Women quite often experience a feeling of excitement when childbirth does not begin on time. Doctors say that postponing pregnancy can affect the unborn baby, which frightens the pregnant woman even more. Previously, the diagnosis of post-pregnancy was often made because the intended term of delivery was not determined correctly, because in order to determine whether the pregnancy is postponed, it is necessary to know the exact day of conception.
Since many women do not know when exactly they became pregnant, it is customary to count 40 weeks from the first day of the last menstruation. It should be noted that deviations in 2 weeks are allowed, that is, childbirth can begin at 38 or 42 weeks. If the pregnancy lasts longer than 42 weeks and a child with no signs of over-maturity is born, then such a pregnancy is called a prolonged one.
What affects the term of delivery?
In the event that a woman's menstrual cycle lasts more than 28 days, then a pregnancy that lasts more than forty weeks is considered normal. The more the menstrual cycle, the longer a woman can go around without any fear. It is also worth noting that women whose cycle is less than 28 days can give birth, starting at 36 weeks.
Also, the probability of prolonged pregnancy increases in the case when there were any complications in the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition, it is necessary to consider heredity. So, if in the family of a woman someone is prolonging a pregnancy, then this can be expected from her.
An important role is played by the psychological factor. Quite often, a woman gives herself a certain attitude - to give birth to a certain date, and often the body adapts to the appointed date.
Prolonged pregnancy and its effects
This question worries many women whose childbirths are in no hurry to start on time. Really postponed pregnancy can cause complications not only in the fetus, but also in the mother. With postponing the risk of morbidity and mortality in newborns increases.
Toddlers, who are rewired, often experience a lack of oxygen, and if the placenta can no longer provide the baby with the necessary amount of it, this can lead to chronic hypoxia. In addition, the risk of birth injury and amniotic fluid retention in the baby’s lungs is increased.
It is worth noting that prolonging pregnancy can affect the health of the mother. First of all, the risk of having a cesarean section is increased. Often, during the birth of a large fetus, injuries to the birth canal occur, which can lead to unpleasant consequences and the need to treat complications.
Considering possible complications, it is necessary to treat a post-term pregnancy very carefully and strictly follow the recommendations of the gynecologist who is leading the pregnancy.
Survival and over-ripeness - what is it?
Usually, a post-term pregnancy is called a pregnancy that lasts more than 42 weeks. Children born after the deadline often show signs of over-ripeness. However, do not confuse these two concepts and combine them.
Late deliveries without signs of over-ripeness of the fetus are possible, as well as deliveries at the appointed time with a fetus with signs of over-ripeness. In other words, “reversal” is a temporary concept, and “over-ripeness” indicates the condition of the newborn.
Renewing for more than 42 weeks is not very common, only 1-3% of cases. In most situations, doctors try to resolve childbirth after the 40th week of pregnancy, this is because specialists are trying to reduce the risk of complications.
The degree of perenosheniya baby after 40 weeks of pregnancy is determined on the basis of medical research.
What are the signs of postponing pregnancy?
If the pregnancy is really postponed, then the birth should be allowed as soon as possible. Why are labor activities in no hurry to begin? What prevents the onset of labor and indicates that the pregnancy is postponed?
First of all, one of the signs of perenosheniya is a sudden amniotic fluid loss. This feature is also a precursor to the fact that labor activity will be weak.
It happens that pregnant flat bubble missing, which wraps the head of the baby. It can also inhibit the onset of labor and affect cervical dilatation.
If the uterus is immature at 40 weeks gestation, this may indicate a potential post-term pregnancy.
When conducting an ultrasound, a specialist may find that amniotic fluid lacks flakes of cheese-like lubricant - this indicates that the fetus is over-ripe and speaks of the dryness of the baby’s skin.
If on the ultrasound the doctor sees signs of aging placentathen this suggests that the placenta is unable to cope with the needs of the growing organism. Muddy waters indicate that the child suffers from oxygen starvation, this is one of the signs of prolonged pregnancy, if it is detected, it is worth resolving the birth as soon as possible.
The symptoms that help determine a postponed pregnancy include dehydration (reduce the abdomen in volume), reduce the weight of the pregnant woman, the release of milk from the breast instead of colostrum.
What are the reasons for postponing pregnancy?
Medical professionals suggest that the basis for postponing pregnancy is lack of "biological readiness" female body to give birth. This can be caused by dysfunction of the central nervous system of the expectant mother and fetus, as well as functions of the placenta.
The cause of post-term pregnancy can be immature fetal immune system, as well as the lack of some vitamins. Diseases endocrine system in the mother, abortions made earlier, diseases of the reproductive system, mental trauma and disruptions can be the basis for replanning. Heredity also plays an important role. Recurrent pregnancies among relatives increase the likelihood of post-pregnancy.
In addition to the medical aspect of retrofitting, which is described above, there is also psychological aspect. Generic activity may not start due to various fears and phobias of a pregnant woman.
So, often, with the threat of termination of pregnancy, the expectant mother begins to behave in such a way as to minimize the possibility of miscarriage or premature birth.
Of course, in the process of gestation pregnancy is good, but often this behavior of a woman can interfere with the onset of labor.
Conventional prenatal processes often cause fear in a pregnant woman. In order to stimulate childbirth in such a case, it is necessary to reduce the psychological burden, increase the number of walks, do gymnastics and swimming.
Many doctors recommend having sex. In short, in order to prepare for childbirth, you need to psychologically relax and begin to live a normal life.
Unconscious fears can also cause prolonged pregnancy. To cope with these fears can be on courses for preparing for childbirth or in person consultation with a psychologist.
If during pregnancy you were quite active, and before giving birth you calmed down and relaxed, began to enjoy your condition, then this can also lead to late delivery.
Thus, we can conclude that the psychological state of a woman and her readiness for childbirth in many respects influences the fact that the pregnancy will be postponed.
A test to determine the woman's readiness for childbirth
In order to conduct this test, you must take a comfortable position and put a number of hours. It is necessary to irritate the halos and nipples with your fingers for a minute after three minutes. In order to keep track of contractions, you should put your hand on your stomach.
The test result is considered positive if the uterus began to contract within the first three minutes after the start of exposure to the nipples, and within 10 minutes at least three contractions arrived.
If for 40 weeks the test gave a negative result, then the likelihood of overloading increases. If the test is positive, but the birth does not start at all, it means that the child is not yet ready to be born.
Prevention of post-term pregnancy
For women who are at risk, first of all, it is necessary to calculate the expected date of delivery as accurately as possible. Even if the pregnancy was uneventful, a woman is sent to the hospital after 40 weeks of gestation to complete a fetus examination and to determine the degree of maturity of the cervix.
If the diagnosis of “post-pregnancy” is confirmed, the doctor must decide on the course of delivery. How childbirth will take place depends on the woman's readiness for the birth process, the state of the placenta, the medical history of the pregnant woman and other important factors. In the presence of aggravating factors, a caesarean section is selected by delivery.
If the condition of the pregnant woman and the fetus is satisfactory, then resort to the stimulation of the generic process with medications. In this case, the birth of a baby occurs naturally.
In the end, I would like to note that about 96% of children born after the deadline come to life absolutely healthy, but in any case, you shouldn’t let the situation take its course, you should be very careful about postponed pregnancy and constantly monitor the condition of the fetus.
To begin, let's define the terms. Normal average pregnancy fits within fairly broad limits: 40 weeks from the first day of the last menstruation (or 38 weeks from the day of conception), plus or minus 2 weeks. And since most women can not accurately remember the day of conception, it is customary to focus on 40 weeks.
Births on the 37-42th week are not considered early or late. A pregnancy that lasts 42 or more weeks and ends in the birth of a normal full-term baby without signs of over-maturity is called prolonged. It is twice as rare as perenosheniya. In any case, do not panic.
Every woman has their own upper limit of normal term of labor. What determines it?
If the monthly cycle is more than 28 days (from the first day of one menstruation to the first day of the next), then pregnancy is more than 40 weeks - normal.
At the same time, the more days in the cycle, the longer you can go around without fear. For women with a cycle of less than 28 days, a 36-40 week pregnancy is the norm.
If the first trimester of pregnancy took place with some complications, there is a possibility of its prolongation without signs of postmaturity. The child in this case, as it were, gets what was received in the early stages.
If in the future mom's family, someone has been carrying a child for more than 40 weeks, then with some probability we can expect this in her too. There is a hereditary biorhythm of prenatal development of the child, and hence the onset of labor.
If a woman gave herself an installation to give birth, for example, when the husband returns from a business trip or the doctor leaves the vacation, her body can adapt to this condition.
Signs of postponing
But still there are cases of really prolonged pregnancy. This situation usually requires a quick delivery, and labor activity does not rush to begin.
What inhibits childbirth and clearly indicates a prolongation?
- A sharp decrease in the volume of amniotic fluid is a prerequisite for the development of weak labor activity.
- The lack of "front water" (the so-called "flat bladder", which wraps the head of the baby) inhibits labor and slows the opening of the cervix.
- An immature cervix at 40 weeks indicates a high proportion of the likelihood of prolonged pregnancy.
- The dense bones of the child’s skull, narrow seams and fountains complicate the potent period — much more effort is needed from the mother and baby.
- The absence in the amniotic fluid of flakes of cheese-like lubricant (according to the ultrasound data) indicates dryness of the baby’s skin, which indicates over-ripeness.
- Signs of aging of the placenta, which are easily determined by ultrasound, suggest that the placenta can no longer cope with the needs of a growing baby.
- Muddy from meconium (the first intestinal discharge of the baby) amniotic fluid (according to ultrasound) indicate oxygen starvation of the child.
Causes of perenashivaniya
What are the reasons for the postponed pregnancy?
Medical aspect of wearing
Doctors believe that the basis of post-pregnancy pregnancy is the lack of "biological readiness" of the mother's body for childbirth. This is due to the dysfunction of the central nervous system of the mother and child and (or) the regulatory function of the placenta.
The immaturity of the fetal immune system, the deficiency of vitamins C, P, E and group B also contribute to perenashivka, as well as endocrine diseases, disorders of fat metabolism, abortion, some diseases of the genital organs, mental trauma.
Heredity also plays a role: if someone in a family has a recurrent pregnancy, there is a possibility of replanting. Clinical tests of blood and amniotic fluid can confirm hormonal imbalances and disorders of intracellular energy processes.
But too much medical control by itself can also delay the time of delivery. The so-called “biological unpreparedness” for childbirth in most cases is a consequence of those or other problems and fears of the mother. Therefore, childbirth can be stimulated by both medical and psychological means.
Childbirth can not start because of the different fears of the mother. For example, the threat of termination of pregnancy often leads to the fact that it starts to behave in such a way as to minimize all processes that cause miscarriage or premature birth. For pregnancy, it is very good, but it prevents birth.
Such prenatal processes, such as strengthening the uterine muscles, messenger contractions, softening and smoothing of the cervix, are associated in the mind of a woman with the fear of losing a child.
To stimulate childbirth, include in your life all those activities that were excluded during the period of danger: long walks, walking upstairs, gymnastics, swimming. Do not neglect the intimate life. In short, relax and prepare yourself for childbirth!
Unconscious fears of childbirth - not at all uncommon. Effectively work with fears on prenatal training courses, and individual consultations with a psychologist will help. If the expectant mother led a very active lifestyle during the whole pregnancy, and shortly before the birth, she relaxed and began to enjoy, the pregnancy could be delayed.
All is well in time and before delivery is normal to experience no fatigue from pregnancy. Permanent control over the manifestations of approaching labor may be too annoying. He does not give birth to start on time.
Distract yourself from the expectations of planning and implementation of any affairs. For example, it’s good to start making a dowry for a child, bring the “patrimonial nest” to shine, take a long walk every day or go to visit.
Very often, relatives rush to events and infect their future parents with their anxiety. If the excitement increases, it is useful to consult a good specialist or a hike on an ultrasound to determine the presence or absence of signs of a real postponed pregnancy. If they are not detected (even for a period of 41-42 weeks), then there is still time.
The most unambiguous factor requiring rapid intervention is the presence of a meconial suspension in the amniotic fluid (according to an ultrasound scan) and a deterioration in the heartbeat of the child. Then it is useful for mom to even be a little afraid for the baby, so that the birth begins. In any case, requires professional medical supervision and, possibly, drug stimulation of the onset of labor.
Discuss the problem of postponement at the family council with your spouse and other adult family members. In such a conversation, you can express your accumulated feelings and experiences, learn about the feelings of others.
It happens that the fear of a future father before giving birth and the appearance of a child creates a feeling of insecurity in a woman - especially if she is used to being charged with this confidence from her husband. Then a sincere and confidential conversation, and sometimes even a clarification of relations (with obligatory reconciliation, of course) will have the desired and long-awaited therapeutic effect.
Sit or lie down in a comfortable position, relax, put a clock near. Irrit your nipples and areola with your fingers 5-6 times for 1 minute every 3 minutes. To track contractions, place your hand on your stomach.
- The test is considered positive if the contraction of the uterus appears in the first 3 minutes from the onset of nipple irritation and within 10 minutes there will be at least 3 contractions.
- If the test is negative by 40 weeks, there is a tendency to over-pregnancy.
- Если маммарный тест явно положительный (уже через минуту стимуляции матка реагирует активными сокращениями), а роды почему-то не начинаются, значит, крохе нужно еще немного посидеть у мамы в животике. Роды начнутся, как только малыш будет готов к появлению на свет.
Чем опасно перенашивание?
In postponed babies, they are more sensitive to oxygen deficiency due to the high degree of maturity of the brain. If the placenta does not provide the baby with enough oxygen, then he may develop a serious condition.
The dense bones of the skull adapt worse to the maternal passages of the mother, which increases the risk of birth trauma. In postponed children, there is often a complication such as aspiration of the amniotic fluid (delayed amniotic fluid in the lungs).
What is the critical period?
To determine the duration of pregnancy, you need to count from the day of the last monthly 294 days, which corresponds to 42 weeks. If up to this point the labor activity has not started, we can talk about late delivery.
In obstetrics there are three degrees of perenosheniya:
- When the first term does not exceed 41 weeks, and this state does not cause special harm to the health of the child. In some cases, the fetus is marked palpitations and increased motor activity. The state of the placenta corresponds to the norm, and during a gynecological examination, insufficient preparation for the birth of the cervix is determined. Malovodie expressed slightly and does not cause concern.
- The second degree of postmortem corresponds to 42 - 43 weeks of gestation, in this period pronounced lack of water is already diagnosed. Under these conditions, the fetus begins to feel a lack of oxygen, it is determined by progressive hypoxia and obvious symptoms of over-maturity.
- The third degree of deferred is considered the heaviest, but it is also the rarest. Usually, doctors never allow a gestation period to exceed 42 weeks, and if deliveries do not occur during this period, a cesarean section is done. Excess of 42 weeks threatens fetal fetal death.
True and false perenashivanie
In medicine, two forms of this pathology are distinguished depending on the causes that caused it and the presence of signs of over-maturity in a newborn baby.
True pregnancy retardation is due to biological factors, the child in this case is born with pronounced signs of over-ripeness:
- compact bones of the skull with small fontanel size
- insignificant amount or complete absence of the original lubricant,
- dry wrinkled skin with a greenish tint,
- wrinkled palms and heels,
- minimum layer of subcutaneous fat,
- significant body weight and length
- long fingernails,
- skull shape change.
In order to diagnose true endurance, the presence of all the listed symptoms is not necessary, it is usually determined by two or three of them.
True replanting involves the continued development of the fetus in the womb after reaching the normal gestational age, as a result of which the placenta begins to age and regress. The fetus begins to experience a lack of oxygen and nutrients, its metabolism deteriorates, which can lead to hypoxia and fetal death.
When diagnosing true pererazhnivaniya, urgent delivery by cesarean section is necessary.
With a false extension, which is, in fact, prolonged pregnancy, the child is born completely normal, and the placenta does not change its properties. This condition is determined by the individual characteristics of the organism of the unborn child, which develops a little slower than the prescribed period.
Since postponed pregnancy is caused by a whole complex of causes, its symptoms also differ by a considerable variety. Signs of postponing are defined as follows:
- Placental insufficiency, which occurs as a result of metabolic disorders in the uterus and placenta. This condition provokes the development of distress syndrome in the fetus, which can cause its intrauterine death.
- Changes in hormonal balance, in particular, a decrease in the concentration of estrogen.
- The development of low water. Amniotic fluid helps the child protect itself from external influences and provides it with freedom of movement. In addition, when changing the amniotic fluid changes its properties, they become turbid from meconium and can become a source of infection of the fetus. Clouding of the amniotic fluid is also a symptom of hypoxia in the baby.
- Insufficient maturity of the cervix at the time of the scheduled delivery.
- Weak generic activity.
- Changing the condition of the skin of pregnant women - it loses its elasticity and firmness.
In the absence of these symptoms, we can talk about a false delay of pregnancy.
See this postponed pregnancy video:
What is dangerous for the child pererashivanie
A baby in the womb longer than the prescribed period suffers from oxygen starvation, caused by aging of the placenta. Her fetal life support resources are depleted, and the child experiences constant discomfort that can adversely affect his health.
Speaking about the danger of pererashivanie for the unborn child, doctors highlight the following risks:
- hypoxia during the last weeks of gestation and during childbirth,
- asphyxiation during labor,
- problems with neurological status after birth
- birth injuries due to heavy weight and increased bone hardness, especially a fracture of the clavicle or limbs, hip dysplasia,
- pathology of the respiratory system,
- development of diabetes due to impaired glucose metabolism.
Implications for Mom
In addition to the increased risk to the health of the future baby, prolonging the pregnancy has consequences for the mother. The negative impact of prolonged gestation on the female body is manifested in the following:
- bleeding in the postpartum period,
- breaks in the tissues of the vagina, perineum and cervix due to the large mass of the fetus and hardening of the bones,
- weak labor activity, as a result of which the delivery process can last more than a day,
- for problems with the passage of the fetus through the birth canal, it is often necessary to apply surgical methods, for example, a perineal incision.
For a correct examination, the physician must first clarify the date of the beginning of the last menstruation, carefully measure the abdominal circumference to analyze the dynamics of changes and find out the nature of the fetal motor activity.
Methods of hardware diagnostics include the following methods:
- To determine the state of the placenta, it is necessary to conduct an ultrasound study, it will help to estimate the amount of amniotic fluid. On ultrasound, you can see the thickness of the placenta, its lobulation and the presence of salt deposits.
- With the help of amnioscopy, the quantity and quality of amniotic fluid is determined.
- The state of blood flow in the vessels of the placenta is detected using doppler sonography.
- Evaluation of the state of the cardiovascular system of the future baby is carried out using cardiotocography.
Diagnostics of post-pregnancy pregnancy is carried out taking into account the following signs:
- reduction in abdominal circumference and weight loss of women compared with previous measurements,
- the degree of readiness of the cervix for childbirth does not correspond to the period of gestation,
- when you press the nipple, milk is released from it,
- change in the nature of the motor activity of the fetus.
From the correct and timely diagnosis of pregnancy postponing depends on the tactics of measures to stimulate labor activity.
Births in post-term pregnancy
If a woman has no precursors of the onset of labor at 40 weeks, she should be placed in the hospital for a full examination and determination of the method of preparation for the appearance of the child.
The degree of readiness of the female body for childbirth is determined by the state of the cervix. If the cervix is fully ripe, then the puncture of the fetal bladder is made and the uterine contractions begin to be stimulated.
In case of insufficient maturity of the cervix, labor management tactics can be carried out according to several scenarios:
- if the gestation period is exceeded by one week, it is possible to observe the woman for some time, since the birth activity can begin independently in case of false posture,
- if this does not happen, it is necessary to carry out medical preparation of the cervix for childbirth, in some cases, the desired effect can be achieved by physiotherapy,
- If there is a high risk of complications, labor should be performed with a cesarean section.
With an accurate determination of the gestational age of 42 weeks, it is necessary to urgently take measures to stimulate labor and provide simultaneous preventive measures to prevent asphyxia of the fetus.
Important for the normal course of pregnancy is the continuous monitoring of women for their health. Prevention of repositioning, like any other problems with carrying a child, should begin as early as puberty of a girl.
Particular attention when registering in the antenatal clinic should be given to the risk group for over-staging pregnancy, which includes primiparas over the age of 35, women who have problems with regularity of the menstrual cycle, a genetic predisposition to this pathology.
Pregnant women should take vitamin complexes, especially in winter and spring, regularly take tests for hormones. In case of need to take progesterone, the course of treatment should not exceed 10 days.
And here more about polyhydramnios during pregnancy.
Replanting pregnancy has dangerous consequences for the mother and the unborn child, therefore, in the absence of signs of labor at 40 weeks, the woman should immediately contact the specialists in the maternity hospital to take the necessary measures for early delivery.
41 weeks, 42 weeks, 43 weeks ... What pregnancy is considered postponed?
How to know for sure whether you're prolonging pregnancy or not? After all, everything is individual and it is not enough - what if tomorrow just begins? But in anticipation of tomorrow, you can miss the important point when the conditions of the intrauterine habitat of the baby become unsuitable for his further stay there.
So, generally, a normal pregnancy lasts 40 weeks. So consider the obstetric period, repel from the first day of the last menstruation. If you know for sure the day of conception - count 38 weeks. But in both cases, a deviation of two weeks in one direction or the other is considered the norm. People say that pregnancy lasts 9 months, in obstetrics months are calculated somewhat differently, so there are 10 of them.
In general, the normal term of gestation is a rather tense concept. However, it has a certain framework. In general, pregnancy (lasting 37–42 weeks) is considered to be normal (when it comes to neither retouching nor understretching). If you carry a child for 10-14 days more than it should be - read "perenashivaet."
This interval of five weeks allows for the presence of many factors that affect the duration of the child in each individual case. So, the longer your menstrual cycle (from the last day of the previous to the first day of the next menstruation), the greater the likelihood of a normal pregnancy lasting longer than 40 weeks. With a short cycle, childbirth will be considered normal from the 36th week.
In addition, the presence of complications during pregnancy can also affect its prolongation in order to “compensate” the loss. The hereditary factor also matters: if the biorhythm of the intrauterine development of a child in your family is somewhat longer than usual, then it is likely that you will give birth later.
Do not overlook the so-called "psychological" perenashivanie. If you decide to give birth on New Year's Eve or to your husband on your birthday, nature may well help you realize your plans.
In addition to this type of perenashivaniya, there are others - obstetric. Doctors distinguish the following from them:
Prolonged retouching is a normal pregnancy that lasts for 10-14 days longer than that accepted. In this case, the child is born functionally mature with no visible signs of repositioning. By the way, in Latin, it sounds like a prolonged pregnancy. Nothing wrong with that.
True perenashivanie - that is what threatens the baby. At the same time, all signs of prolongation and “over-ripeness” of the child are present: “aging” of the placenta, an insufficient amount of amniotic fluid, possibly with meconium admixture, the absence of primary lubricant during childbirth, dryness and wrinkling of the baby’s skin, the child is very large, the bones of the head are hard, the nails are rather long .
You have to understand that the determining factor in the definition of re-shaping is far from the deadline - after all, it is possible to miss the deadline. Before a final diagnosis can be made, it is necessary to conduct a series of examinations on the state of the placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic fluid, heartbeat and activity of the child, and so on. It is only based on these results to decide whether the postponed pregnancy and whether it is necessary to stimulate childbirth.
What is pregnancy postponing?
By the end of 42 weeks, pregnancy begins to be postponed. However, repurposing is an ambiguous concept. It can be true and false. In the first case, the baby suffers from being inside the uterus and this is confirmed by various diagnostic methods. In the second, pregnancy for a number of reasons is extended by 1-2 weeks, but this does not affect the condition of the fetus.
True retouching always has a serious basis - various diseases of a woman. Prolonged pregnancy (false perenashivanie) may be the result of incorrect determination of the date of birth or the individual characteristics of the woman's menstrual cycle.
For example, if a woman has intervals between regular menstruations of only 21 days, ovulation and, therefore, conception can occur on the 7-8th day of the cycle, that is, the embryonic period will not be 2, but only 1 week less obstetric. Such a baby is likely to be born a few weeks before the expected date of birth. But a woman’s normal menstrual cycle can last for 35 days. In this case, ovulation usually occurs on days 20-21, and not on 14, as all formulas for calculating the duration of pregnancy and the date of delivery assume. Accordingly, if conception occurs in such a long cycle, the embryonic period will be almost 3 weeks less than obstetric - that is, it will take at least 1 week more time for the completion of development than the rest of the babies.
There is one more thing: if on the first ultrasound (it is considered the most reliable in terms of determining the duration of pregnancy) discrepancies were found between the monthly gestational period and the period calculated from the size of the ovum (if this period was significantly less), you should not wait for timely delivery . The baby will definitely want to sit inside the mom longer.
What is dangerous perenashivanie for the baby?
As already mentioned above, only true repositioning of pregnancy is undesirable. For a baby, it is fraught with the following consequences:
- Chronic hypoxia. The fetus continues to grow, but the placenta does not. She, on the contrary, is rapidly aging and worse and worse with her functions. Feeling the lack of oxygen, the baby begins to move more actively (as far as possible at this time), which can provoke the entanglement of the neck with the umbilical cord. When entwining, especially hard, childbirth is often complicated.
- Meconium in the respiratory tract crumbs. With oxygen starvation, the baby reflexively empties its intestines into the amniotic fluid and tries to take the first breath right in the womb. During such attempts, meconium enters the airway along with the amniotic fluid, which can trigger the development of congenital pneumonia.
- Thinning subcutaneous fat. A worn baby does not only receive less oxygen, but also nutrients, which leads to its weight loss. On repeated ultrasounds, doctors may notice that the fetus stops gaining weight or even loses it. Reducing the thickness of subcutaneous fat leads to the fact that the crumb is born with wrinkled sagging skin and the inability to maintain a constant body temperature.
- By compacting the bones of the skull, reducing the size of the fontanels and generally lowering the baby’s head's ability to change. During childbirth, this can cause serious injuries to the head and brain of the child.
What is dangerous pererashivanie for the expectant mother?
Births in post-term pregnancy often occur with various complications:
- weak labor,
- injuries of the birth canal - rupture of soft tissues, discrepancy of the pelvic bones, etc.
- acute hypoxia of the fetus during childbirth, which becomes the reason for making a decision on caesarean section,
True Peel Diagnosis
It is very important for doctors to determine whether the woman is wearing over. Unfortunately, there are no symptoms by which this condition can be accurately diagnosed. A woman may feel relatively normal and not suspect that something is wrong. Акушеры при осмотре пациентки также не всегда обнаруживают какие-то отклонения, поэтому в таких ситуациях на первый план выходят дополнительные методы обследования:
- Ультразвуковая диагностика. Признаки истинного перенашивания на УЗИ – маловодие и «старая» плацента (тонкая, с многочисленными кальцификатами).
- Doppler. This study provides an opportunity to assess whether the blood flow between the placenta and the fetus, the placenta and the uterus is maintained. In post-term pregnancy, one of the stages of circulatory disorders between mother and baby is detected.
- Amnioscopy - study of the amniotic fluid using a special optical device. If the fruit is overripe and suffers from hypoxia, the surrounding liquid will have a greenish tint, typical of meconial water pollution.
- Cardiotocography (CTG). The unstable condition of the baby is indicated by too frequent and too rare heartbeat, as well as the appearance of arrhythmia.
The use of these methods in the complex, as well as the assessment of the infant's motor activity and measurement of the size of the abdomen of a pregnant woman (if there is lack of water, the abdomen decreases) allows doctors to find out if you can still wait for the spontaneous onset of labor or it is time to take some measures to stimulate labor.
42 weeks, and no birth: what to do?
At 42 weeks for the future mother is very important to see a doctor. Now is not the time to wait for the onset of labor at home. If the obstetrician-gynecologist does not detect any abnormalities after the examination and the pregnancy will be determined as prolonged, the woman will most likely be recommended stimulation of labor activity by non-medical methods. It may be:
- Intensive massage of the nipples, which causes the appearance of contractions.
- Reception of laxatives, enemas. Enhanced intestinal peristalsis irritates the uterus and thereby provokes its contraction.
- Unprotected sex, if the mucus plug has not moved yet. The semen contains prostaglandins, which accelerate the preparation of the cervix for childbirth.
- Dosed physical activity - walking, climbing stairs, dancing.
But what is undesirable for a future mother to do at 42 weeks is to lie down all the time. To begin the opening of the cervical canal, the head of the fetus must descend and press down on the cervix with its weight. In a horizontal position, this is unlikely to happen.
What is a postponed pregnancy?
The exact date of birth is not so easy to determine., since most women do not know the day of conception. The duration of pregnancy is judged on the first day from the beginning of the last menstruation and according to the results of the ultrasound.
The average duration of a normal pregnancy has fairly broad boundaries: it is 40 weeks or 280 daysplus or minus two weeks.
The appearance of a woman changes: body weight decreases by more than on 1 kgabdominal circumference decreases by 5-10 cmthat is caused by a decrease in the amount of amniotic fluid.
From the mammary glands can be allocated milk instead of colostrum. Skin turgor is reduced.
Objective confirmation of postponing is obtained after performing ultrasound and a number of other studies.
Do you know if Duphaston can be taken late in pregnancy? Ask the doctor!
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There are retouching imaginary (chronological, with incorrect delivery) and true (biological).
Thus, the main indicator of post-term pregnancy is not the actual period, but significant changes taking place on the part of the fetus and placenta.
The final diagnosis is determined by the results of ultrasound and cardiotocography (CTG), amnioscopy (amniotic fluid test).
When conducting diagnostics, several parameters are evaluated:
- degree of aging of the placenta (signs of fetoplacental insufficiency may appear, leading to fetal hypoxia),
- the density of the bones of the child’s skull and the condition of the fontanelles,
- the heartbeat of a child
- the quantity and color of amniotic fluid, the presence of meconium in them (they become smaller, they acquire a greenish color),
- uterine and fetoplacental blood flow (it decreases with retreatment).
The true signs of post-term pregnancy are:
- immaturity of the cervix with a long term of pregnancy,
- “Green waters”, turbid from meconium and their insufficiency (low water is a prerequisite for poor labor activity),
- the so-called "flat bubble", tight head of the child (lack of front water),
- aging of the placenta and the impossibility of its full functioning,
- dense cranial bones in a child (which complicates the weight period).
The causes of post-term pregnancy are not clearly defined today.since this serious pathology develops on the basis of complex physiological processes.
Doctors distinguish two large subgroups:
- Changes in the body of a pregnant woman (endocrine disorders or the presence of chronic diseases of the genital sphere, liver disease, as well as serious psycho-emotional upheaval). The dependence on the age of the woman was also established: the later the woman became pregnant for the first time, the greater the likelihood of “retreat”.
- Changes in the body of the child.
In addition to medical reasons, there are also psychological ones. If the expectant mother is afraid of birth pain, or is cautious because of the earlier threat of interruption, is not psychologically ready for childbirth, the body continues to maintain the pregnancy, as if postponing the birth until later. In such a situation, the help and support of loved ones is important, the consultation of a psychologist will not interfere.
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Is it dangerous to pererazivanie child during pregnancy
Usually, pregnant women are afraid of preterm birth, and this is understandable: the organs and systems of the baby must necessarily reach such a degree of development that the baby can safely exist outside the mother's womb and independently support her own life activity. Premature babies run the risk of multiple health difficulties.
But not all think about the fact that the baby can “overripe”. And this is actually possible. And it is not just possible, but also extremely undesirable, because true repositioning is a danger to the condition of the crumbs, and for his mommy.
The main danger is the aging of the placenta. The higher the degree of maturity, the less resources remain in it. In case of post-term pregnancy, the placenta becomes “old”, as it is called by physicians. That is, all processes in it are violated, and it is no longer able to perform the functions assigned to it.
Due to the deterioration of uteroplacental metabolism, the fetus not only does not receive additional nutrients, but also suffers from oxygen deficiency (hypoxia). At this time, it is especially dangerous, because the child’s brain already reaches a high level of development and reacts more acutely to oxygen deficiency, its consequences can be more serious and serious, even to death.
Prolonged pregnancy: effects
The intrauterine fetal death at such a late period is the most terrible thing that can happen due to oxygen deficiency caused by true retreatment. Fortunately, such tragedies happen quite rarely. However, there are other dangers, also very serious.
The cranial bones of the migrated child begin to harden, lose their mobility and flexibility, which means that during birth, the baby’s head will be able to change its shape worse by passing through the narrow birth canal. This is fraught with various birth trauma of the newborn and the mother. Especially in combination with the fact that the postponed child is born, as a rule, large, with a large weight. Probably weak labor activity with the need for medical stimulation, as well as more frequent birth bleeding. Often, postponed babies in childbirth swallow amniotic fluid, which usually already contains the baby's original feces (meconium), which is a sign of fetal hypoxia.
The protracted pregnancy will also be reflected on the general appearance and well-being of the baby. The host physicians immediately recognize the transferred child. Its skin is dry and shriveled (especially on the feet and palms), flaky, may have a greenish or yellowish tinge, it does not already have original lubricant, the seams and fontanelles on the head are narrow, the nails and hairs may be longer than usual in newborns.
On top of that, true retouching expands the list of indications for a cesarean section. So, surgical labor will be resorted to, if repurposing is combined with pelvic presentation, large fetus, middle-aged mother.
In general, the medical tactics in each case will be different. But regardless of other circumstances, first the gynecologist will conduct a series of necessary examinations of the pregnant woman, which will allow to establish exactly whether true or false repetition is taking place. For this, a woman is prescribed a vaginal examination, ultrasound, dopplerometry, cardiotocography. Usually, if the signs of childbirth are absent for a period of 41-42 weeks, then the woman is placed under observation in the hospital and begin the examination.
Based on its results, a decision will be made on further actions. If signs of prenatal suffering of the child due to prolonged pregnancy are detected, the birth will be carried out on an emergency basis: either by cesarean section or by stimulation of labor. Otherwise, when the condition of the placenta and fetus will be satisfactory, the doctors will take an observant position.
You should consult a doctor if the following signs are observed for a period above 40 weeks:
- abdominal circumference decreased by 5-10 cm
- the activity of the child has decreased markedly, no movement is felt or is extremely rare,
- there was severe dryness of the skin, which was not before,
- moved "dirty" water (green, brown).
You don’t have to worry about anything anyway. Obstetricians and gynecologists in such cases act solely in the interests of the mother and child. Whatever decision is made, you need to understand: this decision is right in your situation!
Degree of tolerance
Signs of postponed fetus received the name Bellentaine – Runge syndrome. Specialists distinguish three degrees.
I degree - The skin of a newborn is dry (practically without lubrication), but of normal color. His general condition is satisfactory. Amniotic waters are bright, but they are few.
II degree - dryness of the baby’s skin is strongly pronounced, the feet and arms are wrinkled (as after a bath) and flake off, signs of fetal malnutrition are noted, and the skull bones are dense. Amniotic fluid from meconium.
III degree - the child is usually large, looks like a little old man (due to exhaustion of the subcutaneous fatty tissue and wrinkling), long nails, skin, nails and amniotic fluid have a yellow color (evidence of a strong lack of oxygen).
Risks for mom
After the 42nd week pregnancy is a high probability of operative obstetrics. Caesarean section is used twice as often as with calendar dates.
Maternal complications of post-pregnancy can be attributed to injuries during childbirth in a natural way: rupture of the crotch of 3 degrees, breaks of the walls of the vagina and cervix, since the child often has large sizes, as well as the occurrence of bleeding.
As a consequence of these complications, postpartum ulcers, urinary retention, bleeding, fistula formation, infection occur.
Risks for a child
Neonatal complications include chronic hypoxia (oxygen deprivation), birth trauma, aspiration of meconial water (when they enter the lungs).
In postponed children, sensitivity to oxygen deficiency is increased due to the high degree of maturity of the brain.
If the placenta did not provide the baby with a sufficient amount of oxygen, then it could develop a serious condition. The bones of the skull become more dense and worse adapt to the mother's birth canal - this increases the risk of birth trauma.
The skin is almost not covered with lubricant, flakes and has a wrinkled appearance.
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Features of pregnancy and childbirth in post-term pregnancy
Childbirth in post-term pregnancy is called belated. Most often, they require an amniotomy (artificial dissection of the membran of the fetus), drug stimulation of labor or operative delivery (cesarean section).
Usually at 41 weeks of pregnancy The expectant mother is offered hospitalization in the department of pathology of pregnant women, where she will be examined (it was written above) and the question of birth tactics will be decided.
Instead of conclusion
Mammar test - This is a test for determining readiness for childbirth.
You must sit down or lie down in a comfortable position for you, relax as much as possible, put the clock next to you. Every three minutes you need to irritate the nipples and areola with your fingers for 1 minute 5-6 times. Put your hand on your stomach to keep track of contractions.
The test is considered positive., if uterine contractions appear in the first 3 minutes from the onset of nipple irritation, and at least 3 contractions are tracked within 10 minutes.
If by 40 weeks of pregnancy the test is negative, this means that there is a tendency to post-term pregnancy.
If the test is positive(the uterus responds with active contractions after a minute from the start of stimulation) and the birth does not start at all, which means that your child needs a little more time to prepare for birth.