Gynecology

HIV and AIDS, modes of transmission

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HIV infection - the plague is not only XX, but XXI century. Every year the number of people who received HIV infection, unfortunately, is steadily increasing. Doctors around the world are sounding the alarm, urging humanity to common sense - the infection spreads with cosmic speed, and now there are very few areas in which there was not even one sick person. However, despite the scale of the disaster, every attempt and precautionary measures increase the chances of victory in this struggle for the life and health of the population of the entire globe.

To know how to effectively deal with the disease and prevent infection, it is important first of all to study what HIV is. Ways of transmitting this infection, its differences from AIDS, symptoms and basic precautions - this is the topic of our conversation today. So.

What is HIV?

The abbreviation of HIV stands for simple: human immunodeficiency virus. Already from the name it becomes clear that the pathogenic bacteria attack the immune system. Leukocytes fall under the scope, contributing to the elimination of various harmful microorganisms and fungi from the body. As soon as the number of white blood cells decreases, the person becomes extremely susceptible to various kinds of infectious diseases.

People with HIV are doomed to death, since the immunodeficiency virus acts throughout life, and a person can even die from the most primitive ARVI. However, it is possible to survive with HIV infection for two or three years, and ten years.

Is HIV and AIDS the same thing?

Do not confuse HIV with AIDS. AIDS is the very last stage of the disease we are considering. The abbreviation stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, and the statement that you can get this disease is fundamentally wrong. It is HIV that causes AIDS, so the symptoms of the syndrome can be eliminated, but the virus itself can be cured - alas. In this regard, AIDS is considered fatal, as it occurs at the very end of the disease and invariably leads to a tragic end.

Source or HIV carrier

HIV-infected people are called carriers of this virus, regardless of the stage of the disease, whether it is an incubation period or a terminal period. Infection from the source of the disease is possible at any stage of the disease, but contact with the carrier at the end of incubation and at later stages is the most likely. A person can only be infected with HIV.

Now that we have understood what HIV is and who can become a carrier of the virus, consider the possible ways of infection with this infection.

Ways of HIV transmission

Transmission of HIV can only be done in three ways:

  1. From mother to newborn.
  2. Sexually.
  3. Through the blood.

Theoretically, there is another way of infection - the transplantation and transplantation of various organs and tissues from one person to another, as well as artificial insemination of women. However, due to rigorous testing and numerous checks of biological material, the possibility of virus infection is thus reduced to absolute zero.

Note that the paths mentioned above are listed from the least common to the most relevant. Consider each of them separately.

Mother-to-Newborn Transmission

Infection with HIV can occur both during gestation, and during childbirth, and later during breastfeeding. This method of infection at the moment is the least possible of the three above, since modern medicine offers various preventive measures based on the use of chemotherapy drugs. They reduce the risk of having children infected with HIV by a few percent. As for breastfeeding, only artificial compounds are used here.

It is possible to confirm HIV infection in a child only after reaching the age of 1.5 years. However, it is possible to get some information even earlier, during the first month of the baby's life. To do this, the child takes blood for analysis, but the result will be reliable by only 90%.

In this regard, every pregnant woman should be tested for HIV in order to avoid a worsening of the situation and transmission of infection to the fetus by positive results, or, on the contrary, undesirable effects on the body by certain drugs, the use of which is unacceptable in the above conditions.

Sexual transmission of HIV

Unprotected sex - a real scourge among homosexuals, drug addicts, prostitutes, as well as those who practice casual sexual relationships. The risk of infection among the representatives of this contingent exceeds the limit. Moreover, HIV in women is not less common than in men. According to statistics, more than 85% of respondents were infected through sexual intercourse. If, prior to contact with a carrier, a person already had any inflammatory diseases, the risk of infection increases several times.

HIV transmission through blood

HIV infection through the blood is the most common way to get the disease. Earn a dangerous virus through:

- collective use of disposable syringes and needles,

- non-sterile surgical instruments,

- violation of hygienic rules for the operation of cosmetology and dental equipment,

- blood and plasma transfusions without prior testing.

How to get HIV

For complete literacy in this matter, you should know how to get HIV. We described the ways of transmission of the virus above, now let's remember the factors that should in no way affect the position of an infected person in society:

- body contacts, including kisses, provided that the skin has no open scratches, wounds, abrasions,

- food and drinkable liquids,

- public toilets, showers, swimming pools, seats and handrails in transport,

- cough, sneezing, sweat, tears, breathing,

- animals and insects, including bloodsucking.

Despite this, there are many myths about the fact that you can pick up a virus at any time. Even if you sleep with an infected person in the same bed and eat from the same plate, you can never get HIV - the transmission routes work exclusively in three cases already known to us.

HIV infection conditions

Despite the sufficient ease with which a known virus can be picked up, during its transmission some conditions must be met:

- the infection must enter the endangered organism with special biological secretions that have an increased concentration of bacteria,

- for the growth of the hearth is necessary to penetrate into the body itself. If the covers are not damaged, this is simply not possible.

The virus is present in all fluids that the human body is capable of producing. But at the same time, its concentration in some secrets is much greater than in others. For example, saliva, sweat, tears. urine when injected into a foreign body cannot promote HIV infection. Transmission paths are not important here, only if the surface of the skin or mucous membranes is not damaged. In other cases, it will take whole liters of these fluids to infect a healthy body.

But such secretions as sperm, predakjakulyat, vaginal secrets, as well as breast milk and blood already carry potential danger. After any of the above fluids enters the fertile environment, the susceptibility level of the affected organism comes into force. Shows the virus itself in any case, but how soon - depends on the genes, human susceptibility of various kinds of diseases, the presence of aggravating conditions and other factors.

HIV symptoms

Now let's talk about how the virus can manifest itself externally. Although it is not possible to determine HIV in men or women in the initial stages in most cases, there are still some symptoms associated with this disease.

Each organism is individual; therefore, it is rather problematic to determine the characteristic features. The latest HIV statistic suggests that the first symptoms can be detected both two weeks after infection and two months later. In individual cases, the signs can disappear indefinitely in order to subsequently resume with a new force.

If you find yourself having symptoms such as:

- enlarged lymph nodes,

- regular occurrence of herpes,

- increased body temperature,

- frequent respiratory diseases,

- candidiasis and vaginal inflammation in women,

But do not blame everything on a variety of viral and colds. Carefully analyze your recent behavior and the presence of possible factors that could have contributed to the virus infection, and go to the doctor, and then donate blood for HIV.

It should be remembered that the virus in the initial stages behaves very secretively. Even laboratory tests cannot recognize a hidden infection. And only a few years later, the disease can manifest itself so vividly that doctors no longer have any doubts about the infection of a person.

How many live with HIV?

This question is the most burning for those who received an HIV-positive result. If we compare the possibilities of modern medicine with the fact that there were 10-15 years ago, it is easy to see that infected citizens began to live a little longer. However, the main criterion for this was not only the improvement of medical preparations and technologies, but also the recognition and acceptance by the sick of some undeniable requirements regarding the new way of life, which they now have to comply with.

The results of a study of the life expectancy of HIV-infected cannot be brought under any possible logical pattern. Some carriers of the virus can live to a great age, while others do not stretch and 5 years. If all indicators are averaged, it turns out that HIV-infected people live for about 10-12 years, but all the faces are so blurred and relative that it makes no sense to clearly state the duration.

The only thing that can contribute to the prolongation of the patient's life is the strict observance of the following rules:

- exclude (or at least significantly limit) the amount of nicotine, alcohol and drugs used,

- exercise regularly, ideally - to do sports,

- take vitamin complexes and means to strengthen the immune system,

- go to a healthy diet,

- regularly visit the attending specialist.

Although it is still too early to talk about a complete victory over the virus, however, the fact that scientists are able to control it today speaks for itself.

Ways to protect against HIV infection and precautions

Knowledge is the most important weapon against HIV. Ways of transmission of the infection are already known to us, therefore it now remains only to supplement this awareness. Preventive measures to prevent infection by the virus are as follows:

- Use condoms during sexual intercourse. Do not allow sperm, blood, partner’s vaginal fluid,

- carefully select sexual partners. The more your chosen one or the chosen one of third-party and unprotected sexual relationships, the higher the probability of getting an infection,

- yourself be faithful to your partner,

- Avoid group sex,

- do not take other people's personal hygiene items (razors, toothbrushes),

- be extremely careful and attentive in unfamiliar public places,

- Watch what your children are playing with. There are frequent cases of use of syringes on the grounds and in the sandboxes,

- Use only sterilized surgical instruments and syringes no more than once. Demand the same from the tattooists and cosmetologists whose services you applied for,

- If you are a pregnant woman with suspected immunodeficiency virus, do not be lazy to donate blood for HIV. If you get a positive result, contact a specialist. He will prescribe the necessary drugs to minimize the risk of giving birth to an unhealthy child.

The main danger of HIV infection is that for a very long time the virus does not manifest itself. During these periods, the carrier of the disease can infect other people without knowing anything about their condition. That is why it is important to know about the existence of such a disease as HIV, the ways of its spread and the precautionary measures that must be followed in order to fully protect themselves and their loved ones from harm.

AIDS and HIV: Is AIDS transmitted in everyday life?

Whatever the cause of the disease, the main ways of HIV infection are reduced to an infected person experiencing any of the stages of HIV infection, not excluding the incubation period.

The most likely way of contracting HIV is the end of the incubation period (when a sufficient amount of antibodies to the virus begins to be produced), as well as the time of the primary symptoms and the late stage of the disease.

How is AIDS transmitted? What ways does the infection enter the human body? The process is preceded by certain factors contributing to infection, after which the membranes of the recipient’s face accept biological material containing the pathogenic virus.

AIDS virus

Before discussing the topic of transmission in detail, it is worthwhile to understand the unjustifiably identified terms. What is HIV and AIDS? Immediately give the definition of the above concepts. Human immunodeficiency virus is an infection that affects human immunity. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or AIDS is the period in which this infection process proceeds or is the final stage of the disease that causes the patient to die.

So, the ways of HIV transmission, like AIDS, come down to two main areas:

  • parenteral (through infected blood). A person becomes infected in the case of the injection injection of infected narcotic components, the use of used syringes and needles, the transfusion of the patient’s blood, as well as the use of untreated tools for hygiene measures,
  • sexually. A person becomes infected as a result of sexual intercourse with the sick.

Attention! You should not try to identify the symptoms, clinical signs of an infected person immediately after the intended infection. The clinical picture appears only in the final stage of the incubation period (several months later). During this period, somatic cells begin to produce antibodies.

In addition to the above paths, there is a way for vertical transmission of HIV infection. We are talking about the case of intrauterine infection of the child (during pregnancy, childbirth) or during breastfeeding.

Let's talk about each of the ways of infection in more detail.

Can you get HIV by mouth?

A moot point. Experts say that the risk of contracting AIDS in the process of oral caress is small. Heterosexual research conducted in Spain is cited as a scientific base. The study involved partners with opposite HIV status. As a result, 9,000 acts of oral proximity did not result in a single infection.

If HIV infection is transmitted through seminal fluid and vaginal discharge, it is logical to assume that the act of oral sex should not be completed by ejaculation. In some cases, the risk of infection increases with the presence of wounds in the mouth of the partner.

The risk of infection during cunnilingus is almost zero. However, considering the possible ways of spreading the infection, it is worth noting: the most favorable set of circumstances is observed only in the absence of menstrual flow in an HIV-infected woman at the time of oral caresses.

Attention! The minimum percentage of AIDS cases in the process of oral sex does not relieve partners from responsibility. Oral sexual intercourse cannot be completely excluded from the list of HIV transmission methods.

Is HIV transmitted through oral sex: look at the statistics

According to statistics, sexually transmitted infections, including AIDS, can overtake a person with unprotected oral caress. Oral sex with a man confronts the “host” side with an infection risk of approximately 0.04% (the data are based on the release of sperm at the end of the act).

The probability of infection "introducing" is close to zero. Why? The male sexual organ contacts only with the partner's saliva, unless, of course, an alternative infectious medium is present - blood from open wounds in the mouth.

Is HIV transmitted through a condom?

The risk of contracting AIDS during sex with a condom is almost zero. Это утверждение правдиво только в случае правильного использования барьерного контрацептива.

Если презерватив эксплуатируется неправильно, возрастает вероятность его разрыва, спадания, а вместе с тем и заражения синдромом приобретенного иммунодефицита.

Is HIV transmitted through kiss?

A small percentage of the virus is present in the salivary fluid of an infected person. However, after 15 years of research, scientists have concluded that the probability of transmission through a kiss is negligible. A virus can be transmitted to a man or a woman in the process of a kiss only if there is bleeding damage in the mouth.

How 100% is not transmitted by kissing HIV - you ask. A kiss on the cheek, a simple kiss on the lips (excluding contact with the partner's mucous membrane) definitely will not cause AIDS.

Is HIV transmitted through saliva?

Saliva, like sweat and tears, contains very few viral particles. How can you get HIV through this biological material? We'll have to collect at least 2 liters of sweat, along the bath of saliva and tears, to ensure a real risk of infection. Therefore, saliva cannot be considered a complete medium for transmission of the virus.

Attention!HIV is not transmitted through saliva, however, this way you can “catch” herpes, syphilis and a number of other serious diseases.

Is HIV transmitted through handshakes or hugs?

The intact skin surface is the natural barrier to this infection. Therefore, it is impossible to get AIDS with a handshake or a hug.

What about scratches and abrasions? To ensure even the smallest risk of infection, it is necessary that a large amount of blood (saliva, urine, tears) be in the area of ​​a fresh bleeding wound. Given the above fact, the possibility of HIV transmission in this way can be completely excluded.

How is HIV transmitted at home?

The question of the possibility of transmission of the virus in the domestic environment bothered scientists and physicians from different countries several decades ago. Today, professionals have come to a consensus. They found that the infection by household means is almost impossible.

It was possible to come to this conclusion after studying the behavior of viral particles outside the inhabited organism of the infected person. Scientists have determined the susceptibility of the virus to oxygen. This means that the pathogenic molecule outside the environment dies and is not capable of infection.

Razor, toothbrush - is there a risk of infection?

The most likely case of domestic virus infection through razors. For example, if an infected person gets hurt while shaving, and after a short period of time, another family member with a bleeding scratch or abrasion on his body used his razor, there is a risk of getting HIV.

A similar parallel can be drawn in the case of a toothbrush. Saliva is practically safe in this respect, but there are no bleeding gums.

Attention! The most reliable way to prevent infection is to use personal hygiene products.

How to get infected in the bath, the pool?

The risk of HIV infection in the bath, pool, bath is minimal. The fact is that biological materials with a high concentration of the virus (blood, semen, vaginal secretions, breast milk) are neutralized by contact with water (the virus dies quickly). In addition, the skin is the most resistant barrier to infection.

What makes you get HIV in a place like this? No matter how trite it may sound, but the only way to get infected in a bath, sauna or swimming pool is an intimate connection without a condom.

Can I get HIV through the air?

Is HIV transmitted by airborne droplets? In contrast, various viral infections of HIV are not transmitted through air and water. This statement is confirmed by the fact of the loss of vital activity of virus particles upon contact with oxygen. Even in the last stage of the disease (AIDS), the infection is not transmitted by airborne droplets. This means that being in the same room with the sick, you should not be afraid for your own health.

Is infection possible with insect bites?

The role of insects as carriers of the virus has not yet been confirmed. This fact is explained by the impossibility of particles to multiply in the body of mosquitoes, midges, ticks. The likelihood that a virus will end up on damaged skin and mucous membranes, thanks to an insect that has carried particles on its sting or trunk, is minimal.

Who is at risk?

Among those who, for one reason or another, are most susceptible to AIDS infection:

  • promiscuous sex workers (through biological fluids: vaginal secretions, sperm),
  • people who inject drugs (infection can occur with a single syringe, needle),
  • homosexual men (anal contact),
  • people who are interested in unprotected sex (any of its varieties),
  • people who have received blood transfusions from another person (who has become infected),
  • children of sick mothers,
  • suffering from venereal diseases (syphilis, chlamydia, herpes, etc.),
  • employees of medical institutions (in case of non-observance of sanitary and hygienic standards in contact with the patient, manipulation of syringes and needles),
  • beauty specialists (manicure, pedicure, tattoo, etc.). Infection occurs as a result of damage to the skin or mucous membranes.

In theory, absolutely everyone who neglects preventive measures can become infected with AIDS from the patient.

Is HIV transmitted to a child?

As shown by research data, the child can become infected from a pregnant mother as early as 8-12 weeks. However, most often the infection occurs during childbirth (the situation is most dangerous if there are birth complications).

Medicine is developing, and one of the main achievements of AIDS prevention is to reduce the risk of infecting the infant during birth.

In the absence of a therapeutic treatment, the risk of the birth of sick children in women who are ill is 15–25%, and special treatment during pregnancy can not only slow down the development of the disease in the female body, but also reduce the percentage by 2/3. This means that today an HIV-positive woman has a real chance to give birth to a healthy child.

Vertical path

The infection is transmitted from the sick mother to the child during the gestation of the fetus (by means of the placenta), during childbirth (through blood) or during lactation (with milk). All of these options represent the vertical method of HIV transmission.

There is an extensive list of factors that influence the likelihood of mother-to-child transmission of the virus. For the convenience of perception, let's arrange the information in the form of a table:

Preventive measures

Prevention of infection is to comply with a number of important, but simple recommendations:

  • abandon promiscuous sex life. For sexual intercourse with a casual partner, always use a barrier method of contraception - a condom,
  • exclude injecting drugs. You can become infected with HIV in a intoxicated state by using a single syringe or needle among several drug addicts, including those who may be infected with HIV,
  • Follow medical advice and preventive measures to prevent infecting the child. Such advice can be found in the plan for preparing a pregnant woman for childbirth and the subsequent care of a newborn. In particular, it is necessary to exclude breastfeeding,
  • get tested regularly for infection. If a virus is found, immediately start treating AIDS,
  • treat STDs in a timely manner,
  • use only your personal hygiene items (manicure accessories, razor, toothbrush, etc.),
  • use only sterile instruments when piercing the lobes, knocking out the tattoo,
  • working in the field of medical care, appropriately equip the workplace, where you have to contact with blood and other biological materials,
  • As a medical professional, do not neglect the use of sterile gloves during contact with patients.

Particular attention should be paid to medical prevention, which is expressed in the complex of measures aimed at early diagnosis and reducing the possibility of further development of the disease.

The described preventive methods imply primary prevention - a set of procedures necessary to prevent infection in a healthy population.

This group also includes secondary prevention, aimed at appropriate work with many people who are potentially at risk (drug addicts, street children, homosexuals).

And finally, tertiary prevention, consisting of a set of activities organized to improve the quality of life of people struggling with the disease.

In conclusion, we formulate the conclusions, logically arising from the above information.

The main source of infection in the case of HIV infection is a sick person. After HIV infection, an incubation period follows, which is characterized by the practical absence of characteristic symptoms. From the beginning of the final stage of the “starting” period, the patient acquires the status of a carrier of infection, the virus is detected in the laboratory.

It is possible to get infected from an HIV-infected person in two ways: through the patient's blood or as a result of unprotected sexual intercourse with a carrier. According to statistics, sex without a condom is most often the cause of infection.

The vertical transmission path of the virus involves the transfer of virus particles from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding. Taking appropriate medication during gestation increases the possibility of having a healthy baby.

Each member of modern society must adhere to a number of recommendations aimed at preventing a deadly disease. The actions of the individual are aimed mainly at ensuring security during sexual intercourse, maintaining personal hygiene, and observing sanitary and hygienic measures upon contact with an infected person.

HIV features

Carriers of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), according to scientists, were firstly known both people, from whom people later became infected on the African continent.

Due to the large-scale migration of the population, the virus has spread throughout the world.

HIV is a retrovirus that enters the human body and does not manifest itself in any way, the person infected does not even suspect it. After entering the body, the virus can behave differently. 70% of those infected (about a month later) develop an acute phase of HIV infection, which manifests itself with symptoms resembling mononucleosis or a common acute respiratory infection, and therefore is not diagnosed.

It would be possible to diagnose the disease using PCR, but after all, this rather expensive analysis would have to be assigned to each patient with acute respiratory infections. Quite quickly, the patient recovers and feels completely normal, unaware of his infection. This phase is called asymptomatic.

Antibodies to the virus begin to develop far from immediately after infection in the body. Sometimes it takes 3, and sometimes 6 months, while specific antibodies will be found in the blood that confirm the disease. The maximum duration of this period, when the virus is already in the body, and there are no antibodies yet, 12 months. They call it a period of seroconversion or a seronegative window.

This period of imaginary well-being can last 10 or more years. But an infected person can infect other people through various ways of transmitting HIV.

To do this, you only need to achieve a certain concentration of the virus in the body of the infected. And since the virus multiplies at a tremendous rate, soon all the biological fluids of an infected person contain HIV, only in different concentrations.

Fortunately, the virus is not resistant outside the human body. He dies when heated to 57 0 C for half an hour, and when boiling in the first minute. Alcohol, acetone and common disinfectants also have a destructive effect. On the surface of intact skin, the virus is destroyed by enzymes and other bacteria.

The difficulty in combating HIV is that it is very mutant, even in one organism it has different structures. Therefore, a vaccine against HIV has not yet been created. Once in the body, HIV infects immune cells, rendering a person vulnerable to any kind of infection.

Ways of spreading the disease

How HIV infection occurs - bothers many people living or working alongside the infected. Experts have proved that the concentration of the virus, sufficient to infect another person, is in the blood, semen and vaginal secretions, in breast milk. It is with these biological substances that HIV transmission methods are associated.

There are 3 ways of HIV transmission:

  1. The most common mode of HIV infection is sexual way. Infection occurs through unprotected sex. Moreover, it affects the diversity of methods of HIV transmission - during homosexual contacts, with vaginal, oral, anal sex.

Numerous connections of prostitutes, homosexual relations are the most dangerous. With anal sex, microtraumatic lesions occur in the rectum, which increase the risk of infection. Women who have sex with an HIV-infected partner are more vulnerable: she becomes infected in 3p. more often than a man from an infected partner.

The presence of cervical erosion, an inflammatory process in the genitals, increases the possibility of infection. There are about 30 sexually transmitted diseases or STDs. Many of them develop an inflammatory process, therefore STDs significantly increase the likelihood of HIV transmission. The possibility of infection increases for both partners during sex during menstruation.

With oral sexual contact, the probability of infection is somewhat less, but it is. Many people are wondering: is it possible to transmit HIV through a single sexual contact? Unfortunately, an infection can also be transmitted in this case. That is why one of the indications for carrying out medical emergency prevention of infection is the rape of a woman.

  1. HIV is also transmitted easily through blood. This path is called parenteral. With this method of infection, virus transmission is possible through blood transfusion, organ or tissue transplantation, and manipulation with non-sterile instruments (including syringes).

For infection, it is enough that one ten-thousandth part of a milliliter of blood gets into another organism - that amount is invisible to the human eye. If the smallest blood particle of an infected person gets into the body of a healthy person, then the probability of infection is almost 100%.

Such situations can occur when applying a tattoo, piercing the ears, piercing not in a specialized salon, but by random people. Infection can occur during manicure / pedicure using raw tools. Rinsing with water is not enough to remove residual blood. Instruments must be fully processed (disinfected and sterilized).

Infection through donor blood is unlikely, since the harvested blood is rechecked not only after it was collected, but an additional survey of donors is carried out after 6 months to exclude the period of seroconversion at the time of blood donation. Harvested blood all this time is in the blood bank transfusion stations and is issued only after rechecking.

In dental offices and clinics, in the surgical service, instruments undergo sterilization in addition to disinfection in dry-heat ovens or in autoclaves. Therefore, the risk of infection in medical institutions is minimized.

The most relevant way of contracting HIV through blood is for people who inject drugs. Many of them are trying to reassure themselves in the matter of HIV infection by using disposable syringes. However, when buying a dose from a drug dealer, they cannot be sure that a substance already previously infected is not collected in the disposable syringe brought.

Sometimes drug users use a common syringe, changing only the needles, although with intravenous injection, blood necessarily enters the syringe and infects it.

In everyday life, infection can occur when using someone else's or a common razor. Family members of an infected person can also become infected when they give help without rubber gloves in case of injury or a cut.

  1. Vertical by HIV infection is called the transmission of the virus from an infected mother to a child. How is HIV transmitted in this case? The ways of getting HIV for a child can be different:
  • firstly, the virus is able to overcome the placental barrier and then the fetus is infected in utero,
  • secondly, infection can occur directly during childbirth,
  • thirdly, the mother can infect the baby through breast milk.

You can prevent infection of your baby with the help of free preventive treatment with antiviral drugs, if a woman has applied to the antenatal clinic during pregnancy and has completed all the necessary research.

In order to reduce the risk of infecting a child, in some cases a cesarean section is given. Младенец также в течение 28 дней получает противовирусные препараты, выданные бесплатно.

После рождения ребенка рекомендуют кормить молочными смесями. Бывают, однако, случаи, когда анализы в период беременности были отрицательными, так как был период серонегативного окна (сероконверсии). In this case, the baby will get the virus through the milk while breastfeeding.

When infection does not occur

Despite the fact that the virus is in any body fluid, its concentration in them is different. So, tears, sweat, saliva, feces and urine do not play an epidemiological role, since they do not lead to infection of another person. Liters of tears or sweat would be needed, for example, so that they could transmit the virus when they hit healthy skin. True, infection is possible when kissing, if blood enters the saliva during bleeding gums.

Infection does not threaten in such cases:

  1. Fortunately, HIV is a virus that is not transmitted by airborne droplets. Staying in the same room with the infected is not dangerous.
  2. There is no danger of using one toilet, bathroom, common dishes or a towel.
  3. You can not catch in the pool.
  4. You can safely use one phone, not to be afraid of a handshake with an infected person.
  5. HIV is not transmitted by animals or by insect bites.
  6. Water and food routes of infection are also excluded.

Risk group

Considering the possible ways of spreading the disease, physicians identify a risk group that includes:

  • injecting drug users
  • people with gay (homosexual),
  • prostitutes
  • promiscuous sex practitioners practicing unprotected sex (without a condom),
  • patients with venereal diseases,
  • recipients of blood products,
  • children born to an HIV-positive mother
  • health care providers of HIV patients.

In individuals of the above categories, the risk of infection is many times higher. Although anyone can become infected and in certain situations.

HIV infection is a special disease that for a number of years may not have clinical manifestations, but sooner or later leads to a state of immunodeficiency, that is, to AIDS. At this stage it is rather difficult to fight the disease, a person can die from any banal infection. Therefore, everyone should clearly know how to get infected with HIV, and to protect themselves as much as possible.

Risk groups

Immunodeficiency virus completely destroys immune cells. Over time, the organism of an infected person becomes dangerous microorganisms that do not pose any threat to a healthy person. At a certain point in the course of the infection, he begins to destroy his own cells, trying to fight with himself.

HIV is unstable to the environment, but it is catastrophically rapidly spreading. There are several days in the human body, and only a few minutes in the external environment.

The virus killed thousands of people who ignored the doctors' instructions to lead a healthy lifestyle or at least use a barrier method of contraception. That is why the question of treatment, as well as possible and not possible ways of transmission of infection in our days is particularly acute.

Before you know exactly how HIV infection occurs, you need to figure out which groups of people are most affected by this disease. Initially it was thought that only same-sex couples, most often homosexuals, are susceptible to HIV. After it turned out that this is not the case, but nonetheless, homosexuals are more likely to become infected with HIV. Since gay men practice anal, moreover, more often than not, unprotected sex, they are one of the main carriers of HIV infection.

Often infected and drug addicts. People who are addicted to narcotic drugs often use only needles for several people (during the period of drug intoxication they are not able to control themselves and neglect their health only for the sake of dose), which significantly increases the risk of infection. The most dangerous people practicing promiscuous sex, mostly prostitutes. They, by the will of the client, who may already be HIV-infected, often practice sex without a condom.

Health workers are at risk only because of their profession, and not because of the violation of simple precautions, like the rest. The number of people infected among medical workers is not so high, but each of them risks daily to get on this list. Their work involves constant contact with infected people, which increases the risk of infection at times.

With blood transfusions

HIV infection can occur in case of transfusion of contaminated blood. In modern hospitals, this possibility is practically excluded. Donors are carefully examined for the presence of HIV infection before donation, and then the blood also goes through several stages of screening. There is a strict regulation on the issue: how long after the blood donation can be used for its intended purpose. In a blood bank, this is possible only after passing all tests.

In some exceptional cases where blood is urgently needed, doctors may neglect this duty to save the patient’s life. But even when using tested blood, there is a risk: it is almost impossible to identify the disease immediately after a donor has been infected, it takes several months, since the first symptoms occur only then. Consequently, the blood may be infected, even if the test did not reveal it. There is a chance of infection when re-using tools in a medical facility, the so-called nosocomial infection.

As in the previous paragraph, the probability of such infection is very small. Now in hospitals disposable instruments are used whenever possible. Reusable tools go through several stages of disinfection, which reduces the risk of infection. But if this happens, the infected person can sue the institution and receive compensation.

Sharing needles and syringes

Sharing needles and syringes is the most common way of infection through blood.

This method of infection is common among drug addicts who, while under the influence of drugs, are negligent about their health and can reuse materials for injection. In this case of infection, one syringe used by a person carrying AIDS can infect dozens of other people. Poor cosmetic manipulations can also cause HIV infection. These include all types of piercing and permanent tattooing. Customers at underground unlicensed stores are most at risk. The prices in them are much lower than in ordinary ones, but the quality of services and the contingent of clients is appropriate.

Sexual contact

Unprotected sex is the main cause of HIV infection. Only barrier contraception, that is, condoms, is meant. Oral contraceptives protect only against pregnancy, but not from sexually transmitted diseases. During heterosexual intercourse, microcracks appear on the mucous membrane of the genitals of the partners, which cannot be seen or felt. The ingestion of contaminated fluid on one such wound guarantees HIV infection through sexual contact if sexual intercourse occurs without a condom.

Also, despite the fact that oral sex is recognized as one of the safest, infection with it is still possible. The virus cells in large quantities are contained in the genital secretions (lubricant and semen). A small wound or scratch in the mouth is enough to infect. There are several factors that increase the risk of HIV transmission during sexual contact.

This is the presence of any STDs. They increase the risk of the disease several times. Just how HIV infection occurs in men is somewhat different from female infection. This is due to a larger area of ​​the female genital mucosa and the fact that the concentration of the virus in semen is much higher. Days of menstruation also increase the risk of infection.

Myths about HIV infection

Science has not identified any method of HIV transmission, except those listed above. Despite the fact that the medical literacy of the population is increasing, many still wonder: is it possible to get infected through a handshake or in a household way? The correct answer is no. You should know the main myths about HIV in order to be able to communicate normally with sick people and not be afraid of getting infected.

Infection through saliva. The virus is contained in the waste products of the human body, but in its saliva is negligible. It almost does not contain a virus, as it is not on the surface of the skin. Do not be afraid of infected people and avoid them. There are couples where one partner is infected and the other is not. This is proof that HIV cannot be transmitted through kisses.

Airborne path. The virus is only transmitted through fluids, such as blood and genital secretions. Saliva, as we found out, is harmless. Therefore, to fear a sneezing or coughing person is not worth it: he will not be able to infect others.

Through food and drink. You can safely drink from one mug or eat from one bowl with an infected person: it is impossible to get infected. Through everyday activities. Quietly, you can live under the same roof with an infected person. You can use the same dishes and even hygiene products with him, without fear of infection. Healthy, intact skin and mucous membranes will not miss the virus and protect you from infection.

You can become infected in a public bath or pool. No you can not. The virus almost immediately dies, falling into the external environment. Therefore, you should not be afraid of the general toilet, public pool and bath, as in the water the virus simply will not survive. Animals - carriers of HIV. Animals can not carry the virus, under any circumstances. HIV is a human immunodeficiency virus, therefore it is not dangerous for animals. Mosquitoes also cannot transmit HIV.

As we have already understood, you should not be afraid of people infected with HIV if you follow simple rules of precaution and monitor your health.

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