Mastitis in children: possible causes, diagnosis and features of treatment
The birth of a child is a joyful event. From this point on, parents are responsible for the health and well-being of the baby. Since birth, the baby is under stress.
The children's organism is gradually rebuilt, adapting to new conditions. Improvement of all organs and systems occurs, hormonal changes. Often, newborns show signs of sexual crisis (breast swelling, acne on the face, vaginal discharge in girls, increased scrotum in boys). Such a condition is not dangerous to the health of the infant, but if at this stage the glands become infected, purulent mastitis develops.
Sexual crisis of newborns and physiological mastitis
The sexual crisis is the natural state of a child under one year old, adapting to new conditions of life after leaving the mother's womb. During the period of gestation of the fetus in the mother's body, special hormones are produced - estrogens. They are necessary to maintain pregnancy. Some hormones enter the body through the placenta.
In the postnatal period, the level of biologically active substances in the blood of a newborn changes dramatically. The drop in estrogen leads to a quantitative change in other hormones, a "hormonal explosion" occurs. The hormonal background of the infant stabilizes within 3–4 weeks.
Breast engorgement in newborns is a frequent occurrence. On average, mastitis symptoms occur in 75% of cases, not only in girls, but also in some boys.
Sexual crisis usually develops in full-term infants, while parents of premature babies and children with intrauterine growth retardation experience this phenomenon very rarely. Some experts are of the opinion that the absence of symptoms of sexual crisis in newborns is more likely a deviation than the norm. Usually, the breasts naturally increase in children who quickly adapt to the extrauterine life.
Sexual crisis plays a special role in the development of the child, helping to improve the hypothalamus and the formation of gender identity. Many experts note that children with natural breast swelling are much less likely to suffer from physiological jaundice of newborns.
Symptoms of pathological mastitis, differences from mastopathy
The symptoms of the disease may vary depending on the form of mastitis or mastopathy. A characteristic symptom of mastitis is swelling of one, rarely two breasts. Due to the inflammatory processes in the gland, a whitish fluid can be released when pressing on the chest.
When mastitis in newborns palpation there is a lump in the chest. The iron gradually grows in size and hurts. Redness appears on the skin in the area of inflammation. Sometimes only the nipple is hyperemic, but in some cases the entire breast becomes inflamed.
Both one-year-old children and adults are prone to pathological mastitis. The disease gives the patient palpable discomfort. The child becomes inhibited and apathetic. He badly eats and sleeps, constantly capricious. The chair is broken. The inflammatory process in the chest leads to an increase in body temperature. At high temperatures (above 39 degrees), seizures and vomiting may occur.
When mastopathy is the growth of glandular and adipose tissue. In many ways, the symptoms of mastopathy are similar to mastitis, so parents can not always correctly diagnose the disease. In this case, often resort to the help of ultrasound. Mastitis differs from mastopathy in that the induration in the mammary gland is not caused by a tumor, but by a purulent-inflammatory process that has developed after a streptococcal or staphylococcal infection has entered the gland.
Treatment of Breast Inflammation
At the physiological engorgement of the mammary glands, specific treatment is not required. Rest should be provided to the little patient. There is no point in using folk remedies, applying ointments and creams during sexual crisis of newborns. Moreover, active and persistent interference with natural processes can cause complications.
Some parents, noticing that the gland is swollen and inflamed, try to save the baby from seals. They massage the breasts or try to squeeze the fluid from the nipple. Such actions sometimes entail serious consequences, up to abscess and sepsis. You can damage the delicate skin of the baby, which will increase the risk of infection. If the chest is swollen, the well-known pediatrician Komarovsky recommends abandoning tight swaddling, especially in the area of the mammary glands. He advises moms not to be nervous, but to be patient and wait a bit.
For breast diseases, the treatment regimen is very different. If, according to the results of visual examination and ultrasound, pathological mastitis or mastitis is diagnosed, the infant is hospitalized. In most cases, it is possible to cope with the disease with the help of conservative therapy; in emergency situations, the patient is sent for surgery.
The treatment of mastitis in girls should be approached with full responsibility, because even at this age, a long inflammatory process can lead to blockage of the ducts. In this case, the growth and function of the breast will be impaired.
With natural breast augmentation, parents should ensure that the child’s personal hygiene rules are respected. It is necessary to carry out water treatments regularly, change clothes more often and avoid contact with dirty things. Specialists in order to prevent complications recommend imposing a dry, clean cloth on the inflamed gland to young patients. In this way, the penetration of bacteria into the gland through the lymphatic ducts or damage to the skin can be avoided.
If the swollen glands are enlarged, a ball is felt during palpation in the chest, and conservative therapy does not give the desired results, the abscess is opened. The surgeon on the chest makes a small incision (1–1.5 cm), and then the wound is drained. After the pus is removed from the abscess cavity, the drainage is removed and a medical bandage is applied.
Due to the fact that it is difficult to completely clean the wound from pathogenic microflora, the child must continue to receive antibiotics. Often, patients are sent for repeated operations to eliminate the newly accumulated purulent exudate.
Complications and consequences of mastitis
Physiological mastitis often passes without consequences. Fear is caused only by those cases when there are injuries of a breast. In the absence of adequate treatment, mastitis can lead to the development of:
When blood is infected, the infection quickly spreads throughout the body, causing pneumonia, meningitis and other life-threatening diseases. For boys who have had mastitis, the effects of the disease will be less noticeable in the future than in the case of girls. Because of the purulent-inflammatory process in the mammary glands, duct obstruction sometimes occurs, and the tissues die. In adulthood, a woman may have problems with breastfeeding. There is a possibility that she will not be able to breastfeed her baby.
About the disease
Inflammation of functionally active and interstitial breast tissue in medicine is called mastitis. The disease is mainly found in women, especially those who have given birth for the first time. But it can also be formed before birth or not at all depend on this physiological process. There are postnatal and non-lactational. A special form is considered infant infants - mastitis in infants, regardless of gender.
Disease occurs due to infection of the mammary glands with pyogenic bacteria. Staphylococcus was isolated in 82% of patients diagnosed with the disease using bacposea; E. coli is the causative agent in 3.4%.
Not always mastitis has an infectious origin. The cause may be fibrocystic changes. This disease is usually called mastopathy, but in the international classification of diseases, it, like mastitis, is ranked as a benign dysplasia of the breast.
Varieties of mastitis
The disease is chronic (quite rare) and acute. The latter are classified according to the clinical course:
- Serous or initial - occurs at 4-6 week in a nursing woman. It is characterized by overflow of blood vessels of the breast and the presence of serous exudate.
- Acute infiltrative - acute inflammation of the mammary gland with the formation of a seal in it (infiltration).
- Abscessing - the main difference of this form is purulent inflammation of the tissues of the gland.
- Phlegmonous characterized by a general increase and severe swelling of the breast.
- Gangrenous is characterized by the appearance on the surface of the skin of the breast of dead tissue, filled with ichor.
- Purulent - an infectious disease of the mammary glands with purulent exudate.
Mastitis in children is isolated in a separate form, since its occurrence, to the same extent as infection, is influenced by physiological age-related features. At chest and transitional age, a seal appears on the chest under the areola. During this process, the glands are more vulnerable and susceptible to infection.
Mastitis in children
Immediately after birth, the body of the baby is faced with a large number of germs. The immune system is not adapted (especially for premature babies) and even mild infectious inflammation quickly develops into a pathological process.
Mastitis in children under one year is not common. But the disease exists and poses a serious threat to the infant. Mastitis in childhood has various causes of origin. In newborns (mostly in the first 2 weeks), the disease is most often of infectious genesis. Inflammation of the mammary glands occurs in both girls and boys. In this age period, the pathology is especially dangerous, because, due to the anatomical features, the infection can spread rapidly and sepsis is formed.
Mastitis of hormonal origin is associated with physiological coarsening of the mammary glands. Fine-grained formations appear in their tissues, in some cases serous discharge from the nipple appears. Some parents, without finding out the reasons for the origin of the disease, begin to self-medicate, which worsens the child’s condition and is dangerous to his health.
Factors affecting the occurrence of the disease
The children's body is constantly evolving, the immune system is just being formed. The occurrence of the disease is usually influenced by several circumstances.
Infectious mastitis in a child under 1 year is formed due to infection of the tissues of the thoracic wall. The causative agent is most often staphylococcus. Its distribution is affected by:
- Inadequate care for the newborn.
- Late elimination of diaper rash.
- The presence of scratches and microcracks on the skin in the chest, which are not subjected to regular treatment with antiseptic agents.
- Failure by the mother of elementary rules of hygiene (poorly washed hands).
Breast compaction occurs 1-2 weeks after birth. The process does not apply to the pathological, if there are no associated negative symptoms (inflammation in the chest, fever).
The main reasons for the development of mastitis in children, girls in particular, in adolescence are blood-lymphatic drainage during puberty. Just like in infants, in puberty the children swelling of the glands is considered a normal physiological process, which passes without consequences through a short period of time. The occurrence of clinical manifestations may indicate the presence of violations in the work of any organ or the whole system:
- Hormonal dysfunction.
- Increased activity of the thyroid gland.
- Pathology of the hypothalamus.
- Violation of the abdominal organs.
In some cases, the cause of fibrocystic changes in the mammary glands is a hereditary predisposition.
How symptoms develop
In case of infectious mastitis in an infant and older children, the characteristic features of the inflammatory process are:
- There are seals (usually only on one side) in the areola and nipple area.
- Breast swelling.
- Redness at the site of the inflammatory process, later the color becomes purple.
- Observed discharge with pressure.
- Pain sensations.
- Significant increase in temperature.
When hyperthermia rises, the general condition of the small patient worsens:
- Breast children constantly capricious, crying.
- There is a decrease in appetite.
- Disorders of the digestive tract (diarrhea).
- Because of the pain and high temperature, the child cannot sleep normally, and therefore there is a breakdown.
At the first symptoms, you must visit the pediatrician. It is usually not difficult to diagnose mastitis in an infant. The basis of the diagnosis consists in inspection, palpation, auscultation, and questioning of the parents. During the physical examination, the doctor notes a thickening or signs of effusion, pus, fever at the site of inflammation or general. Also, methods and means of assessing the pathological process include a complete blood count and bacteriological exudate culture.
In parallel, conduct a differential diagnosis of mastopathy. As a rule, in infants for the study of fibrocystic changes are limited to the use of ultrasound scanning of the mammary glands. Older children may use diaphanoscopy. Using this method, determine the presence of nodal seals.
Treatment of mastitis in children is prescribed depending on the genesis and form of the disease. At the initial stages, conservative treatment is carried out:
- UHF-therapy - the effect of a high-frequency electromagnetic field has an anti-inflammatory, reparative effect.
- UV-therapy has a tonic, immunostimulating effect.
- The course of antibiotics is prescribed depending on the pathogen, age and course of the disease.
Surgical intervention is used for purulent, phlegmonous and gangrenous forms of mastitis. The task of the operation is the removal of pus, necrotic tissue and the creation of conditions for recovery.
Prognosis and prevention
The prognosis of breast mastitis in a child is 99% favorable. Complications occur quite infrequently and then due to a late visit to a doctor. The basis of prevention is the observance of the rules of hygiene and constant inspections of the body of a boy or girl. It is also necessary to carry out activities aimed at enhancing the immune system. Timely recognition of mastitis in children will help to avoid severe forms of the disease, and simple preventive measures will prevent its occurrence.
Real mastitis is rare in babies. In most cases, this is a borderline condition called physiological mastopathy. During her first 10 days of life, the mammary glands swell in both boys and girls because of the hormones of the mother, transmitted to the infant in the womb, as well as with breast milk. Such signs are externally visible: the mammary glands swell, may redden, and a white or grayish liquid is secreted from the nipples. However, the child feels normal, there is no suppuration, fever and other factors that make the baby cry.
There is no need to treat physiological mastitis. As soon as the level of hormones in the mother's milk is stabilized (and it will take 2-3 weeks), all disturbing symptoms will disappear. The only thing that can be done is to protect the baby from mechanical squeezing, for example, avoiding tight swaddling, and also to monitor the hygiene of the mammary glands. No ointments, lotions and the like do not need to be used.
Symptoms of mastitis
The entry and development of infection in the breast of a newborn is characterized by the following features:
- The mammary glands redden, sometimes become bluish-purple, increase in size, they are hot to the touch.
- Touching them gives the baby pain and severe discomfort.
- The child becomes whiny, appetite deteriorates, signs of intoxication are growing.
- The body temperature rises from 37.5 to 39, or even up to 40 ° C, against which it may develop seizures and vomiting.
- From the mammary glands spontaneously or with pressure, purulent contents are released.
Mastitis of newborns develops according to the classical scheme: when there is a vulnerable spot for infection. That is, the development of inflammation itself provokes opportunistic microflora, mainly staphylococci and streptococci. But there are several factors contributing to the penetration of infection into the mammary gland.
So, against the background of the sexual crisis, when the mammary glands swell, improper care of the baby can cause damage to the tender baby skin in the nipple area. For example, if parents, not understanding the physiology of what is happening, try to “cure” the baby at home by conducting various rubbing and putting compresses on the chest area. Or try to remove the excreted fluid, squeezing it out of the nipples.
Mechanical injury of the skin on the chest leads to the formation of microcracks, and this is the entrance gate for infection.The situation is aggravated if the baby is rarely bathed, swaddled in dirty diapers, using the technique of tight swaddling. In addition, it is important to remember that children with weakened immunity, premature births or having any congenital malformations, have a higher risk of developing mastitis than healthy full-term babies.
Preventive measures to prevent the development of mastitis are reduced to the observance of the rules of hygiene and proper care for the baby:
- daily bathing, timely change of dirty diapers or diapers,
- hands should be washed before changing the diaper or bathing,
- first month of life makes sense to iron the baby’s clothes and diapers with an iron,
- not to contact people suffering from colds or if they have festering wounds on their bodies,
- for symptoms of sexual crisis, you should consult a doctor to make sure that nothing terrible happens and to consult about further care for the baby.
So, mastitis is important to recognize in time. It can not be treated independently. Instead, do not neglect the advice of a doctor and follow his recommendations. And even better if you follow the rules for the care of a newborn. Then the risk of suffering a similar disease will be minimal.
What causes mastitis?
The causes of mastitis in newborns are hormonal. During the period of stay in the mother's womb, female hormones, estrogens, enter the child's body. After the baby is born, their concentration gradually decreases, the overall balance of hormones in their blood is disturbed, which contributes to the development of the disease.
In other cases, the onset of the disease is characterized by the penetration into the mammary gland of staphylococci or streptococci, which leads to the appearance of purulent manifestations of mastitis.
The probability of developing pathology increases with:
- deep physical damage to the skin of the breast or nipple injuries,
- presence of extragenital pathology or partial forms of infertility in the mother,
- the occurrence of complications during pregnancy,
- artificial feeding from the first days of life.
Symptoms and clinical presentation of mastitis in newborns
Symptoms of mastitis in newborns can be found in both girls and boys. Conventionally, the development of the disease can be divided into 3 stages.
Serous - there is increased anxiety of the child and refusal to eat, the temperature is low-grade, there are no external signs or they are insignificant.
Infiltrative - after several hours, the general condition worsens, fever appears, the affected area swells, becomes hyperemic.
Purulent - characterized by the addition of purulent-infectious abscess, there is a likelihood of fistula or corresponding discharge through the nipple.
The symptoms of mastitis in newborns are as follows:
- temperature 38-39 ° C
- external redness and swelling of the affected area, tenderness when feeling,
- restless behavior
- refusal to eat
Diagnosis of mastitis in newborns is carried out using several methods. These include:
- history taking,
- primary examination with palpation and percussion of the thoracic,
- laboratory diagnostics (tests for mastitis in newborns - blood on white blood cells and traces of infection),
- sowing of purulent content to accurately determine the pathogen.
What doctor treats mastitis in newborns?
Pediatrician treats mastitis in newborns, he also prescribes the necessary diagnostic measures, decides on the choice of methods of dealing with the disease.
In some cases, it may also require the participation of the surgeon - for the opening of the exudate lesion. But before treating mastitis in this way, you need to get the consent of one of the parents.
Treatment of mastitis in newborns
The main direction of the treatment of the disease - the stabilization of the baby. First of all, it is necessary to eliminate the fever and begin antibiotic therapy.
To achieve a sustainable positive result, therapy should be comprehensive, using local means.
Treatment of mastitis in newborns begins at the infiltrative stage and is carried out using the following methods:
- use of antibiotics in moderate doses,
- UV and UHF therapy,
- application of cooling compresses (for 15 minutes).
How to treat mastitis in newborns in the third stage, determines the attending physician. Usually, in such cases, the dose of antibacterial drugs is increased and a decision is made on surgical excision for exudate excretion and the application of hypertonic dressings.
- the affected area cannot be heated,
- pressure on this zone should be avoided.
Complications of mastitis in newborns - a rare phenomenon. Their occurrence is possible with the negligence and inattention of parents. Problems of this nature are successfully eliminated in the hospital, but in advanced cases there is a risk of phlegmon, which represents a serious threat to the life of the infant. In most cases, the prognosis is favorable, up to full recovery.
The condition of the body in which the level of hormones begins to change its values in comparison with the period of intrauterine life is called a sex crisis. This hormonal crisis has natural prerequisites and is associated exclusively with adaptation processes within the child’s body. During pregnancy, a large amount of hormones of the mother enter the baby’s blood, this is the reason why the sexual crisis occurs in the infant.
How to recognize sexual crisis in newborns:
- the breasts swell,
- swelling genitals
- whitish rash appears on the face,
- girls have bloody vaginal discharge (we recommend reading: how to treat green discharge from a girl at 3 years old?).
3-5 weeks after birth, the hormones return to normal, all the previously existing symptoms disappear. A number of neonatologists believe that the absence of signs of a hormonal crisis is a deviation from the norm and, on the contrary, regard it as a pathology. This feature was revealed: in children with a sex crisis, the yellow one is extremely rare.
Signs of physiological mastopathy
In girls, physiological mastopathy occurs twice as often as in boys, but cases of manifestation of hormonal disruptions occur in those and others. We list the signs of engorgement of the mammary glands in infants:
- breasts increase, swell by 2-3 cm,
- an increase in the mammary glands in a child manifested itself in the first week of life,
- skin color above the chest has a normal shade,
- no pain when pressed,
- emergence from the breast of a certain amount of fluid, which may be white or grayish in color, similar to colostrum.
Breast engorgement in newborns may be unilateral or bilateral. Both options will be considered normal.
Care and error rules
To help the infant with mastopathy, certain actions are required. Proper implementation will provide prevention of the development of complications, as well as improve the general condition of the child.
You must do the following:
- fabrics use only natural, soft and comfortable,
- ironing baby’s clothes and bedding,
- wash hands thoroughly before contact with the baby
- with a strong pronounced swelling of the mammary glands, it is recommended to dress the breast with a dry, dry dressing, this will prevent excessive rubbing of the skin against clothing.
Here are the actions that are prohibited:
- make alcohol compresses (even when diluting alcohol with water), and apply Vishnevsky ointment,
- make cold or warm compresses on the chest (no temperature effects can be produced),
- decant the discharge from the chest (there is a greater risk of infection).
When a child's chest has swollen, this issue should be discussed with a pediatrician or neonatologist. Hearing the advice from the doctor to apply any ointment, put lotions, or use traditional medicine, it makes sense to get advice from another specialist who has more experience in this area.
How does it appear?
The inflammatory process in the mammary glands is usually triggered by such pathogens as staphylococci and streptococci. In rare cases, the cause of mastitis is a fungus (candidiasis). The following prerequisites provoke the appearance of mastitis:
- improper hygiene of the baby (you can read about the treatment of diaper rash in newborns here),
- performing warm compresses or using ointments to eliminate the engorgement of the glands,
- chest injuries.
Signs of mastitis
You can understand that a newborn has mastitis by the presence of the following symptoms:
- with more common unilateral mastitis, there is an increase and compaction of only one breast,
- increase in body temperature to 38-39 ˚ C,
- swelling breasts, the appearance of a ball,
- chest hurts when pressed, swelling, thickening and redness appear (we recommend to read: what to do if chest hurts during lactation?),
- lack of appetite,
- regurgitation, diarrhea, vomiting,
- sleep failures
- capriciousness, lethargy, lethargy.
With a severe course of the disease, the appearance of purulent formations is possible, the movement of fluid under the skin in the inflamed area is often fixed. The general well-being of the baby is deteriorating. Purulent tumors most often occur only in one of the mammary glands.
The running of mastitis in the maiden half of the population in childhood can cause a disproportionate development of the breasts in the future, and there are also frequent cases of blockage of the milk ducts, which further affects the ability of breast feeding.
Opinion of Dr. Komarovsky
Let's hear what Dr. Komarovsky says about child mastitis. In the first two weeks after birth, the glands swell quite often. The reason for this are the hormones of the mother. The baby gets them shortly before birth, as well as sucking breast milk. One can speak about mastitis only if the child has a fever and the presence of purulent discharges is recorded. Then doctors put purulent mastitis in newborns.
Often, for successful treatment, doctors resort to surgery. The doctor says that as soon as the hormonal background returns to normal - and this happens within a maximum of two weeks, all the symptoms of engorgement of the glands pass without a trace. Komarovsky reminds all parents that the swollen glands should not be tightly bandaged, and in no case should they be smeared with.
The presence of pronounced symptoms allows the doctor to make an accurate diagnosis. You can understand which pathogen caused the inflammation by sowing discharge from the chest. Usually, in the case of mastitis, the child is referred for consultation to the surgeon.
For certainty, breast ultrasound is often prescribed. Ultrasound can diagnose the presence of cysts, tumors and congenital abnormalities.
Ultrasound for children is prescribed if:
- the baby's breasts are swollen,
- there is a swelling of the breast outside the nipple,
- there is infectious inflammation, pain, chest inflamed and firm,
- body temperature rises
- girlish mammary glands develop prematurely
- boyish chest enlarges and inflames.
Physiological mastopathy is safe for the baby, but with improper care and treatment can be a source for the onset of inflammation caused by various infectious agents. It is important for parents not to forget about the important principle “do no harm”. It is especially relevant for children up to one year old.
By itself, a sexual crisis in children under one year does not need to be treated. The general procedure for adults is to repeat the usual daily procedures. The most important thing is hygiene: timely change of clothes, ironing all things before use. Bath procedures are preferably carried out in boiled water. For sterility it is possible to add a little potassium permanganate.
All kinds of compresses and lotions are strictly forbidden - they can damage the skin, that is, cause infection. Never indulge in the desire to squeeze out discharge from swollen mammary glands, especially if there are purulent areas.
Noticing that, in addition to breast swelling, the disease is combined with an increase in temperature, parents should immediately consult a doctor (for more information, see the article: What is the normal temperature for an infant?). All treatments should be carried out in the hospital. The initial form of the disease involves the use of antibiotics and drugs aimed at relieving inflammation. The treatment also includes the application of ointments and therapeutic solutions. All procedures are carried out strictly under the supervision of doctors.
An important preventive measure is bathing a newborn in boiled water.
When the disease has already passed into the exacerbation stage and there are signs of an abscess, a line surgery is required. Doctors carry out the opening of the purulent area and leaching of pus. Severe course of the disease, which has passed into phlegmon or sepsis, requires the transfer of the child to the intensive care unit, which is associated with a strong deterioration in his well-being.
Mastitis for later adulthood is not as dangerous for boys as it is for girls. In girls who have had mastitis in childhood, there is often a blockage of the milk ducts, inflammation of the breast during puberty and during lactation (we recommend reading: how should we care for a newborn girl?). All this can lead to the impossibility of the breastfeeding process itself, and in addition, the risk of mastopathy and oncology increases dramatically.
Prevention of infection is carried out in very simple ways:
- bathing baby in boiled water
- regular change of bed linen and clothes
- avoiding contact of a child with people with acute respiratory infections or with skin lesions,
- personal hygiene,
- protection of the child from various injuries, which is especially important during a sexual crisis.
Parents should be aware of:
- In the presence of a sexual crisis, the newborn should be protected from damage, especially to pay attention to the chest area. Tightly swaddle at this time is not worth it (we recommend to read: how to properly swaddle your baby in winter and summer?).
- Do not treat what should go away by itself. Improper action can not only slow down the healing process, but also worsen the general well-being.
When a boy or girl is overweight, the mother may think that the breasts are enlarged, but this is not connected with the swelling of the mammary glands, but with the excessive accumulation of fat in the upper part of the body. Children older children tend to increase the mammary glands. This can be a consequence of puberty, which can be both premature and normal.
It should be remembered that improper hygiene of the infant with the existing physiological mastopathy can lead to the development of mastitis. Give up self-treatment and entrust this matter to professionals. Observance of hygienic rules, attentive attitude to the baby and the absence of fear to the doctors are all faithful companions to a quick recovery.
Mastitis occurs quite often and is considered a disease of nursing mothers, which is not entirely true. This disease is associated with inflammatory processes in the mammary gland, which all people have.
Accordingly, mastitis can occur in both girls and boys. Its appearance may be due to different reasons:
- Infection through wounds or from another source through blood.
- With milk stagnation during lactation: for bacteria, milk is an ideal habitat. It is found only in nursing mothers.
- With hormonal fluctuations: mastitis often occurs during adolescence or during menopause.
In infants, it is common to distinguish 2 forms of mastitis:
- Physiological: this option is found in more than 90% of cases and often passes on its own. It is associated with the transfer from the mother’s milk of a certain amount of its sex hormones into the infant’s body. This leads to fluctuations in the hormonal background with which the body is trying to cope.
Depending on the form of the disease, the symptoms also differ. The main symptom of physiological mastitis is an uneven increase in one breast.
Also, in some cases, whitish fluid may be released when pressing, and small rashes appear on the face. The disease usually occurs for 3-4 days and can last up to a month.
Purulent mastitis is usually accompanied by:
- pain when touched or pressed
- reddening of the skin
- high temperature
- reduced appetite
- capricious condition caused by painful sensations
- girls may have discharge from the genitals.
Purulent mastitis is developing rapidly and proceeds to the next, more dangerous stage in a few days. If treatment is untimely or incorrect, poisonous waste products of microbes will begin to accumulate inside the breast. This will lead to poisoning of the whole organism and the need to surgically remove pus and non-viable tissues from the chest.
Treatment also depends on the form of mastitis: physiological does not require anything special, it is often enough just to wait. Purulent, you must start treatment as early as possible, and the first thing you need to do is consult a doctor and agree on the entire course of treatment.
In case of physiological mastitis, it is necessary to follow the rules of hygiene: bathe the child regularly, change clothes, avoid contact with dirty things. It is also recommended to put a clean, dry cloth on the chest to avoid bacteria.
You may also be interested in an article on the use of ointments for mastitis.
Read the article on lactational mastitis here.
You may also find an article about compresses for mastitis.
The napkin needs to be changed every 2-3 hours. Prohibited:
- Trying to squeeze out pus by yourself, massage and press on the chest: babies have too tender skin that can be injured.
- Apply popular recipes without the consent of a doctor: they can cause an allergic reaction.
- To warm up the chest: extremely rarely does warming up lead to a weakening of the disease, it happens more often the opposite, even in adults. In children, the infection can quickly grow, leading to serious complications.
For purulent form, any treatment should be carried out with the consent and approval of the doctor. No folk remedies or advice of relatives and families should not replace it.
- In the first stage, treatment can be special compresses that help get rid of inflammation.
- If the disease has passed into the next stage, the baby will have to be operated in order to completely pull out all non-viable tissues.
After surgery, the doctor usually prescribes vitamins and a course of antibiotics to help the body get rid of the infection. The procedure is performed under general anesthesia and is not dangerous.
If treatment is absent or goes wrong, mastitis easily spills over into blood poisoning and inflammation of adipose tissue. These diseases often end in death.
Mastitis in infants is quite common and in most cases is not a serious disease. Prompt treatment will help get rid of the disease quickly and without loss.
What to do if the newborn has mastitis, see the advice of doctors: