (20-30 cm). Its walls can be smooth and papillary. The more complex the cystadenoma, the higher the likelihood of its transformation into cancer. Mucinous tumors malignant more often than serous.

Causes of ovarian cysts

Cysts on the ovaries are formed for various reasons and these factors are determined by the type of cystic formations.

  1. Tumor functional formations - follicular and corpus luteum cyst - are formed in violation of the production of sex hormones. In particular, hyperestrogens, an increase in the level of androgens, change the cyclical nature of the production of LH, FSH, which leads to disruption of ovulation.
  2. Congenital features (paraovarial cysts).
  3. Hereditary factor, mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (for cystadenomas).
  4. Chronic hormonal disorders.
  5. Menopause.
  6. Adolescence.

Before finding out the causes of fluid in the ovaries in women, what it is and what kind of formations the identified cyst belongs to, the specialist conducts detailed studies, including a blood test for hormones, tumor markers, ultrasound, puncture biopsy, and, if necessary, laparoscopy.

Cyst of the right or left ovary

Fluid cavities can equally be formed in both ovaries. The principal difference is determined for cystic transformation of the corpus luteum.

The formation of a liquid formation of the yellow body occurs more often in the right appendage, since the pressure in the right vein is much higher than in the left. The cyst of the corpus luteum of the right ovary, whose symptoms have no specificity, often undergoes a rupture at the end of the menstrual cycle.

The appearance of the follicular fluid formation of the left or right ovary is determined by the localization of the dominant follicle.

There is some difference in the symptoms of the formations on the right or on the left. If the cystoma is located on the right and has a large size, pain, similar to appendicitis, cholecystitis, pyelonephritis, may occur. The cyst in the ovary on the right can squeeze the right ureter. If the formation is located on the left, then there are constipation, signs similar to gastritis, pancreatitis.

Symptoms and signs of ovarian cyst in women

Signs of the follicular fluid cavity are most often absent, since the duration of its existence is low: 2-3 months. The size of education also does not contribute to the development of symptoms. The clinic of the physiological form of education is caused by the causes of hormonal disorders that led to anovulation and persistence of the follicle. Since a follicular cyst appears on the ovary by minor signs of severity, indirect symptoms are distinguished:

  • infertility due to lack of ovulation,
  • irregular menstrual cycle, delay,
  • non-menstrual bleeding or uterine bleeding,
  • excessive hair growth, acne with hyperandrogenism.

Allocation with ovarian cyst, as a rule, do not change their characteristics. However, if the cause is an increase in the amount of estrogen, then the discharge becomes more abundant.

When large-sized cystadenomas are achieved, pain in the lower back, an increase in the abdomen, impaired urination, and defecation are observed.

Body temperature during an ovarian cyst can rise only against the background of an infectious-inflammatory process, as well as with complications: twist the legs, rupture.

What is dangerous ovarian cyst

Failure to diagnose cysts in the ovary in women can lead to the following consequences:

  • gap,
  • a leg ovarian cyst can necrotize due to its torsion,
  • peritonitis after torsion of a leg,
  • compression of internal organs,
  • malignancy cystadenomas.

During pregnancy, they can lead to a violation of its course, increases the likelihood of rupture of the fluid cavity, torsion of the legs.

How to treat ovarian cyst

Treatment is determined by a type of cystic degeneration. Liquid formation of the right or left ovary undergoes hormonal treatment (oral contraceptives) for 1-3 months. Cystadenoma is removed without fail, they are not subject to hormonal treatment, since hormone levels are independent.

According to patient reviews, treatment of ovarian follicular cyst with hormonal agents leads to its regression. In addition, women celebrate self-resorption of formations after several cycles.

Treatment or surgery for a cyst on the ovary

In order to remove benign ovarian lesions (cystadenomas), laparoscopy is performed. Cystadenomas of any size are excised, since it is impossible to guarantee their benign course. In women at the age of menopause, both healthy and diseased ovaries are removed, in young people, sparing resection is performed.

If the physician suspected a malignant process during a visual examination of the low-lying area, laparotomy is performed, a revision of the abdominal cavity, its washing, selection of tissues of the ovary, lymph nodes, omentum for histology.

Endometrial formations are also removed if hormonal treatment does not produce a result.

Functional cysts

Associated with the functioning of the ovaries, are formed at a certain point of the menstrual cycle. The reason for their appearance is most often hormonal failure (violation of the ratio of pituitary hormones). Such ovarian cysts are able to resolve themselves after 3 months. These include:

  1. Follicular ovarian cyst. It is formed in the dominant follicle, if its rupture (ovulation) does not occur. At the same time it accumulates a secretory fluid, stretching the shell. A bubble with thin walls appears.
  2. The cyst of the corpus luteum (luteal) is formed from its shell, if in the 2nd phase of the cycle this temporary gland does not resolve, as it should be, but continues to function.

Non-functional cysts

Such tumors arise out of communication with the processes of the cycle. They have dense walls lined from the inside by epithelium. They cannot dissolve on their own. Due to the increased risk of complications, they are surgically removed. These neoplasms are:

  1. Endometrial cyst. It is formed from endometrial particles that fall on the surface of the ovary from the uterus. A capsule filled with menstrual blood is formed. With each subsequent menstruation, its stock is replenished, which leads to the growth of tumors. The oxidized blood has a dark brown color, so these cysts are called chocolate.
  2. Paraovarial. Formed from the duct (appendage) of the ovary, located between it and the fallopian tube. The blockage of the duct leads to overflow with its secretory fluids (lymph, blood) and the formation of a capsule, increasing in size.
  3. Dermoid. It is filled not with liquid, but with particles of tissues from which organs are formed. Formed in the period of development of the embryo. Such an ovarian cyst begins to develop in a woman after the onset of puberty. Inside there are particles of bones, skin, hair.

Functional, endometrioid and paraovarial cysts are referred to as tumor-like neoplasms, since their increase occurs due to the stretching of the membranes. A dermoid cyst (teratoma) is a benign tumor. Grows due to cell division.

Reasons for education

The formation of ovarian cysts is most often associated with hormonal disruption in the body. The causes are endocrine diseases, metabolic disorders, hormonal drugs or birth control pills.

An important factor in the development of cystic tumors is a change in the structure of the ovarian membranes as a result of inflammatory processes or injuries. In some cases, cysts are formed in women due to congenital ovarian developmental abnormalities. The disease may also have a genetic origin.

Factors such as early sexual development and the onset of sexual activity, curettage of the uterus, and other operations on the pelvic organs, in which the ovaries can be accidentally injured or infected, contribute to the emergence of tumors.

The processes associated with the maturation of follicles and ovulation in the right ovary occur a little more often than in the left (due to the nature of the blood supply). Therefore, functional cysts are found in most cases on the right. The rest can be formed with equal probability in both the left and right ovary.

Endometrial cysts

Already one name gives women a hint of what is a cyst of an ovary of endometrial origin. Such capsules are formed as a result of mutation of endometrial cells. They have thick walls, and inside instead of a grayish, bloody or yellow liquid is the contents of a dark brown color (which is why it is sometimes called chocolate).

Symptoms of ovarian cyst in a woman + photo

In most women, their detection occurs by chance, after a routine examination or diagnosis for other diseases or complaints. This is due to the fact that in ovarian cysts in women, the symptoms in most cases are not felt by them.

Symptoms and signs:

  • The most common (and often the only) symptom of cystic tumor growth is pain during menstruation and ovulation.
  • Disorder of the menstrual cycle. In the presence of hormonally active neoplasms in women, amenorrhea develops, that is, there is no menstruation. In addition, menstruation can be painful and copious, there may be a delay in menstruation, irregularity and rarity of their appearance, uterine bleeding.
  • symptoms of compression of the organs and blood vessels. A growing ovarian cyst can squeeze the bladder or lower intestine, which is manifested by dysuric disorders and constipation. The compression of the venous vascular bundles can cause varicose veins of the lower extremities.
  • Asymmetry and an increase in the abdomen at large sizes. Such a phenomenon as the growth of the abdominal circumference, as well as asymmetry arise either due to ascites, when fluid accumulates in the abdominal cavity, or from large cyst sizes.
  • Nausea, gagging after sexual intercourse or physical exertion (training, weight lifting),
  • Abdominal pains that get worse after exercise
  • Abdominal pain during intercourse
  • False urination to urinate and defecate.

  • a sharp pain in the right side,
  • tension of the abdominal muscles
  • bleeding that is not related to menstruation,
  • frequent urination, but poor emptying,
  • asymmetric increase in the right abdomen.

  • discharge of blood from the genitals in addition to menstruation,
  • nausea,
  • pain on the left side of the abdomen,
  • disturbed menstrual cycle
  • sudden acute abdominal pain,
  • abdominal pain after exercise, during sex,
  • false urge to excrement
  • an increase in the abdomen, palpation of education on the left side.

Signs for which you need to consult a doctor

At the same time, there are signs that, accompanied with the above symptoms, indicate that it is time to consult a doctor:

  • temperature over 38 degrees
  • weakness and dizziness,
  • heavy discharge during menstruation,
  • an increase in the volume of the abdomen
  • male facial hair growth
  • strong thirst with copious urination,
  • abnormal blood pressure
  • uncontrollable weight loss
  • probable seal in the abdominal cavity

This ovarian disease is not always harmless - sometimes its growth causes squeezing of nearby vessels and organs. It can cause more than discomfort, pain, and bleeding. Thinned walls of the cyst, with sudden movements, can rupture, the different contents often cause purulent peritonitis.

Implications for the woman's body

If the treatment is not carried out in a timely manner, in some cases severe complications can result. First of all, the risk of developing cancer increases. Therefore, gynecologists make every effort to promptly identify a cyst and to ensure the correct approach to therapy.

Possible complications and consequences of ovarian cysts:

  • Самое неприятное осложнение, которое может произойти при кисте яичника, – это ее разрыв. If the cyst was inflamed, pus may enter the peritoneal cavity. In almost 80% of cases, this results in acute peritonitis and may cause the development of sepsis.
  • The disease can be the cause of infertility in women with concomitant risk factors.
  • Certain types of cysts can degenerate into a malignant tumor, especially after the age of 45 years.

In the early stages, treatment without surgery is effective. In the late - shown surgical intervention.

Treatment of cysts in the ovary

After confirming the diagnosis, many women immediately start to get nervous, worry about how to cure a cyst and what medicines are needed for this. First of all, you should calm down and remember that stress affects the disease negatively and aggravates the situation. The choice of treatment depends on the causes of the pathology, the size of the cyst, the characteristics, the age of the woman, the presence of concomitant diseases, pregnancy.

Principles of therapeutic treatment:

  • hormonal drugs
  • vitamin therapy,
  • lifestyle correction,
  • diet therapy,
  • physiotherapy.

Conducting therapy is not always required. For example, a functional cyst may disappear on its own during 1-2 menstrual cycles. If it is not resolved, the question of the need for drug therapy.

Conservative therapy is the appointment of drugs that relieve pain, prevent pregnancy and suppress new education.

  • In such cases, hormone preparations are often used, for example, Duphaston, which contains a large amount of progesterone and slows the growth of the formation. The course of treatment is quite long - about six months.
  • Pain in the ovarian cyst can be removed at home with various painkillers, as well as anti-inflammatory drugs: ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and so on. You should also limit yourself from physical and strenuous activities in order to avoid twisting or breaking it.

There are cysts with a benign course, which after 2-3 months of therapy are eliminated. However, in some cases, education threatens the life of the patient. This happens in the following cases:

  • rapid growth of education with compression of surrounding organs,
  • malignant rebirth,
  • danger of twisting the legs.

Any sign is the reason for the operation.

Types of ovarian cysts that can resolve without surgery:

  • follicular - small size (up to 4 cm),
  • cyst of the yellow body of small size (up to 5 cm),
  • retention ovarian cysts,
  • Polycystic ovaries require medical treatment.

The operation is shown in the following varieties:

  • dermoid ovarian cyst,
  • mucinous,
  • endometrioid.

Cyst removal surgery

If the cyst exceeds the size of more than 10 cm, or does not pass after a course of treatment or after 3 menstrual cycles, the doctor may prescribe an operation.

  1. Laparoscopic removal is a minimally invasive intervention that does not require opening of the abdominal cavity, but is carried out through small holes using a laparoscope. It features the shortest recovery period and minimal risks of complications.
  2. Abdominal surgery. It is used in situations where a good overview is needed, or the contents of the formation fell into the peritoneum (violation of the integrity of the cyst), bleeding has opened.

Before laparoscopy, the following preparation is necessary:

  • Eating no later than 22 hours the day before the intervention,
  • First you need to clean the intestines with activated charcoal (4 tablets 3 times a day),
  • In the presence of mental disorders, doctors prescribe sedatives.

Before surgery, the following clinical diagnostic methods are performed:

  • Biochemical analysis
  • Urine and blood tests
  • Fluorography,
  • Blood clotting test
  • Electrocardiogram.

Consider the cases in which an operation can be assigned:

  • Heavy bleeding and apoplexy.
  • Tumor processes, under the influence of which fell most of the ovary.
  • Neoplasm of a malignant nature, directly related to female hormones.
  • Removal of the uterus during menopause.
  • If an ectopic pregnancy develops in the ovary.

An ovarian cyst can be removed in the following ways:

  • Adnexectomy - uterine appendages are removed.
  • Ovariectomy - the affected ovary is removed.
  • Cystectomy - excision of education.
  • Electrocoagulation - cauterization.

During the operation, a biopsy is performed - taking ovarian tissue for histological examination in case of suspected malignant tumor.

Recovery after surgery

Recovery after removal of an ovarian cyst by laparoscopy, as a rule, occurs rather quickly.

Before discharge from the hospital, the attending physician must make recommendations:

  • You should not take a bath for fifteen days after surgery.
  • After taking a shower, the treatment of stitches with disinfectants is necessary.
  • In the first month after the operation, it is not recommended to consume alcoholic beverages and heavy food,
  • Sexual rest during the first month after surgery
  • Planning pregnancy no earlier than three months after the removal of a cyst,
  • Periodic observation at the gynecologist until full recovery.

You can plan a pregnancy in 4-6 months after surgery. During this period of time a woman should be monitored by a doctor. For a detailed examination, she may need a stationary regime. Drug treatment of the patient will be needed to normalize the level of hormones and restore health.

Try to eat fiber-rich foods every day. These products include cabbage, carrots, bell peppers, eggplants, potatoes, cucumbers, and zucchini. Eat vegetables preferably either raw or boil them beforehand.

From the diet you need to exclude such harmful products as:

  • carbonated sugary drinks,
  • tea and coffee,
  • cocoa,
  • chocolate.

They provoke the formation of fluid and gases, which causes the growth of ovarian cysts. To avoid aggravation, you need to stop using these products, focusing on taking more useful ones.

The hormonal background of the woman is also associated with the work of the liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and gallbladder. A large intake of fatty foods, too spicy or salty, disrupts the functioning of these organs, thereby causing an imbalance of hormones. Therefore, you should exclude such food from the diet or at least reduce its quantity.

The diet in the postoperative period should be carried out strictly in accordance with the doctor's prescriptions. This will eliminate the possibility of complications, and speed up the recovery of the body.

Ovarian cyst: what is it?

So let's take a closer look at what it is, as well as the types of cystic formations. In total, it is customary to distinguish 6 main types of ovarian cysts:

  • edometrioid,
  • follicular
  • mucinous,
  • dermoid
  • paraovarial,
  • cyst ovary yellow body.

A cyst can be either a single formation or multiple (cystoma). Usually the cystoma is benign, but it can also be a malignant tumor.

How is a cyst formed?

Females usually have two ovaries that produce eggs, each about the size of a walnut, and are located on either side of the uterus. Each month, the right or left ovary produces an egg cell, and this process begins the woman’s monthly menstrual cycle. An ovule enclosed in a sac called a follicle grows and matures inside the ovary under the influence of the hormone estrogen until the uterus is prepared to receive the egg.

Approximately 14-15 days after the onset of menstruation, this follicle bursts (an ovarian cyst ruptures), thereby releasing an egg cell that enters the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized later on with sperm.

For reasons not completely understood by medicine, there are cases when the dominant follicle instead of bursting continues to grow, accumulating more and more fluid inside of it. In this case, there is a transformation into a follicular cyst. Very rare, but the transformation of the yellow body into a cyst is possible.

Most ovarian cysts are benign, i.e. they are not cancerous, and many disappear on their own within a few weeks without treatment. Ovarian cysts occur in women of all ages, but most often appear in women of childbearing age.

Symptoms of the formation of cystic cavities in the ovary

If the size of the ovarian cyst is small (diameter does not exceed 3 cm), then their presence does not affect the patient's condition. You can see only signs of comorbidities that cause cyst growth:

  • menstrual irregularities due to hormonal disruptions
  • pulling pain in the lower abdomen, worse during menstruation,
  • abnormal vaginal discharge, indicating the occurrence of inflammatory or infectious diseases in the genitals or the presence of endometriosis.

Obvious symptoms of ovarian cyst formation appear as its size increases and complications occur.

Possible complications

An enlarged capsule presses on neighboring organs, pinches blood vessels, disturbing blood circulation, and acts on nerves.

A large tumor located at the entrance to the fallopian tube may block the inlet, preventing the passage of the egg. In this case, a woman has infertility. Possible rupture of the capsule, its contents entering the abdominal cavity, peritonitis.

A rupture of a hemorrhagic cyst (filled with blood) leads to the onset of intra-abdominal bleeding. If the hemorrhage occurs inside the ovary, its apoplexy occurs (rupture of the ovarian membrane), which also leads to severe bleeding.

Most of these tumors have a thin leg. Perhaps its twisting, cessation of blood supply, leading to tissue necrosis. Suppuration of cyst contents leads to infection of the blood (sepsis).

When cystadenum is formed, ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity) may occur. It seeps through the wall of the tumor.

The surface of serous tumors can be covered with papillomas that grow into the abdominal cavity and spread to the walls, bladder. Possible formation of adhesions around the cyst, violating the mobility of organs. The growth of cystic neoplasms leads to an increase in the size of the abdomen.

Endometrioid, dermoid cyst and cystadenoma sometimes degenerate into carcinoma (malignant tumor).

The first signs of cystic cavities

As a rule, a doctor is consulted when the diameter of the cyst increases to 5 cm or more. The first signs of illness are aching pains in the groin area, which during menstruation become so strong that nausea, vomiting, headache appear, and blood pressure jumps are observed. After the end of the pain does not go away, the lower abdomen "pulls" constantly, especially during movements, physical activity, sexual intercourse.

It may increase the temperature of the body to 37 °, occasional nausea and vomiting.

Signs of hormonal failure

When an ovarian cyst appears in a woman, a hormonal failure occurs due to a violation of estrogen and progesterone production. As a result, menstruation becomes irregular, long or short, abundant or too scarce.

The nature of the discharge between the periods changes due to changes in the consistency and composition of the mucus produced in the cervix, blood impurities appear in them. Awesome discharge of this nature is not related to menstruation.

Diseases of the ovaries provoke the appearance of signs of abnormal development of the endometrium, early onset of menopause, breast tumors.

Estrogens are formed in the cells of the ovary from testosterone (male sex hormone). With hormonal failure, this hormone builds up in the body. In this case, the woman has excessive hair growth on the body and on the face, decreases the size of the mammary glands, coarsens voice, increases body weight.

Signs of violation of the work of neighboring organs

The pressure of the tumor on the bladder leads to the fact that urination is difficult, due to which the urge becomes more frequent. Violation of urination can cause inflammation in the bladder and kidneys. At the same time, there are signs such as painful urination, blood in the urine, fever.

Squeezing the intestines leads to bloating, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and abdominal pain. Circulatory disorders cause varicose veins.

Signs of life-threatening complications

Complications lead to a state of "acute abdomen." At the same time, it is necessary to immediately call an ambulance and deliver the woman to the hospital, where the diagnosis will be precisely made and urgent medical measures will be taken.

This condition can occur with other diseases. For example, the symptoms of complications of cyst of the right ovary are similar to appendicitis. In the presence of a left ovarian cyst, there are often signs of colitis. Similar acute symptoms also occur in ectopic pregnancy.

Bleeding into the abdominal cavity. If internal bleeding begins due to a rupture of a hemorrhagic cyst or ovarian apoplexy, then there is severe pain in the abdomen, blood discharge from the genital organs, and also signs of blood loss: pallor, weakness, dizziness, fainting.

Rupture of cysts. Symptoms of peritonitis are severe persistent abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, intestinal disorders, fever, palpitations, increased blood pressure.

Twisting legs. The reason may be a sharp movement or change of posture. Suddenly there is pain in the lower abdomen, extending to the sacrum and leg. There is a state of "acute abdomen", body temperature rises, pulse quickens, blood pressure drops. On palpation, the woman feels severe pain, the abdominal muscles are tense. The patient takes a characteristic posture. Lies, pressing his legs to his stomach. If help is not given on time, peritonitis occurs.

Nonspecific symptoms

Nonspecific are the symptoms of ovarian cysts, which can occur with other diseases. Paying attention to their appearance, you can suspect the presence of the disease, in time to consult a doctor and avoid serious complications. Such symptoms include, for example, nausea and vomiting, which occur constantly after exercise on the lower part of the body (climbing stairs, having sex, sports training). The feeling of pressure on the intestines and the bladder from the side where the cyst was formed should also alert. The sensation increases during urination and defecation.

Addition: Characteristically, with an uncomplicated ovarian cyst, urination is difficult, but not painful. If there is a burning sensation and pain, it speaks of cystitis.

What needs to be done

If there are unusual signs, a woman should contact a gynecologist, who will determine the need for consultation with a urologist, endocrinologist, and surgeon. First of all, the examination is performed using ultrasound (external and transvaginal). To study the state of the pelvic organs using x-rays and methods of tomography (CT, MRI).

The condition of the hormonal background will show a blood test. Analysis of tumor markers will determine the degree of danger of neoplasms.

Treatment is carried out if the tumor has a diameter greater than 5 cm and possible complications. Functional cysts are not surgically removed. Hormone therapy is conducted to stop their growth and reduce size. The remaining tumors are removed by laparoscopic method, if their diameter is 10 cm or more.

This takes into account the age of the patient. Young women try to perform the operation so as to preserve the functionality of the ovary and the ability to bear children. Older patients most often remove the ovary completely due to the increased risk of malignant degeneration of tumors.

Symptoms of a broken cyst

Such a phenomenon as a bursting cyst is called apoplexy in medicine. When an ovarian cyst breaks, the symptoms appear as follows:

  • severe pain in the lower abdomen,
  • body temperature rises to 39 degrees
  • heartbeat quickens,
  • weakness appears in the whole body
  • arterial pressure often decreases sharply
  • severe bleeding occurs.

These signs indicate that you need to urgently seek medical attention.

The effects of ovarian cysts

Usually 80% of ovarian cysts are functional and disappear on their own, with the beginning of the next menstrual cycle. In other cases, these pathological formations increase to a considerable size and cause serious discomfort to the woman.

Regardless of the cause of development and the type, ovarian cysts can carry dangerous consequences - suppress, rupture, squeeze adjacent organs, cause menstrual and / or reproductive function disorders. It is also possible the appearance of a twisted leg of ovarian cyst.

Suppuration of an ovarian cyst causes manifestations similar to acute adnexitis. In the lower abdomen from the side of the cyst, pain appears (aching, pulling, sharp or throbbing), the body temperature rises.

В случае перекрута ножки кисты или при разрыве кисты внезапно появляется острая боль, приводящая к вынужденному положению тела, возникают признаки шока и другие симптомы. Often, an ovarian cyst becomes the direct cause of female infertility. However, the most serious complication of the disease is the reincarnation of a benign cystic mass into a malignant tumor. To avoid the consequences, it is important to get diagnosed in time so that it becomes clear how to treat an ovarian cyst.

Ovarian cyst treatment

With a diagnosed ovarian cyst, treatment is carried out in two ways: surgical and conservative. The first method is used only for the above-mentioned complications in the form of gaps and twists, as well as when there is a suspicion that the formation is malignant. Currently, laparoscopy is most commonly used.

You can also select a few methods of surgical treatment:

  1. Cystectomy - removal of the cyst itself.
  2. Ovariectomy - removal of the ovary.
  3. Adnexectomy - removal of uterine appendages.
  4. Biopsy of the ovary - is performed for malignant tumors.

As for conservative treatment, it is used in the vast majority of cases. Treatment with this method involves taking pain medication, as well as contraceptives, which helps to prevent the emergence of new formations.

Not only dangerous cysts, such as endometrioid, dermoid and mucinous, but also those formed in a young woman who wants to become pregnant are subject to mandatory removal, since the risk of her torsion or growth of the neoplasm increases during pregnancy.

Laparoscopy ovarian cysts

Laparoscopy can be both diagnostic and therapeutic. The only difference is that with one of them only the diagnosis is carried out, and with the second - the necessary procedures.

Laparoscopic surgery is performed without surgical incision of the abdominal cavity. Instead, a specialist makes several small punctures in the navel, through which a special instrument, an endoscope equipped with a camera, is inserted inside. The camera allows you to track the entire process of operation on a large monitor and avoid accidental errors.

Surgery to remove a cyst using laparoscopy lasts from 20 to 40 minutes, depending on the size of the cyst and its structure. In a planned manner, the first phase of the menstrual cycle is best suited for surgery. The postoperative period lasts only 1 day in hospital, after which the woman can start work on day 3.

Laparoscopic surgery

Ongoing operations

Removal of a cyst can be performed using laparotomy. Usually, indications for such an operation are large ovarian cysts or complicated cases of the disease.

There are several options for operations using laparotomy:

  1. Cystectomy - removal of ovarian cysts.
  2. Wedge excision - when a cyst and partly ovarian tissue is removed.
  3. Ovariectomy - when not only a cyst is removed, but also the entire ovary.

It often happens that right during the operation the doctor discovers a malignant degeneration of the ovary, and in this case the removal of both ovaries, uterus, fat fold (epiploon) and regional lymph nodes is indicated.

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