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Allergic rhinitis in a child: symptoms and treatment

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Allergic rhinitis is a special type of rhinitis, which, unlike the usual one, without treatment, does not go away on its own in one week, but can only worsen and lead to the development of complications. More susceptible to children. According to statistics, 80% of people it appears in the age of 20 years. The first signs of allergic rhinitis usually manifest themselves at a junior school age, up to 5 years it is less common. In boys, such a runny nose is diagnosed more often than in girls. The disease affects the quality of life of children, disrupts sleep, performance, causes irritability.

Content:

  • The reasons
  • Kinds
  • Symptoms
  • Diagnostics
  • General principles of treatment
  • Medications
    • Blockers of H1-histamine receptors of systemic action
    • Blockers of H1-histamine receptors of local action
    • Vasoconstrictor
    • Mast Cell Membrane Stabilizers
    • Intranasal Corticosteroids
    • Barrier tools
    • Allergen-specific immunotherapy
  • Prevention


The main reason for the high prevalence of allergic rhinitis in modern children is the mass use of household chemicals and medicines. In the Middle Ages, cases of detection of allergies were extremely rare. All allergic reactions, including runny nose, are attributed to the diseases of the new generation.

From drugs to provoke the development of allergies can vaccines and antibiotics. It is believed that the less people face infectious diseases, the higher their chances of getting allergies. The lack of contact of the body with various pathogens inevitably leads to a decrease in the activity of the immune system and an increase in its susceptibility to potential allergens.

The factors contributing to the development of allergic rhinitis in children include:

  • genetic predisposition
  • frequent colds, accompanied by damage to the nasal mucosa,
  • unreasonable use of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections,
  • the growth of cavernous tissue in the nasal cavity.

They provoke attacks of allergic rhinitis in the child's house and library dust, pollen of plants, aerosols (cosmetics and household chemicals), pet hair, fungal spores. Sometimes food can also cause allergic rhinitis, but in this case it is usually combined with atopic dermatitis.

Taking into account the frequency of manifestations, seasonal and year-round allergic rhinitis is distinguished. When seasonal characteristic symptoms occur annually at the same time of the year, from early spring to early autumn, during the flowering period of plants (ambrosia, wormwood, birch, alder, oak, timothy, rye and others).

With year-round allergic rhinitis, manifestations are always present, regardless of the season. It is caused by household allergens, house dust, particles of the epidermis of animals, mites, excretions of cockroaches, and mold fungi. About year-round rhinitis say, if the cold worries every day for at least 2 hours and over 9 months in a row. Often it is accompanied by a dry cough.

Allergic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal cavity, manifested as:

  • nasal congestion
  • swelling of the mucous membrane,
  • burning and itching in the nose,
  • sneezing
  • redness and irritation of the skin on the wings of the nose,
  • copious liquid clear or translucent mucous secretions.

Parents can suspect allergic rhinitis if, in a dream, a child sniffles and rubs his nose on the bed, scratches his nose with her palm, constantly performs facial movements with a nasolabial triangle, as if pulling his nose up.

Diagnostics

When a child has a head cold, you should contact a pediatrician or ENT, only he will be able to accurately determine his type and prescribe adequate treatment. The main differences between allergic rhinitis and rhinitis against ARVI are the absence of:

  • increased body temperature
  • decrease or loss of appetite
  • headache,
  • general weakness
  • pains in muscles and joints.

To confirm the allergic nature of rhinitis, skin allergy tests are prescribed to identify potential allergens. The results of this study are considered reliable only for children over 5 years old. In addition, the child is prescribed a complete blood count, a test for immunoglobulins of class E, smear on the flora from the nasal mucosa, cytology of nasal secretions.

The doctor examines the child, ascertains the presence of allergies from the next of kin, is interested in lifestyle and living conditions. Mandatory research is rhinoscopy - examination of the nasal passages, cavities, septum, nasal mucosa and secretions secreted. In allergic rhinitis, the nasal mucosa is swollen, has a pale color with a grayish tint.

General principles of treatment

Treatment of allergic rhinitis begin with a precise definition of the allergen that causes the immune response. The main task of therapy is its exclusion from the patient's life. If this is possible, then in this case all the symptoms disappear on their own almost immediately.

It is not always possible to identify a specific allergen, especially to completely remove it from the child's life. For example, if the cause of an allergy is plant pollen, then it is almost impossible to avoid contact with it. The only option is to change the place of residence. Not everyone is ready to take such a step. In this case, in order to minimize the effects of the body’s contact with the irritant, drug control of allergies is necessary with the help of special medications or correction of the immune system by the method of allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT).

It is very useful for rhinitis to perform rinsing of the nose with normal saline or special products sold at the pharmacy (Aquamaris, Marimer, No-salt, Humer and others). This procedure allows you to wash off the allergens from the nasal mucosa and reduce their negative impact. In a room where a child is with any type of rhinitis, including an allergic one, it is necessary to provide cool and humid air, regularly perform wet cleaning, put a device for air purification.

If you are allergic to house dust, frequent walks in the fresh air and airing the room will have a positive effect. It is necessary to remove from the apartment everything that is superfluous, which is a reservoir for the accumulation of dust (carpets, sofa cushions, upholstered furniture), change the bed linen once a week, always running it.

If the child is allergic to pollen, it is recommended to moisten the mosquito net so that its particles linger on it and do not get into the house. It is necessary to reduce the time spent on the street, exclude departures on the nature, it is preferable to walk only in wet weather in places where there is no grass, bushes and flowers. After coming in from the street, the child should rinse his nose, bathe him in the shower, change his clothes completely and send the clothes he was wearing outside to wash.

Medications

To relieve the symptoms of the disease, medicines are used that block the mechanism of the development of an allergic reaction, neutralize its effects, or prevent the contact of the allergen with the nasal mucosa. These include:

  • blockers of H1-histamine receptors of systemic action,
  • blockers of H1-histamine receptors of local action,
  • vasoconstrictor agents
  • local and systemic mast cell membrane stabilizers,
  • local hormones (intranasal corticosteroids),
  • barrier means.

Only a doctor can prescribe medications to a child. He will select the optimal treatment regimen based on the patient's age and possible health risks.

Blockers of H1-histamine receptors of systemic action

Upon contact with irritants to which the body has a hypersensitivity, the cells of the immune system produce histamine. Interacting with histamine receptors, histamine causes a number of allergic reactions. Preparations from the group of H1-histamine receptor blockers interfere with the binding of histamine to the receptors, thereby blocking one of the stages of the mechanism of the development of a hypersensitivity reaction.

When allergic rhinitis for children using the blockers of the H1-histamine receptors of the second and third generations. They do not cause soporific, sedative and other side effects (dry mouth, tinnitus, agitated state). Available in the form of syrups, tablets, drops, intended for children of different ages. Such drugs include products containing the following active ingredients:

  • desloratadine (Erius, Desal, syrup and tablets, from 6 months),
  • loratadine (Claritin, loratadine, syrup and tablets, from 2 years),
  • cetirizine (Zyrtec, Zodak, Cetrin, drops and tablets, from 2 years),
  • Ebastine (Kestin, syrup and tablets, from 2 years),
  • fexofenadine (Telfast, Fexadin, tablets from 6 years),
  • levocetirizine (Ksizal, Pollezin, drops and tablets, from 2 years).

These antihistamines are suitable for long-term use, as their effectiveness is not reduced. They are the first line of therapy for allergic rhinitis; in case of a mild course of additional administration, no other means are required for the child. Often they are taken as a preventive measure before contact with the allergen.

Blockers of H1-histamine receptors of local action

Local antihistamines from the group of H1-histamine receptor blockers are released as a spray. They are effective in mild forms of seasonal and year-round rhinitis, help relieve inflammation, begin to act quickly. It is believed that they are more effective than systemic drugs, as they act directly on the problem area. After injecting them into the nose, a burning sensation in the nasal cavity and a bitter metallic taste in the mouth are possible. Such drugs include Azelastine, Allergodil, Tezin Allergy, Reactin.

Vasoconstrictor

In allergic rhinitis, vasoconstrictor drops or sprays may also be used to relieve the condition. They relieve hyperemia, swelling and nasal congestion, facilitate nasal breathing, increase the effectiveness of antiallergic drugs. At the same time, they themselves do not have anti-inflammatory or antihistamine action, do not relieve itching, sneezing.

Assign them courses of no more than 5 days. With prolonged use, they can cause deterioration, addiction, increase swelling and increase the sensitivity to histamine. Of these drugs for allergic rhinitis, children are prescribed Nazivin, Naphthyzinum, Oxymetazoline, Otrivin, Xylometazoline, Vibrocil.

Mast Cell Membrane Stabilizers

Mast cell membrane stabilizers are substances that inhibit the release of histamine from target cells. These include cromone derivatives (cromoglycate and nedoformil sodium) and ketotifen.

The effect of cromone derivatives develops rather slowly, from 2 to 4 weeks from the start of use, therefore it is more expedient to use them as prophylactic before contact with the allergen. Such drugs include Kromogeksal, Intal, Kromoglin. When rhinitis, they reduce the amount of nasal discharge, relieve itching, but do not remove congestion. They are taken by inhalation due to low absorbability through the gastrointestinal tract.

In the form of a spray in the nose, they are allowed for children from 2.5 years, and in the form of a solution for inhalation - from 5 years. Rarely cause adverse reactions, in some patients local irritation and unpleasant taste in the mouth is possible.

Ketotifen is taken orally, the effect of the drug begins after 2 hours and lasts for 12 hours. Due to the absence of side effects and safety, its use is possible in young children.

Intranasal Corticosteroids

Hormonal agents are considered the most effective in allergic rhinitis. They immediately bring relief to the child, have a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect, but can cause severe side effects (headaches, nosebleeds, ulcerative changes in the nasal mucosa, bronchospasm, burning in the nose, pharyngitis). The maximum therapeutic effect develops in the 2-3rd week of application. For the treatment of children, they are prescribed with caution only in severe forms of the disease, difficulty in nasal breathing or its complete absence.

Permitted to use products containing the following active ingredients:

  • budesonide (tafen nasal),
  • mometasone (Flix, Nasonex, Desrinite),
  • fluticasone (Fliksonaze, Nazarel, Avamis).

The duration of their use is determined by the doctor depending on the severity of the condition, the course of treatment can be from 3 days to several months.

Barrier tools

To barrier means include:

  1. Nazaval It is a fine cellulose powder. In contact with mucous membrane, it forms a gel-like protective layer.
  2. Prevalin Kids. It contains blue clay, sesame and mint oil. This is a gel that, when shaken, turns into a liquid, then is applied in liquid form to the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity, where it again turns into a gel. Present in the composition of vegetable oils have anti-inflammatory, regenerating and vasoconstrictor effects.

Barrier means are designed to limit the contact of the nasal mucosa with inhaled allergens. They can be used to reduce the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and for treatment if the child cannot take other medications. For example, if he has an allergy to drugs, idiosyncrasy, contraindications.

Allergen-specific immunotherapy

ASIT is a relatively new, but very promising method of treating allergies, as with the right approach, it can get rid of its symptoms forever. This type of therapy is possible only if the allergen is precisely established. It is carried out under the strict supervision of an allergist. Can be used for children over 5 years old.

The task of ASIT is to reduce the body's sensitivity to the identified allergen. For this, an allergen is administered to the patient at regular intervals, starting with the minimum doses. From time to time, the dosage is gradually increased, closely monitoring the response of the body. The course of treatment is long, takes an average of 3 to 5 years.

In allergic rhinitis, this type of treatment is most effective for pollen and house dust.

Prevention

Prevention of allergic rhinitis is especially important for children who have a hereditary predisposition to the development of the disease. Its main measures are the absence of "sterile" living conditions. It is not necessary to wash and wipe all surfaces in the house several times a day with household chemicals. It is necessary to give the child's body the opportunity to fully form the immune system, to get acquainted with the surrounding bacteria and viruses. In addition, it is recommended:

  • for cleaning and washing use liquid forms of cleaning products, refuse aerosols,
  • remove all dust accumulators from the children's room (carpets, soft toys, upholstered furniture),
  • air the room regularly
  • eliminate contact with tobacco smoke and bleach,
  • limit the amount of highly allergenic foods in the diet,
  • pick up clothes and bedding only from natural materials, avoid synthetics, pillows and blankets should have a hypoallergenic filler,
  • limit contact with animals
  • temper the child.

Do not abuse without the need of taking medications, do not self-medicate.

How can you distinguish allergic rhinitis from the common cold?

Since the symptoms of acute rhinitis in acute respiratory viral infections and acute forms of allergic rhinitis are very similar, attention should be paid to such differences in these conditions:

  • With allergic rhinitis symptoms begin to appear immediately after contact with allergens, and with ARVI, the severity of a runny nose increases during several days from the onset of the disease.
  • A runny nose caused by an allergen lasts until the moment when the child is in contact with this substance, and the duration of ARVI is usually 3-7 days.
  • ARVI often appears in the autumn, in the winter and in the spring, and rhinitis caused by seasonal allergens occurs during the flowering period of plants.
  • Allergic rhinitis often manifests as agonizing sneezing, tearing, swelling of the face and itching. Such symptoms are very rare with ARVI.

How to determine what may be allergic to the baby, Dr. Komarovsky will tell:

How to treat?

All treatment of allergic rhinitis is divided into non-drug and medication treatment. Non-drug actions are to eliminate the effects of the allergen on the child’s body or mitigate its effects:

  • If a child responds with a runny nose to pollen, airing the child’s room is reduced, the length of walks is reduced, and after each walk the child is bathed to remove pollen from the baby’s skin and hair. It is advisable to install air conditioning in the apartment or take out the baby during the flowering at sea. From the diet of the child should eliminate all products, the composition of which is similar to provoking runny nose allergens.
  • If the cause of the allergic rhinitis is mold spores, то квартира должна проветриваться и убираться чаще обычного. В борьбе с плесневыми грибами используют фунгициды. In addition, pay attention to the installation of a humidifier and air conditioner, as well as a sufficient number of indoor plants.
  • When a runny nose due to exposure to dust increased attention should be paid to cleaning, destroying dust mites and washing bed linen. Carpets should be removed from the house, and upholstered furniture should be replaced with leatherette or leather.
  • Runny nose due to pet allergy most often compels to give a pet to friends or relatives. If this is not possible, the child’s contact with the animal should be protected as much as possible and more often all rooms should be vacuumed.
  • If a runny nose appears after eating allergens for food, during the exacerbation period it is important to eliminate any provocative products from the menu. After some time, they begin to enter into the diet in small quantities, tracking the reaction. In many cases, over time, the products cease to cause allergies (the child "outgrows").

Drug treatment of allergic rhinitis includes the use of such drugs:

  • Antihistamine (Zyrtec, Erius, Allergodil, Desloratadine, Fenistil, Telfast, Claritin, Ketotifen). These drugs are the drugs of choice for allergic rhinitis and help relieve symptoms, including sneezing and itching.

Drug treatment of allergic rhinitis

If allergic rhinitis is found in a teenager or a child, the symptoms and the time of their manifestation will largely determine the treatment. The use of medications is transferred when the elimination of allergens has not positively affected the severity of the symptoms. Prescribed drugs are divided into several groups.

Local glucocorticoids. They are used internally and help reduce itching, sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion. Advantages of such funds - ease of use (only 1 time per day) and a small percentage of absorption into the blood. The disadvantages include the risk of influencing the growth of the child and the occurrence of side effects in 7-9% of cases. This group includes:

  • Budesonide (from 6 years),
  • Mometasone (since 2 years),
  • Beclomethasone (from 6 years),
  • Fluticasone (from 4 years).

The best option would be the use of aqueous solutions, as they are more gently affect the nasal mucosa.

Antihistamines. Cure or reduce the symptoms of itching, sneezing, rhinorrhea. Currently, drugs of the second and third generation are being actively used, since they do not overcome the blood-brain barrier and do not have a sedative effect. These include:

  • Cetirizine (from 1 year),
  • Loratadine (from 2 years),
  • Fexofenadine (from 6 years),
  • Desloratadine (since 2 years).

There is also an intranasal form of antihistamines. Children and adolescent allergic rhinitis is treated with Azelastine (from the age of 5).

Cromons Used in the treatment of the mild stage of the disease, are available in the form of sprays. The most effective is prophylactic use, before interacting with allergens. Allowed for use from 2 months of age. Cromons are represented by trademarks - Hi-Krom, Intal, Nalkrom, Kromohexal.

Vasoconstrictor drugs. Appointed with severe mucosal edema, no more than a week, as they can cause the development of medical rhinitis. This group includes Naphazoline, Naphthyzinum, etc.

Cleansing and moisturizing products. Used for irrigation and rinsing the nose, so that it is cleared of secretions, and the mucous is moistened. Presented by means of sea water: Aquamaris, Aqualore, Dolphin, etc. It is possible to use from birth.

In addition to drug treatment, a doctor may recommend allergy-specific immunotherapy (administration of increasing doses of allergens) or surgery (for certain structural abnormalities).

Treatment of allergic rhinitis in children folk remedies

Treatment of various forms of allergic rhinitis in children can be carried out with medical and folk remedies at the same time.

In case of mild disease, the latter are effective as follows:

  1. Celery Juice Squeeze the juice from the stems, use three times a day for 1 tsp.
  2. Mint infusion. 1 tbsp. l Mint leaves, pour a glass of hot milk, insist half an hour. Drink three times a day for a quarter cup.
  3. Herbal infusion. Prepare a mixture of 4 tbsp. l Hypericum, 1 tbsp. l corn stigmas, 3 tbsp. l dandelion roots, 5 tbsp. l yarrow and 4 tbsp. l rose hips. All the ingredients pour a glass of boiling water, insist for 12 hours. Boil the infusion, remove from heat and soak in a dark place for another 6 hours. Drink the filtered liquid three times a day, without diluting it.

When choosing folk remedies should consult a doctor. Not all recipes can benefit. For example, if you are allergic to pollen, an infusion of herbs will not work. The safest remedy is to flush the nose with water-saline solution, but here it is important to choose the right concentration in order not to burn the baby's mucous membrane. Half a liter of water will be enough to take half a teaspoon of salt (for very young children).

Preventive measures and lifestyle for children with allergic rhinitis

Since it is not an easy task to treat allergic rhinitis, especially in children, special attention should be paid to preventive measures.

Prevention of this disease is divided into the following types:

  1. Primary. Conducted at the stage of pregnancy and the first months of life of children at risk. All possible allergenic products should be excluded from the diet of the future mother, occupational hazards, exposure to tobacco smoke (active and passive smoking) should be eliminated from the first months of pregnancy. You need to try to breastfeed your baby for at least 6 months of age as long as possible. Do not introduce prikorm up to 4 months, exclude whole cow milk. It is necessary to carry out elimination measures.
  2. Secondary. Conducted with sensitized children and is designed to prevent the manifestation of the disease. It includes observation of the environment and timely elimination of allergenic factors, preventive antihistamine therapy, allergen-specific immunotherapy, prevention of acute respiratory infections and the introduction of educational programs among the population.
  3. Tertiary. Conducted with children having a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Aims to reduce the frequency and duration of exacerbations, that is, to prevent severe disease. Includes medication and a certain organization of the child's lifestyle, which implies the elimination (elimination) of allergens.

Elimination measures depend on the type of allergen:

  • Pollen allergens. To prevent exacerbations during the flowering period, it is necessary to close the windows and doors of the apartment, transport, use cleaning and conditioning equipment. Organize walks in places of the smallest accumulation of allergens: at the stadium, on the grounds without excess vegetation. Upon returning home, take a shower and change clothes.
  • Fungus mold spores. It is necessary to regularly clean the room, especially carefully processing humidifiers for air, exhaust. Use fungicides, make sure that the humidity is not less than 50%.
  • Domestic mites and insects. As much as possible to eliminate the accumulation of dust in the room: remove the carpets, change the furniture with fabric upholstery to the one that can be regularly washed. Wash baby's clothes, bedding and soft toys as often as possible, clean pillows and mattresses. Replace curtains with blinds.
  • Wool and waste products of animals. Refuse to keep pets.
  • Food. Follow a certain diet. Most often, allergies are caused by dairy products, eggs, nuts and citrus fruits. It is also necessary to abandon products containing food additives (sausages, soda, chips, etc.).

Do not neglect the rules of prevention, properly organized elimination measures can reduce the manifestations of allergy to zero (especially in mild form), and primary and secondary measures will prevent the manifestation of allergic rhinitis.

Author: Olga Khanova, doctor,
specifically for Moylor.ru

Useful video about allergy treatment

The role of the nasal cavity is to ensure adequate hydration and purity of the inhaled air. During rhinitis, this function can be seriously impaired.

Allergic rhinitis is an inflammation of the nasal mucosa caused by an over-reaction (hypersensitivity) to substances that in healthy people do not cause any changes. These substances are called allergens.

Symptoms Forms of allergic rhinitis Why should the disease be treated? Treatment How to remove rhinitis

  • Regular blowing your nose
  • Rinse the nose with salt water with a rubber bulb
  • Sea water irrigation
  • Way of yoga
  • Herbs

What allergens cause rhinitis? How to avoid it?

Allergic rhinitis can occur already in young children (in addition to food allergies). Most often, this disease occurs in young people - according to statistics, in 10-15% of young people. The overall prevalence of allergies, according to experts, is about 35% of the population. Over the past few years there has been an increase in the incidence of allergic rhinitis. This disease is among the ten most common ailments.

  • Itching
  • Nasal congestion,
  • Disturbance of smell,
  • Bouts of sneezing,
  • Tearing,
  • Eye irritation,
  • Discharge from the nasal cavity, especially during contact with a potential allergen (when mowing grass, contacting with a cat, staying in a dusty room).

Forms of allergic rhinitis

This disease can occur:

  • periodically (for example, in spring during the flowering of trees),
  • chronically - throughout the year, when allergy is associated with the constant presence of environmental allergens (for example, dust mite allergy).

With periodic rhinitis, symptoms persist for no more than four weeks. Chronic rhinitis lasts longer than 4 weeks.

Why should the disease be treated?

Allergic rhinitis not only represents a great discomfort in everyday life, but can also lead to the development of asthma. Therefore, if you notice rhinitis of an allergic nature in your child or in your child, you should start treatment as soon as possible. What this disease looks like, you can see in the following video:

Home-made methods of treating allergic rhinitis are primarily aimed at cleansing the nasal mucosa and removing edema. At the same time it is necessary to ensure that the mucous does not overdry, as this will lead to discomfort.

Rinse the nose with salt water with a rubber bulb

If we consider the treatment of allergic rhinitis folk remedies, we should not forget about such a simple, and at that time an effective product, like table salt. 1/2 teaspoon of salt should be dissolved in a glass of warm water (when treating allergic rhinitis in children, 1/3 teaspoon of salt should be used). Then the solution should be collected in a pear (rubber enema), and its tip placed in the nostril. Bend your head back and with a pear inject liquid at a right angle to your face, parallel to the sky. You must have your nose completely sucked in salt water, and then repeat this procedure with the other nostril. At the beginning of the procedure can be unpleasant, but over time, the discomfort will disappear. The experts recommend nasal rinses treatment three times a day until rhinitis disappears completely. This procedure should be performed with extreme caution, since incompetent use of the pear can cause tissue damage and nose bleeding.

Way of yoga

Neti is a small teapot with a long spout. Yogi has long used it to rinse the nasal passages with salt water. That is why allergic rhinitis practically does not occur in India. So, pour half a glass of warm salted water into this vessel - the solution should taste like a tear. Keep your head above the sink, place the tip of the teapot in one nostril and pour the liquid in such a way that it flows out through the other nostril. The treatment should be repeated with the other nostril, and at the end of the procedure it is necessary to blow your nose vigorously.

Yoga followers regularly use this method to prevent nasal sinuses from clogging and to treat allergic rhinitis. They believe that removing mucus from the respiratory tract increases the body's vitality, and this fact is confirmed by doctors, because the free flow of air provides better oxygenation (filling the blood with oxygen) and prevents rhinitis.

The most effective and safe folk remedies to help cure chronic rhinitis, herbs are recognized. See below for how to use them.

Healing fee

Allergic rhinitis will quickly pass if you prepare such a fee:

  • Tea Rose Flowers - 100g,
  • Willow bark - 50 g,
  • Linden flowers - 50 g,
  • Elderberry flowers - 20 g,
  • Meadowsweet Grass - 10 g.

How to cook: take 1 teaspoon of this herbal mixture and pour a glass of boiling water. Let it brew for 30 minutes and take 1 glass 2-3 times a day before meals. Continue the treatment until rhinitis is completely gone.

Ginger is rich in anti-inflammatory substances, so teas based on it are considered the best folk remedies for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. There are ready-made ginger teas on sale, but you yourself can make such a simple drink from fresh root, preferably with the addition of natural honey. To this end, we take a piece of fresh ginger (about 50 g), rub on a grater and squeeze the juice, which must be mixed with a spoon of honey and pour two cups boiled, but not hot water. This drink dilutes bronchial secretion, facilitates breathing, removes rhinitis and helps “reset” the immune system.

Chamomile is an effective way to cure chronic rhinitis, and, moreover, it can be used both in the form of tea and in inhalation. Herbalists recommend wetting a piece of gauze in chamomile tea with lemon oil and applying a handkerchief to the nostrils (to breathe in chamomile and lemon vapors). This combination is so powerful in its action that it helps in a few hours to remove allergic rhinitis.

Butterbur infusion

Butterbur infusion removes irritation and conjunctivitis, prevents headaches, reduces swelling and the frequency of sneezing - and, as we know, all these symptoms often accompany allergic rhinitis. However, this remedy should be avoided by people who are allergic to hard-flowering plants.

How to make butterbur infusion? Pour 2 tablespoons of this herb in a thermos and pour hot water over it. Cover the vessel tightly with a lid and leave for 3-4 hours. On the day, you should drink about a liter of tincture in small portions.

Mint tea

Mint tea unblocks the nasal passage and sinuses, soothes the patient and relieves allergic cough and rhinitis.

Necacel is an excellent sedative and expectorant for diseases such as allergic or common rhinitis, the common cold, bronchitis and asthma.

We recommend cooking the decoction of the rhizomes of the elecampane according to this recipe: pour one teaspoon of dried and chopped roots with a glass of water and cook under a lid for 7 minutes after boiling. After this time, strain the mixture and drink 2 times a day for half a cup.

This plant comes to mind first when it is necessary to treat allergic rhinitis with folk remedies. Long since nettle was taken as an infusion, but quite recently scientists conducted such an experiment: a capsule with lyophilized nettle was given to sick people (freeze-drying method based on a special freeze). So, after a week of such treatment, respondents noted that rhinitis and other symptoms of allergy had completely disappeared.

Tests in vitro tests have shown that nettle extract affects the receptors responsible for the emergence of allergies and an increase in histamine levels.

But the people and without the help of scientists always knew that nettle is a strong anti-inflammatory agent that helps with many problems, including the treatment of allergic rhinitis. It is a rich source of chlorophyll, iron, provitamin A and vitamin C, so if you want to always be healthy, you must include nettles in your diet. This plant has virtually no side effects, there is no risk of overdose.

So how do you treat nettle? If you have mild allergic rhinitis, then your dosage is 8-12 g of dried grass per day. If you have an allergic cough and rhinitis in the advanced chronic stage, the dose can be increased to five tablespoons per day. Pour grass a liter of hot water and insist for an hour. During the day you should drink all the prepared tincture. Continue the treatment until rhinitis disappears completely.

Goldenrod

Drugs based on goldenrod are the best folk remedies with which allergic cough and rhinitis are treated in the USA and Canada. This is a fantastic remedy to alleviate the symptoms of allergies. It works a little differently than the nettle described above: first, the goldenrod has a record amount of antioxidants (some say it is even more than in green tea). Secondly, the unique grass formula helps to treat any type of allergy (even latex allergy).

Итак, чтобы навсегда искоренить ринит, рекомендуем вам заменить обычный чай настоем золотарника, и принимать его каждый день по несколько чашек. Снадобье можно подслащать медом или малиновым соком.

Виды аллергического ринита

There are two main types of allergic rhinitis:

  • Seasonal. Occurs in the same time periods due to the appearance in the air of pollen of certain flowers and plants, which irritates the nasopharyngeal mucosa and provokes a corresponding reaction. In medical terminology, he received the names of hay fever and hay fever. This type of rhinitis is often aggravated with allergic conjunctivitis.

Typical symptoms: difficulty breathing, burning and scabies in the nose, heavy discharge of clear mucus, frequent sneezing, swelling of the mucous membranes.

The most significant irritants are pollen of weeds, legumes and cereal, deciduous trees. Peak seasonal episodes can be divided into three groups: the end of April / May - birch, acacia, alder, the beginning of June / July - fescue, blackberry, timothy, ambrosia, the end of August / September - plantain, wormwood.

  • Year-round. It is permanent as a result of contacting the child with substances that are allergens for him. It is diagnosed when a runny nose is present daily for more than 9 months of the year.

Typical symptoms: nasal congestion and respiratory failure, swelling of the nasopharyngeal mucosa, itching and burning in the nose, pain in the eyes and tearing, dry cough.

In addition to the main allergens, avitaminosis, an unfavorable ecological situation, unhealthy diet, etc. can serve as precipitating factors for a runny nose.

Predisposition to allergic rhinitis

According to medical research, children at risk of having a genetic propensity for allergies are at risk. In percentage terms, this is about 50%, that is, almost half of children whose parents suffer from seasonal or year-round rhinitis, receive the disease in the "inheritance".

In addition, the following factors can be attributed to predisposing factors:

  • frequent colds (ARI, ARVI) on the background of reduced immunity,
  • regular and unreasonable antibiotics,
  • excessive proliferation of spongy (cavernous) tissue in the nasal cavity.

Causes of disease

Varieties of allergens conducive to the emergence of seasonal and year-round rhinitis, there are many. Conventionally, they can be combined into several main groups:

  • Plant origin. These include not only the pollen and flowers of plants, trees, grasses and shrubs, but also their juice, extracts and other derivatives. For example, if a particular irritant is part of a perfumed / medicinal product, then the start of the reaction can begin without direct contact with it.
  • Fungal. Microscopic fungal spores are often present in damp, poorly ventilated areas. The source of allergies can be mushrooms, affecting vegetables, berries and fruits that are eaten (cabbage, beets, potatoes, apricots, citrus, etc.).
  • Animal origin. This includes wool, feathers and down of domestic animals, rodents and insects excrement, feed for birds, dogs, cats, etc.
  • Household. The list of the most common provocateurs includes home and library dust, detergents and cleaning products, synthetic fillers for blankets and mattresses, feather pillows, cigarette smoke.
  • Nutritional. Hypersensitivity in children can develop on the following products: cow's milk, honey, fish, egg white, nuts.
  • Microbial. The development of allergic rhinitis contributes to the presence in the living room / kindergarten / school of a permanent focus of infection (staphylococcus, streptococcus).

The secondary factors influencing the development of the inflammatory response may be:

  • too dry or humid air
  • sudden changes in temperature, atmospheric pressure,
  • failure to comply with sanitary and hygienic standards for the maintenance of the dwelling,
  • poor environmental conditions.

General symptoms

The clinical picture of allergic rhinitis is based on the following manifestations:

  • partial or complete nasal congestion,
  • bouts of nonstop sneezing,
  • swelling of the nasal sinuses,
  • clear nasal discharge
  • redness of the skin at the base of the nostrils and on the wings of the nose,
  • tearing eyes,
  • burning and itching inside the nasopharynx.

Against the background of the above symptoms, symptoms of an infectious disease, such as increased body temperature, muscle aches, migraines, loss of appetite, are absent.

Differences in allergic rhinitis from other types of rhinitis

Considering that the general symptoms are not always obvious, it can be distinguished from other types of rhinitis by a number of signs. For example:

  • With viral rhinitis (ARVI, flu), body temperature usually rises to 37.9 - 38.5 ° C, the child has a poor appetite, it is sluggish and weak. An allergic rhinitis does not give such a clinical picture - on the contrary, the baby feels quite vigorously, plays with pleasure and eats well.
  • Bacterial rhinitis is different from allergic in that a runny nose is accompanied by the release of snot thick consistency of yellow or green. Often in the mucus there are purulent blotches.
  • With vasomotor rhinitis, severe swelling of the mucous membrane is observed, which makes it difficult or impossible for the child to breathe through the nose. At the same time, the eyes are almost not watery, and the snot may be missing by default. Allergic rhinitis, on the contrary, eliminates the above symptoms.
  • Physiological rhinitis inherent in infants does not imply the presence of snot, and also eliminates sneezing and tearing of the eyes.

In any case, for recognition of the type of rhinitis, it is recommended to contact the local pediatrician, especially when it is difficult to identify the nature of the disease on your own.

Treatment methods

The most effective, but at the same time the most difficult method of getting rid of the manifestations of allergic rhinitis, is to determine the main allergen and “bring” it beyond the reach of the child. In the case when it is impossible to calculate the stimulus, then they resort to drug therapy. How to treat a child is determined by the doctor individually, but in most cases an integrated approach is used with the connection of the following drugs:

  • Antihistamines. Suppress the production of histamine - a biologically active substance that causes an allergic reaction. As a rule, children are prescribed medicines of this group of the second and third generation, which do not have side effects in the form of drowsiness and absent-mindedness. For the smallest, Klaritin, Ketotifen, Zyrtek are used; Telfast, Kestin, Peritol, Simplex are suitable for teenagers. Tablets are taken 1 time per day and retain their effects on the body for another week after the cancellation.

  • Nasal sprays. Applied topically by injection and irrigation of the nasal cavity. As an independent therapeutic agent prescribed for minor manifestations of allergic rhinitis. They contain in their composition vasoconstrictor components, contributing to the restoration of proper breathing through the nose. However, their effect is short-term, and the use of such remedies longer than 5-7 days is not recommended. These include: Allergodil, Vibrocil, Sanorin, Azelastine.

  • Corticosteroids. Hormonal drugs that can relieve inflammation and relieve symptoms of rhinitis, especially if it is diagnosed in moderate and severe form. On average, the application is designed for 3-7 days, in particularly difficult cases, the duration of therapy can reach 1-2 months. Among the side effects are usually burning and itching of the mucous membrane, sneezing, rarely - nosebleeds. Preparations: Beclomethasone, Fluticasone, Dexarine Spray.
  • Cromons They act as mast cell stabilizers, preventing the development of an allergic reaction, as well as providing an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. They are prescribed a few weeks before the expected onset of rhinitis and do not have an instant effect. Available in the form of drops, syrups, aerosols, sprays - Kromoheksal, Ifiral, Kromosol, Kromoglin.
  • Sorbents. Used as an additional means to the main complex of treatment. They are taken orally, helping the body to neutralize aggressive allergens. Well show themselves to practice Carbonite, Enterosgel, Flavosorb.

Important: folk remedies for allergic rhinitis are powerless. Moreover, the use of various decoctions of herbs, lotions, inhalations and other "grandmother's" recipes can lead to increased irritation of the mucous membrane, swelling, itching and burning in the nasopharynx, burns and wounds.

Specific immunotherapy

The method of specific immunotherapy (SIT) has also been used quite successfully. Its principle is based on the fact that the body becomes accustomed to the identified allergen and thus reduce the severity of the disease. For several months, the allergen is injected into the child subcutaneously with micro doses until a stable remission of the disease is achieved. It should be noted that such a treatment regimen is most effective at the initial stage of pathology development. Arguments:

  • The transition from the mild stage of the disease to the more severe, which may eventually result in the development of asthma, is warned.
  • The range of allergens that form the body's hypersensitivity is reduced.
  • Decreases the need for taking pharmacological drugs.
  • The time range between periods of exacerbation of allergic attacks is expanding.

The process of SIT may be accompanied by a number of side effects: a slight increase in body temperature, skin rashes, disruption of the gastrointestinal tract.

Preventive actions

Depending on the type of allergen that provokes hypersensitivity of the nasopharyngeal mucosa, a number of rules and recommendations should be followed to reduce the likelihood of developing the disease in children.

In identifying a domestic irritant, it is necessary to take the following measures:

  • maintain the humidity at a level of 50% (it is permissible to use special humidifiers),
  • regularly carry out wet cleaning (2-3 times a week),
  • temperature regime for washing clothes should be at least 70 degrees,
  • replace feather pillows, mattresses and blankets with synthetic analogues,
  • remove carpets, carpets, carpets from the floor and walls,
  • minimize the number of paper books, soft toys, furniture with natural coating in the child’s room (sofas, armchairs, chairs),
  • equip the correct bed, do not put the child to sleep on upholstered furniture,
  • air the apartment daily,
  • to give preference to household chemicals of a liquid consistency, to exclude bleach and chlorine-containing detergents from use,
  • protect the child from passive smoking.

For children prone to pollen allergens, it is recommended:

  • limit the stay on the street (cottage, in the village, lake / river) during the period of flowering of stimulating plants,
  • do not sit next to open windows when traveling in a car, public transport,
  • curtain window and balcony openings with gauze or a thin cloth, regularly wetting them with water,
  • keep the house clean by doing a daily wet cleaning and a general cleaning once a week,
  • reduce the child’s time on the street or wear a gauze band while walking;
  • to exclude from the diet of plant products in order to avoid the occurrence of cross-allergic reactions.

Important: during pregnancy, adhere to a hypoallergenic diet, and do not abuse drugs without urgent need. Try to maximize breastfeeding, without further use of cow's milk as a complementary food.

With the right therapy, the chances of a complete cure for allergic rhinitis are quite high. Also, parents need to remember that in addition to observing a pediatrician, the child must be registered with specialized specialists: an allergist and an immunologist.

Allergic rhinitis in children

Allergic rhinitis is rarely found in a child under 3 years old, the incidence is steadily increasing in children of kindergarten and primary school age. In 6 years, among other manifestations of allergy, runny nose ranks first in frequency - up to 70%.

Often, the symptoms of an incipient pathology do not cause concern to the parents, so the initial appeal to a specialist occurs a few years after the manifesto. By this time, chronic allergic rhinitis occurs and the first complications appear. Often, at the age of 12, a child is diagnosed with bronchial asthma or allergic conjunctivitis in addition to the underlying disease.

Depending on when the disease manifests itself, doctors distinguish year-round and seasonal, usually spring and summer, allergic rhinitis in children.

Currently the following classification is common:

  • acute episodic form,
  • seasonal,
  • year-round (persistent).

For acute allergic rhinitis is characterized by episodic manifestation, which depends on the presence of contact with the allergen transmitted by airborne droplets. Most often, the disease is triggered by proteins of cat saliva, urine of rodents, waste products of dust mites.

Manifestations of seasonal allergic rhinitis occur during flowering (spring, summer). Typical rhinorrhea with copious watery discharge, a violation of nasal breathing. This form of allergic rhinitis in children also has additional symptoms: redness and itching of the eyes, watery eyes. At other times of the year, the disease does not manifest itself; the child looks completely healthy.

For year-round form of the disease is characterized by weak severity of symptoms. Over the course of a year, they can manifest themselves intensively or subside, but do not disappear to the end. The diagnostic criterion is the frequency of reactions: they should be observed at least twice a day or at least 9 months per year. Causes of year-round allergic rhinitis in children - the accumulation of house dust, the presence of ticks, cockroaches, pet hair, etc.

The development of allergic rhinitis contributes to a number of factors:

  • impaired metabolism, including rickets,
  • physiologically immature neuro-endocrine regulation,
  • gastrointestinal tract diseases
  • deformed nasal cavity
  • long-term irritated nasal mucosa,
  • the presence of polyps
  • high blood clotting
  • low blood pressure
  • genetic predisposition
  • long-term interaction with the allergen,
  • allergic rhinitis in the mother during pregnancy
  • frequent colds,
  • unreasonable use of antibiotics.


Among all these factors, the main one is burdened heredity. It is she who significantly increases the risk of developing the disease.

Preventive measures and lifestyle for children with allergic rhinitis

Since it is not an easy task to treat allergic rhinitis, especially in children, special attention should be paid to preventive measures.

Prevention of this disease is divided into the following types:

  1. Primary. Conducted at the stage of pregnancy and the first months of life of children at risk. All possible allergenic products should be excluded from the diet of the future mother, occupational hazards, exposure to tobacco smoke (active and passive smoking) should be eliminated from the first months of pregnancy. You need to try to breastfeed your baby for at least 6 months of age as long as possible. Do not introduce prikorm up to 4 months, exclude whole cow milk. It is necessary to carry out elimination measures.
  2. Secondary. Conducted with sensitized children and is designed to prevent the manifestation of the disease. It includes observation of the environment and timely elimination of allergenic factors, preventive antihistamine therapy, allergen-specific immunotherapy, prevention of acute respiratory infections and the introduction of educational programs among the population.
  3. Tertiary. Conducted with children having a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Aims to reduce the frequency and duration of exacerbations, that is, to prevent severe disease. Includes medication and a certain organization of the child's lifestyle, which implies the elimination (elimination) of allergens.


Elimination measures depend on the type of allergen:

  • Pollen allergens. To prevent exacerbations during the flowering period, it is necessary to close the windows and doors of the apartment, transport, use cleaning and conditioning equipment. Organize walks in places of the smallest accumulation of allergens: at the stadium, on the grounds without excess vegetation. Upon returning home, take a shower and change clothes.
  • Fungus mold spores. It is necessary to regularly clean the room, especially carefully processing humidifiers for air, exhaust. Use fungicides, make sure that the humidity is not less than 50%.
  • Domestic mites and insects. As much as possible to eliminate the accumulation of dust in the room: remove the carpets, change the furniture with fabric upholstery to the one that can be regularly washed. Wash baby's clothes, bedding and soft toys as often as possible, clean pillows and mattresses. Replace curtains with blinds.
  • Wool and waste products of animals. Refuse to keep pets.
  • Food. Follow a certain diet. Most often, allergies are caused by dairy products, eggs, nuts and citrus fruits. Нужно также отказаться от продуктов, содержащих пищевые добавки (колбасы, газировки, чипсы и т. д.).

Do not neglect the rules of prevention, properly organized elimination measures can reduce the manifestations of allergy to zero (especially in mild form), and primary and secondary measures will prevent the manifestation of allergic rhinitis.

General information about the disease

Allergic rhinitis is isolated as a separate disease. This is an IgE-dependent inflammation of the nasal mucosa, which is caused by various types of allergens. The code of allergic rhinitis according to ICD 10 - J30.0.

In children, there are several types of allergic rhinitis:

  • acute occasional,
  • seasonal (intermittent),
  • perennial allergic rhinitis (persistent).

Acute rhinitis occurs on the background of occasional contact with an irritant. It appears almost immediately after contact with an irritant. This form of rhinitis is characterized by sudden, aggressive development. It can take a long time, even if all the necessary therapeutic measures are taken. Acute rhinitis is considered the most dangerous for a child. Against this background, bronchial asthma can often develop.

Exacerbation of seasonal allergic rhinitis is usually observed during the flowering period of plants. An allergic child in this period appears watery rhinorrhea, stuffy nose. When the season of action of the allergen passes, the child feels normal.

Year-round form is characterized by symptoms that may be weaker or stronger, but almost always present. Year-round rhinitis is considered if it manifests itself in a child from 2 times a day or at least 9 months a year.

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Causes of development

Allergy is a violent reaction of immunity to ingestion of various substances (allergens), which for some reason are perceived as foreign agents. With repeated immune response to stimuli, a pathological condition can occur. Then the nature of rhinitis can be interpreted as allergic.

The direct cause of a childhood allergic rhinitis can be:

  • some foods (milk, eggs, fish),
  • medications
  • wool, down,
  • waste products of insect parasites (excreta, chitinous envelope),
  • airborne allergens (pollen, aerosols, perfumes, cigarette smoke).

Factors indirectly influencing the development of the disease:

  • heredity,
  • repeated contact with the allergen,
  • violation of metabolic processes in the body,
  • diseases of the digestive tract,
  • physiological abnormalities of the nose,
  • low pressure,
  • frequent colds.

In children under one year, allergic forms of rhinitis almost never occur. Typical symptoms of the disease usually appear after 3-4 years. In infants often appears simple physiological rhinitis, which does not require treatment. Many parents take him for allergic.

Recently, allergic diseases occur as a reaction to the excessive desire of parents to clean. The immunity of children ceases to fight the pathogenic environment, it releases a lot of resources. As a result of this, he begins to manifest himself where he had not reacted before.

Signs and symptoms

Rhinitis may have different flow options, depending on its shape. Seasonal form is usually diagnosed in children after 4-5 years. They are exacerbated during the period of active seasonal action of the allergen.

Typical symptoms:

  • nasal congestion,
  • sneezing
  • dry cough,
  • abundant clear discharge,
  • itching in the ears, eyes, nose,
  • sore throat,
  • allergic conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eyelids, tearing,
  • sinus enlargement.

Younger children may have a more hidden picture of the course of the disease. One can guess its presence by regular attempts of a child to scratch his nose and eyes. The severity of symptoms is largely determined by the concentration of irritants in the air.

When year-round allergic rhinitis symptoms occur throughout the year.

It is characterized by:

  • constant desire to sneeze,
  • there may be bouts of dry cough,
  • bleeding from the nose due to weakening of the mucous,
  • sleep disturbance,
  • increased fatigue
  • headaches.

What is allergic rhinitis in a child?

Children with allergies may develop an acute or chronic runny nose, called allergic rhinitis.. According to statistics, in almost half of the cases (in 40% of patients), against the background of its complications, bronchial asthma is diagnosed later in life. As a rule, rhinitis of an allergic nature in children begins to appear in the period from 3 to 6 years, but in most cases they go to the doctor several years after the onset of the first symptoms. At this point, the disease often becomes chronic, which makes it difficult to treat.

Allergic rhinitis in a child occurs after the particles of allergens during breathing settle on the nasal mucosa. The following types of antigens can cause such a reaction:

  1. Household: dust, pet hair, particles of fabrics, feathers from pillows and blankets, household chemicals.
  2. Vegetable: pollen of flowering plants and their juice.
  3. Fungal. Microscopic spores of various fungi.
  4. Microbial. Appear in the presence of a nidus of infection, for example, with dental caries.
  5. Nutritional. Food, both natural (eggs, cow's milk, citrus fruits, honey and others), and containing in its composition preservatives, dyes, additives, other chemical compounds.
  6. Medicinal. Medications and vaccines.

Food and drug allergens cause allergic rhinitis in the age of 3-4 years. In preschoolers and younger schoolchildren, the disease is most often caused by inhalation types that enter the body through airborne droplets. The provoking concomitant factors are:

  • genetic predisposition
  • allergic rhinitis in the mother during pregnancy,
  • impaired metabolism
  • underdevelopment of the endocrine or nervous systems,
  • reduced immunity
  • diseases of the digestive system, especially the liver:
  • deformation of the nasal cavity
  • frequent ARD or ARVI (acute respiratory infections, acute respiratory viral infections),
  • regular use of systemic antibiotics,
  • hypovitaminosis,
  • external factors (climate, adverse weather conditions, living conditions).

Sneezing, intense soplechenie or allergic nasal congestion in a child with rhinitis may be year-round or seasonal, on this basis the following forms of the disease are distinguished:

  • Acute episodic - manifested in the form of individual one-time episodes in response to contact with the allergen.
  • Year-round (persistent) - mild symptoms of the disease alternately either increase or become quiet. Cause this type of rhinitis, as a rule, household or food allergens.
  • Seasonal (pollinosis) - symptoms are exacerbated in the spring-summer period of flowering plants.

Signs of Allergic Rhinitis in Children

For year-round rhinitis of allergic etiology characteristic constant nasal congestion. The condition is aggravated by changing weather conditions (cold, pressure drops) during infection. Against the background of the disease, otitis or sinusitis in a chronic form may develop, snoring or nasal voices may appear. PIn the acute or seasonal form of the disease in children, the clinical picture is different; it looks as follows:

  • copious copulation and mucus secretion (rhinorrhea),
  • itching in the nasal cavity
  • regular repeated sneezing
  • burning eyes or tearing
  • itchy eyelids, their swelling,
  • violation of nasal breathing due to mucous membranes,
  • appearance of congestion or tinnitus (when the process is extended to the Eustachian tube).

What is dangerous allergic rhinitis in children?

The disease itself does not threaten the child’s life, but the lack of therapy can lead to the development of a chronic form of rhinitis, fraught with serious complications (for example, bronchial asthma or chronic conjunctivitis). Chronic pathology is more difficult to treat, gives the patient constant discomfort, reduces his quality of life, affects mood, well-being and general health.

Treatment of allergic rhinitis in children

Therapy of allergic rhinitis is aimed at minimizing the effects of the allergen on the child’s body and eliminating the negative effects of this exposure. The first task is solved through compliance with the rules of hygiene and a number of the following measures:

  1. With seasonal disease, they reduce the time for walking and airing the baby’s room.. If possible, the flowering period should take the baby to the sea or to another climate. It is necessary to exclude the factor of passive smoking.
  2. Allergens containing foods are excluded from the diet.
  3. In the apartment, you must regularly carry out wet cleaning, if necessary, remove the carpets and replace the upholstered furniture (if you are allergic to dust), install an air conditioner and use an air humidifier.
  4. Pets for children with allergies to wool can not be kept.

Drug therapy

For the treatment of allergic rhinitis use drugs of different pharmacological groups, the action of which is aimed at eliminating the symptoms of the disease, suppressing the reactions causing them, preventing relapses. During therapy, systemic and topical medications are used, the following drugs may be prescribed:

  1. Antihistamines. The components of these drugs block the receptors that cause allergy symptoms by suppressing the production of histamine (the main allergic mediator) or neutralizing its action. The drugs of choice for young children are Zyrtec, Ketotifen, Claritin. After 5-7 years, Telfast, Peritol, Clarinase, Kestin, Simplex are prescribed. Preference is given to the latest generation of drugs that do not have a pronounced sedative and anticholinergic effects. Antihistamine sprays or nasal drops - Vibracil, Azelastine, Allergodil.
  2. Mast cell membrane stabilizers - Cromones (Cromolin, Lomusol and others. Means based on sodium cromoglycate) and Ketotifen. Inhibit the release of allergic allergic mediators from mast cells.
  3. Hormonal (corticosteroid). Preparations of the adrenal cortex, relieve inflammation, swelling and other allergic symptoms. Used in the form of nasal drops or sprays for moderate or severe rhinitis. Children are prescribed Fluticasone, Beclomethasone, Dexarine Spray.
  4. Vasoconstrictor drops. Restore nasal breathing. They are prescribed in severe cases, since not only they do not cure the symptoms, but they can aggravate the symptoms. Drugs of choice - Otrivin, Nazivin.
  5. Sorbents. Appointed in the acute phase of the disease, for removal from the body of allergens and toxins. Preference is given to drugs Polysorb, Enterosgel, Karbolong and their analogues.

Selection of drugs and schemes of their use should be carried out by the attending physician. With uncontrolled self-treatment, the symptoms of the disease may worsen. Possible schemes for the use of drugs of different groups:

Syrup - at the age of 2 to 12 years, the dosage is calculated depending on the weight. Tablets - for children over 12 years, 10 mg per day, divided into several doses.

Rinsing

Conducting washing the nasal cavity with saline or drugs based on it helps to relieve swelling, remove mucus, helps prevent the development of complications and frequent recurrences of rhinitis. The procedure consists in passing the drug through one nasal passage to another. To do this, you can use a small teapot or a syringe (a medical pear). Suitable for children means are:

Desensitization

This type of therapy is suitable only for those cases where the allergic antigen is well established. Treatment consists of periodic subcutaneous administration of small doses of substances that cause allergies (similar to the vaccination procedure). Over time, the body's sensitivity to it decreases and produces a comfortable resistance. Desensitization in allergic rhinitis is effective in home and seasonal allergies (to pollen, dust, pet dander, insect bites).

Differentiation of allergic rhinitis from other types

Unlike viral or catarrhal rhinitis, allergic rhinitis is not accompanied by fever. The increase may be insignificant (up to 37 o C). In the case of a cold, the temperature usually rises above 37.5 ° C. With viral infections, the child’s condition is sluggish, he has poor appetite and fatigue. The overall health of the child with allergies is satisfactory.

In allergic rhinitis, the discharge is clear and fluid. The runny nose of the bacterial nature is accompanied by thick mucous secretions of yellow or green color, sometimes with purulent impurities.

When vasomotor rhinitis, unlike allergic, nasal congestion is rarely accompanied by secretions. But the swelling of the nasal mucosa is very strong, which prevents the child from breathing. Vasomotor rhinitis is rarely accompanied by tearing of the eyes. It is very difficult for an inexperienced person to recognize and differentiate allergic rhinitis from other types of it. Therefore, it is better to turn to a pediatrician.

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Effective treatments

How to treat allergic rhinitis in children? The first thing to do is to stop the contact of the child with the allergen. It can be easy or, on the contrary, difficult, depending on its type.

Measures aimed at the termination of the allergen:

  • If you are allergic to pollen or chemicals from the air, your child should wear a gauze bandage before going outside. If this is not possible, treat the nose with Nazavalem, which will protect against the ingress of allergens.
  • If a runny nose occurs on the effect of house dust, it is recommended to carry out wet cleaning and airing several times a day. The air in the room must be humidified. You can increase the humidity using an air purifier, or put an open container with water in the room.
  • If a runny nose - a consequence of contact with the hair of domestic animals, you need to isolate them from the child.

If the cause of the allergic rhinitis is not clarified or the allergen cannot be eliminated, it is recommended to periodically flush the nasal cavity with saline (1 liter of water for 1 teaspoon salt) or with chemist's (But salt, Aqua Maris, Humer). The procedure will allow you to quickly flush the suspected allergen from the mucous membrane, preventing it from being absorbed into the blood.

Medicines

The use of medicines when justified in the case of strong rhinorrhea, when it does not allow the child to fully breathe. All medicines work to relieve symptoms and give a temporary effect. It is forbidden to give any medication without a prescription. With illiterate use, they can only aggravate the course of the disease.

The drugs of choice for pollinosis are antihistamines. Today, 1st generation drugs (Suprastin, Diazolin) are rarely used because of their sedative and anticholinergic effects on the children's body. Children are prescribed antiallergic drugs 2 and 3 generations:

To relieve swelling in the nasal cavity and facilitate breathing, use drops for allergic rhinitis:

Some of them contain vasoconstrictor substances. Therefore, more than 3-5 days they can not be used.

Means for stabilizing mast cell membranes:

Corticosteroids have shown great effectiveness in relieving acute symptoms of rhinitis: drops and spray from allergic rhinitis. They have a number of contraindications, age restrictions. These drugs can be used only under strict medical supervision:

What is not recommended

To treat allergic rhinitis folk methods is meaningless. They do not relieve the symptoms of the disease. And many products can cause irritation of the nasal mucosa, burns. Some plants are allergens themselves.

Do not use for the treatment of allergic rhinitis in children immunomodulators and vitamins. They strengthen the immune system. And allergy just occurs as an inadequate reaction of a strong immune system to certain substances. Strengthening the immune system can lead to increased allergy symptoms.

Inhalation and homeopathy are also useless. Their use can lead to inhibition of the inflammatory process, complicated by a change in the nasal mucosa, the addition of a bacterial infection.

Prevention Guidelines

In an attempt to create the most sterile conditions for the child to live, parents do not allow the immune system to work and fight against pathogenic organisms. As a result, there are various forms of allergy, as an inadequate reaction of immunity.

Useful tips will help minimize the risk of developing an allergic rhinitis:

  • During the period of pregnancy a woman to lead a healthy lifestyle, do not eat allergenic foods.
  • Medicinal products should only be taken for medical reasons. Do not self-medicate.
  • Do not smoke in the room where the child is.
  • Introduce prikorm not earlier than 6 months.
  • To conduct airing more often.
  • Remove all dust drives in the house (soft toys, carpets).
  • To choose for cleaning and cleaning home liquid products.Allergies are more likely to develop from aerosols and powders.
  • Do not use bleach in the house where there is a child.

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Citrus decoction

We continue to share with you the folk remedies for rhinitis, and now it is the turn to talk about citrus fruits. Citrus decoction strengthens the immune system and has an anti-inflammatory effect, which removes the unpleasant symptoms of allergies. The treatment is carried out as follows: peeled and chopped fruits of grapefruit and lemon are poured with a glass of water and boiled for 15 minutes. After this, cool the broth, mix with honey and take it at your pleasure. You will not notice how allergic rhinitis will disappear forever.

Infusion of calendula is ideal for washing the eyes, which often react to allergens. This remedy soothes conjunctival irritation and reduces persistent itching. If you have allergic cough and rhinitis, take calendula infusion inside. To do this, 2 tablespoons of flowers pour 500 ml of boiling water, cool and strain.

If you treat rhinitis, then in addition to tinctures and decoctions, use inhalation. For a better effect, you can add essential oils of eucalyptus or fir, medicinal herbs, or use any other folk remedies.

Especially rhinitis "does not like" garlic fumes, so a few chopped cloves of garlic are recommended to be added to the hot water you breathe over. Inhalation treatment is carried out every night before bed, until rhinitis disappears completely.

Sweatshops

Remember that this procedure should be carried out on clean skin, so pre-take a shower. You need to be in the bath for at least 20 minutes for the dandelion to work. Then it is recommended to lie down in bed.

Sweatshops help to excrete substances that cause allergies and cause rhinitis. Traditional healers often recommend using dandelion for such baths. Pour 100 g of flowers of this plant with three liters of water, bring to a boil and boil for 5-7 minutes. Cool, strain, and pour it all into a bath.

Olive oil

If you have an allergic cough and rhinitis, try this recipe. Using a brush, apply a thin layer of olive oil onto the nasal mucosa. This layer of fat plays the role of a filter, so all vegetable pollen, household dust and other allergens will remain in the oil, besides, you will remove irritation of the nasal mucosa.

What allergens cause rhinitis? How to avoid it?

The most common sensitizing allergens are such substances:

  • plant pollen (from trees, grass, weeds)
  • house spores of mushrooms (Alternaria, Cladosporium)

Persistent allergic cough and rhinitis are caused by prolonged exposure to allergens, such as:

  • dust mites
  • animal allergens
  • room spores mold.

To reduce exposure to house dust mites, take the following measures:

  1. eliminate the source of dust - discard carpets, curtains and upholstered furniture in the house, or regularly clean them,
  2. keep books and magazines on shelves
  3. disinfect sheets, pillows, blankets. Periodically place the bedding in the freezer for several hours,
  4. clean your plush toys with a vacuum cleaner with a set of high-performance filters, or use a water vacuum cleaner,
  5. use silicone mattresses, blankets and pillows (dust mites do not get inside them)
  6. Ventilate the area regularly to reduce the concentration of allergens,
  7. keep the temperature in the room no more than 18-20 ° С, and the humidity of the air no more than 50%,
  8. go on vacation to the mountain areas

If allergic cough and rhinitis are caused by fungal spores, protect yourself in the following ways:

  1. Ventilate the apartment regularly to reduce the level of humidity and reduce the concentration of allergens,
  2. avoid wet walls, as the fungus breeds on them,
  3. cover the walls in the house with antifungal paint,
  4. wipe the bathroom floor dry, pay special attention to cleaning the inter-tile space,
  5. remove potted plants that require frequent watering,
  6. remove spoiled food from the refrigerator in time,
  7. wash the fridge regularly,
  8. Use room humidifiers.

To prevent rhinitis due to pollen allergens, do this prevention:

  • apply air filters in the house and car,
  • during the flowering of allergenic plants try to go out less often,
  • put a mosquito net on the windows with a pollen retention function,
  • close the windows in the child’s bedroom at night
  • wash the exposed parts of the body (face, neck) after returning home,
  • go for a walk after a heavy rain or in the evening
  • mow the grass in the garden, not allowing it to bloom,
  • take a shower more often.

In order to avoid exposure to pet allergens and prevent rhinitis, you will need:

  • remove the animal from the house if possible
  • if you do not want to refuse a pet, more often bathe him
  • clean carpets and upholstered furniture, because there may be allergens.

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A runny nose or scientifically rhinitis is a symptom of many diseases and painful conditions of the human body. It often happens in children, because their immune systems are weaker than in adults. And in order for rhinitis in a child not to become chronic, it is necessary to carry out its treatment in a timely manner, initially making a correct diagnosis, determining the cause that provoked the appearance of a rhinitis, having understood whether it is allergic or viral.

Depending on the factors that provoked the appearance of rhinitis in children or adults, there are several types of it: vasomatical, allergic (seasonal and year-round), and rhinitis, which is one of the symptoms of diseases such as measles, scarlet fever, ARVI, influenza, etc. Accordingly, for the treatment of each of these types should be used different drugs - those that in a particular case will be the most effective.

Proper diagnosis is the key to successful treatment. But doctors can make mistakes in diagnoses, so a person himself should know what distinctive features each type of rhinitis has, at least, the most common, such as allergic.

Features of the manifestation and diagnosis of allergic rhinitis

Before considering the treatment of allergic rhinitis in children, it is necessary to understand the reasons that provoke its appearance. In the role of allergens can be:

  • plant pollen,
  • house and book dust,
  • pet hair, dry food, care products,
  • personal care products for children
  • Food,
  • medications,
  • cold,
  • tobacco smoke,
  • chemical substances.

Regardless of the cause of the factor that provoked the development of allergic rhinitis in a child, the symptoms of the disease will be about the same. Only having studied them, it is possible to notice the problem in time, to consult a doctor for recommendations regarding treatment. In children, the main symptoms of allergic rhinitis will be as follows:

  • sneezing, itchy nose,
  • nasal congestion,
  • labored breathing,
  • copious mucus
  • swelling of the nasal mucosa,
  • headache,
  • sleep disorders.

If there are similar symptoms, and they are retained in children for more than one week, do not have a tendency to decrease, the child should be shown to a doctor. He will give direction to the examination, after which he will be able to give recommendations regarding treatment.

Allergic rhinitis is diagnosed in children is very simple. To do this, you need to pass a blood test to understand that symptoms of allergic, and not any other type of rhinitis, really occur. Next, you will need to undergo an allergic test that can show what substance caused the child’s condition.

Types of allergic rhinitis and its treatment

It was mentioned above that there are two types of allergic rhinitis. It is seasonal and year-round. The first is distinguished by the fact that it is caused by pollen of plants, therefore it appears only during their flowering period. The latter is observed almost all year round, provoked by house dust, pet hair, any allergens that surround the child constantly. Depending on which type of rhinitis is diagnosed in a particular case, the treatment of allergic rhinitis will be different.

Seasonal allergic rhinitis will have to be treated as follows:

  • stop any contact with the allergen,
  • take immunostimulating drugs
  • drink antihistamines,
  • conduct local treatment.

As for the first recommendation, it is difficult to protect the child from the pollen of plants, because then you have to close all the windows and not go out. But you can significantly reduce the symptoms, if you bypass the side of the flower beds and plants that cause allergies.

If there is no air conditioning at home, and the window has to be opened, then it should be hung with damp gauze folded several times. This will protect the room from getting into respiratory allergens.

It will be more difficult to treat year-round allergic rhinitis. Here the first thing to do is to eliminate any contact with the allergen. If it is a pet, then it will have to be given into good hands, if the means to care for it is changed to others. When the reason is in house dust, then it will be more difficult, because it will not be possible to completely get rid of it, you can only reduce the amount due to constant wet cleaning of the apartment. When a child has an allergy to dust mites to increase the effectiveness of treatment, it is recommended to get rid of feather and down pillows, mattresses, blankets, to replace all this with analogues with synthetic filler. After taking such measures, the symptoms of year-round allergic rhinitis should subside.

Treatment for the child will be as follows:

  • systematic irrigation of the nose with saline, which can even be prepared by yourself,
  • antihistamine drugs.

It should be understood that when there is a year-round allergic rhinitis, the effect of allergens on the body occurs constantly. Accordingly, as soon as the child stops taking antihistamines, the symptoms will resume. To the treatment of allergic rhinitis was more effective, it is necessary to consider the treatment of folk remedies, as one of the noteworthy options.

There are many different recipes that can be used to treat children. It is only necessary to responsibly consider the choice of one - the most appropriate. Consider the most popular ways to eliminate allergic rhinitis folk remedies:

  • sea ​​buckthorn oil - just need a few drops of children in each new move 3-4 times a day,
  • mummy - dilute 1 gram of mummy in a liter of water, wait until it brightens. Take 50 ml of children aged 1-3 years, 70 ml of children aged 4-7 years,
  • raspberry roots - 50 gr. roots pour 500 ml of hot water, simmer for 40 minutes. Take the filtered broth 2 tablespoons three times a day.

Such treatment folk remedies is considered the safest for the child. But you need to be careful even with him. It is recommended first to consult a doctor.

Children who are treated with folk remedies may simply be allergic to one of their components. In this case, the condition will only worsen. That is why, before embarking on decoctions and tinctures, you must pass an allergic test.

It is worth noting that the treatment of folk remedies in the case when year-round allergic rhinitis is diagnosed, is suitable because it can take a long time. However, any antihistamine drugs are not recommended to take more than a few months in a row. But anyway, before treating an allergic rhinitis in this way, particularly in children, it is imperative that you undergo an examination and consult a doctor.

Vasomotor rhinitis

One of the types of allergic rhinitis in children is vasomotor rhinitis. This is rhinitis, which is accompanied by a violation of the neuro-reflex mechanisms of reaction to any reflex stimuli: cold, sharp odors. Such rhinitis is called neurovegetative or allergic. In this case, as soon as the child goes out into the cold or hears sharp odors, numerous symptoms of vasomotor allergic rhinitis begin to appear:

  • itchy nose
  • sneezing
  • copious nasal discharge
  • headache.

After returning from a cold, the symptoms of rhinitis subside, the general condition improves.

For the treatment of vasomotor allergic rhinitis in most cases use irrigation of the nasal passages. It is performed using special salt solutions, helps to restore the morphofunctionality of the mucous membrane, reduce the response to cold, sharp odors.

Saline solution for the treatment of allergic vasomotor rhinitis can be prepared independently by diluting a teaspoon of sea salt in a liter of water. It is also possible to purchase saline in the pharmacy. As for efficacy, it has no fundamental differences between these drugs.

Also, when vasomotor rhinitis is to apply and precautions, for example, going out in the cold, you should:

  • dress according to the weather
  • as much as possible to protect your face from the cold,
  • stay in the cold for a minimum amount of time
  • before going cold, lubricate the nasal passages with oxolinic ointment or equivalent.

If it happens that vasomotor allergic rhinitis is accompanied by hypertrophy of the mucous membrane or nasal concha, then surgery or photodynamic therapy can be applied. Very often, the cause of this disease are adenoids, after the removal of which in children the painful reaction to cold and other irritants disappears.

Summing up, we note - in order to understand how to cure allergic rhinitis, you need to correctly determine its appearance and cause. Also, in no case should you engage in self-therapy, at least without fail, before you treat allergic rhinitis yourself, visit a doctor for advice.

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