Rules for the introduction of the first complementary foods for HB
Today, pediatricians adhere to the provisions of the World Health Organization (WHO) on the need to maintain exclusively natural feeding for up to 6 months. However, in magazines and books for parents, there are still recommendations on the acquaintance of the newborn with “adult” food, carrot juice, purees and pap already from 3-4 months of age. The question of the first feeding for breastfeeding is controversial. At the same time, the baby’s mastering of the products of the adult table must take place on time, because the caloric content of milk is no longer enough for a growing body and the baby is physiologically ready to consume other products.
When to enter
The baby gets early taste experience with the mother's diet at the fetus stage. The infant, through the umbilical cord and amniotic fluid, receives information about adult products.
The first supplements, in terms of terms, are introduced into the baby’s diet based on the child’s age, the body’s readiness for the upcoming changes, predisposition to allergies, environmental conditions (contamination with radionuclides, heavy metal salts, etc.). At the same time, there are established indicators of infant readiness for transitional nutrition. These features include the following physiological and emotional features:
- weight doubled since birth,
- maturation of the mechanism of enzyme release and food digestion,
- mastering the skill of sitting
- increased protective immunoglobulin A in the intestine,
- reducing the permeability of the intestinal mucosa,
- extinction of the reflex of pushing out food with the tongue,
- a small portion of food does not cause indigestion and allergic reactions,
- improving the swallowing reflex,
- the child is ready for chewing, teeth are cutting through,
- emotionally expresses the attitude to food,
- able to hold the subject in his hands,
- increased motor activity
- The infant expresses interest in adult food.
The timing of the introduction of the first complementary foods during artificial and breastfeeding are the same, but take into account the individual characteristics of each baby. Most children are introduced to adult food not earlier than 6 months. Previously, the introduction of products unnecessarily reduces lactation, increases the risk of allergic reactions. Abundant regurgitation, constipation, and loose stools are possible.
Late introduction of products is the cause of protein deficiency in the diet, micronutrients, iron, zinc. The lack of elements often causes anemia, delayed maturation of the digestive tract, and child growth.
The timing of the start of feeding for babies with food allergies is set taking into account the factors of tolerance of a particular product. Babies with rickets or anemia also require a special approach.
Principles of introduction of complementary foods
Accepted recommendations will help to acquaint the child with transitional nutrition and translate to an adult table:
- It is allowed to start dating only in the absence of signs of disease of the infant. You should not break the usual diet of the baby on hot days, during the vaccination period, when changing carers, during the period of illness, during teething, etc.
- Prikorm is recommended to give preferably in the morning to track the health of the baby. In this case, monitor the condition of the skin of the baby, changes in behavior, pay attention to the nature and frequency of bowel movements. In case of negative manifestations, it is important to consult a doctor to correct the scheme of introducing products into the diet.
- A new product is given with pronounced food stimulation (moment of hunger) before feeding with breast milk or a mixture.
- Up to 7 months using dishes of homogeneous consistency.
- Initially, the kid offers dishes from one type of product (monocomponent). As you get used to the dish, you are allowed to mix ingredients and prepare dishes from several products (multi-component mashed potatoes).
- Kashu give for breakfast no more than 1 time per day. Vegetables are offered at lunch.
- For the first time allowed to give 0.5–1 teaspoon of the product. Provided that the baby has responded well to the proposed type of complementary food, it is necessary every day to increase the portion exponentially.
Step-by-step scheme to increase the new product
3 rules for feeding breastfeeding
Entering complementary foods during breastfeeding will be much more useful and effective in following certain rules, the observance of which has a positive effect on the health of the infant. These rules include:
- 1. The first feeding for breastfed babies should be administered at 6 months of age. This is due to the fact that when the child reaches the age of six months, the baby’s immune and digestive systems become more mature and mature. This allows you to eat besides breast milk and other soft and not very hard foods. The introduction of earlier complementary foods (from four months) is allowed only in certain clinical cases, for medical reasons (if there are signs of malnutrition or there is no proper increase in the weight of the baby).
- 2. Do not force the baby to consume large amounts of food lure by force. Breastfed babies regulate the amount of breast milk they consume on their own. With the introduction of additional products baby will also regulate your appetite. With the first baby feeding, the mother seems to be adjusting the child's digestive system to the reception of adult food, and therefore during this period it is very important to follow the new diet and the interest of the child in certain types of food.
- 3. The start of complementary foods should not mean the abolition of breastfeeding. Mother's milk is the most powerful protection for the baby from many diseases. Introduction to the diet of new foods and drinks can give too dramatic load on the immune mechanisms of the child's body, therefore, the initial stages of feeding in the first stages are more likely an additional nutritional option than an alternative one. Mother's milk is the main source of proteins, vitamin-mineral complexes, essential fatty acids and other beneficial compounds, so in the intervals between feeding new foods, you can breastfeed your baby on demand.
Types of introduction of the first feeding
The first supplements with HB is a serious matter, so you need to decide on the future diet of the baby. It is worth noting that introduction of kefir and juices, and cow's milk and dairy mixes are also not recommended by nutritionists, since they do not have the necessary nutritional value. The introduction of juices in the diet is best to start only when the child goes to adult food completely and breastfeeding is stopped.
There are many schemes for the introduction of complementary foods, but in general, two can be distinguished - the so-called complementary foods from the common table and special foods that are considered more traditional.
Features of feeding with common table
Complementary feeding from the common table implies a gradual familiarization of the baby with foodstuffs consumed by family members. Of course, the introduction of a new food should begin with six months of age and in small portions, so that the children's digestive system has time for a gradual restructuring of the diet.
A baby should be given a new meal in small pieces, chopping it into small pieces and grinding it into puree.
Products allowed at this age include:
- food of animal origin - homemade meat, eggs, fish,
- dairy products - cheese, cottage cheese, yogurt, kefir,
- legumes - peas, lentils, beans, beans,
- vegetables and fruits (brighter fruits are more high-calorie and contain more nutrients than lighter and pale).
At the beginning of the lure children are familiarized with the food, its taste, structure. Over time, interest in the new food will increase, and with it the volume of food consumed.
Traditional scheme of the first feeding
If the mother prefers prikorma baby food, it is best to start updating the diet with a mono-component type of mashed potatoes, that is, one that consists of a single vegetable or fruit.
If the child is lagging behind in weight and is not gaining weight well, then it is better to start feeding with porridge. Modern nutritionists and pediatricians do not recommend starting lure with fruit pureeas they develop in children craving for sweets. Also, some types of fruit can irritate the mucous membranes of the digestive tract, thereby causing intestinal upset or allergic reactions.
The most suitable products for the first feeding are zucchini, carrots, cauliflower and potatoes.
The introduction of a new product in the diet should not exceed once a week. At the same time, it is necessary to monitor the nature of the stool after the introduction of something new in food: when diarrhea, constipation or skin rash appears, it is recommended to exclude a new product for at least 4 weeks. But you also should not forget that after the introduction of complementary foods, the nature of the baby’s stool changes (food particles may appear) and this is considered normal.
If the first lure began with a vegetable puree, then after four weeks you can begin to enter porridge (buckwheat, rice, corn) into the infant ration. If the baby is still breastfeeding, the cereal can be boiled in water.. Porridges containing gluten (wheat, oatmeal, cereal mixtures) should be introduced into the baby’s diet from the age of eight months.
After the introduction of cereals, you can gradually enter the yellow and green fruits, galetnye cookies, meat (preferably poultry and veal), fish. The volume of each new product should not first exceed 1 teaspoon, you can gradually increase the amount to 180 grams.
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What is the first feeding in breastfeeding
Nutrition is the introduction to the diet of the baby, in addition to breast milk, new food, which has a different texture and calorie content. Later she must completely replace the milk. No matter how important and valuable it is, over time, the maturing body no longer has enough fiber, protein, and plant components for the proper development of all organs. The older the child, the more difficult is the transition to adult food.
What is the supplement for?
The organism develops harmoniously when all organs and systems take part in the process of vital activity. The introduction of complementary feeding during breastfeeding is necessary for:
- proper development and training of the digestive system. Due to the presence in the diet of vegetables, fruits, intestinal motility is stimulated, a chewing reflex is formed,
- fill the deficiency of nutrients, acids, protein,
- preparing for growing up, developing autonomy.
Child's readiness for the introduction of complementary foods
The level of maturity of the digestive system can be assessed by the absence of allergies and dyspepsia. This is checked with the help of pedagogical complementary foods - the first one, it is recommended to introduce a trial supplement of the infant shortly before the main one. Besides, baby's readiness is assessed by the following indicators:
- emotional acceptance of the feeding process (the baby reaches out to eat when hungry),
- decrease in the reflex of pushing out food with the tongue,
- active attempts to chew, the ability to swallow half-eaten food.
Rules for the introduction of complementary foods for children
To properly transfer a child from mother's milk or infant formula to a firmer, more complete food, you need to adhere to some features. Breastfeeding supplementation should be based on the following rules:
- Lure can be offered only to a healthy baby.
- Organize it before the process of breastfeeding, gradually increasing the amount of food.
- Meals should not cause difficulty in swallowing, be too thick and hard.
- Food should be warm, one type of food should not be given several times a day.
- A new product is introduced only after the full adoption of the previous one, it is best to make a plan for complementary foods.
- It is necessary to monitor the child’s stool, the absence of food allergies.
- Vegetable puree should be prepared from one type of vegetables, and one that does not cause gas formation and allergies.
- Do not use gluten cereals, which include rice, semolina, etc.
Breastfeeding for months when breastfeeding
Pediatricians recommend not to use salt and sugar in the preparation of complementary foods. Vegetables should be thoroughly washed and cleaned. The ideal option would be dishes, steamed, boiled and stewed. Then they are pureed, diluted with water. Finished puree can not be stored in the refrigerator - each portion must be freshly prepared. A graph of products distributed by age that are permitted for complementary feeding is presented below in tabular form:
To date, pediatricians agreed that vegetable and fruit dishes are considered the best food for feeding. In cases of insufficient weight of the child, an early injection of artificial feeding can be prescribed, and then the baby should be fed in a special mode, according to a clearly defined pattern, in a certain sequence. The following products are suitable for supplementing:
- Vegetables. The first feeding of infants is best to start with vegetable dishes from cauliflower, zucchini. Potatoes and broccoli should be next in order, as they are considered hypoallergenic. During the week, only one type of product is given to the baby - on the first day 0.5 tsp, on the second - 1 tsp. etc. Then you can give the next vegetable or mix them. Children eat vegetables with the greatest pleasure.
- Kashi. The best choice would be rice and buckwheat. With a normal reaction of the child in a month it is allowed to consistently give milk porridge. It should start with 1 tsp, after seven days, the portion should be about 150 g.
- Dairy products. The first product of this group is cottage cheese (starting with 1 tsp). After successful adoption of cottage cheese, you can offer baby kefir. These products are good for constipation. If lactose intolerance is not allowed to give products that contain cow's milk.
- Meat. At the age of 7 months, you can offer rabbit or chicken mashed potatoes, mixed with vegetables. By 9 months the recommended portion of mashed potatoes is 60 g.
- Fruits. It has been proven that apples, pears, bananas, apricots, peaches do not cause allergic reactions. The first portion is 20 g, after 7 days you can give 150 g of fresh fruit puree.
- A fish. Good hake, pollock, the optimal portion - no more than 50 g
The scheme of introducing vegetable puree into the baby's menu during the first feeding with breastfeeding is very important, because vegetables are an important source of iron, potassium and organic matter. The amount of supplement depends on the appetite of the crumbs, and can reach up to 170 g at a time. Each dish should be given daily for 6-7 days, then watching the reaction of the organism. It is important to take into account the individual characteristics of each organism. Fruit purees are equally useful. Preference should be given to apple and pear, it is recommended not to use citrus, strawberries and currants.
Cereal supplements should start with gluten-free cereals. Children are difficult to digest gluten, because their body still lacks the enzyme peptidase, which is fraught with increased gas formation and swelling. Rice, corn and buckwheat porridges are useful, nutritious, stimulate digestion. The first porridge should be without additives. Semolina is allowed after 12 months, because it slows down the absorption of calcium, which may even provoke the development of rickets.