- Analysis of the history of the disease and complaints (how long menstruation is absent (monthly uterine bleeding associated with physiological rejection of the endometrium - the inner layer of the uterine mucosa), whether the woman has taken oral contraceptives, has been exposed to radiation, chemotherapy, etc.).
- Analysis of hereditary anamnesis (were there any violations of the menstrual cycle in the immediate relatives of the maternal line - mothers, grandmothers, sisters, aunts).
- Analysis of gynecological history (postponed gynecological diseases, operations, sexually transmitted diseases, number of pregnancies, abortions, etc.).
- Analysis of menstrual function (at what age did the first menstruation begin, what is the duration and regularity of the cycle, is there an indication of scant menstruation, the date of the last menstruation, etc.).
- Gynecological examination with mandatory bimanual (two-handed) vaginal examination. A gynecologist with two hands to the touch (palpation) determines whether the genitals are properly developed, what are the dimensions of the uterus, ovaries, cervix, their ratio, condition of the ligamentous apparatus of the uterus and the area of appendages, their mobility, soreness, etc.
- General examination - identification of possible signs of somatic (non-sex) diseases: body type, distribution and amount of adipose tissue, striae (stripes on the skin), type of hair growth, development of mammary glands and discharge from the nipple, etc.
- Ultrasound diagnostics (ultrasound) of the pelvic organs to exclude pregnancy, genital abnormalities, identify ovarian pathology, dynamic (over time) observation of the follicular apparatus (the follicle is a receptacle for a ripening egg cell, a vesicle filled with fluid) of the female sex glands.
- Laboratory determination of hormones in the blood. The list of hormones depends on the specific situation and is determined by the doctor. Most often these are: pituitary hormones, sex hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, etc.
- Radiography of the skull - is carried out in order to identify possible tumors of the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain - is performed to exclude anatomical features of the structure or tumors of the brain.
- Ultrasound diagnosis of the thyroid gland and adrenal glands to exclude tumor formations in these organs.
- Consultation with a gynecologist-endocrinologist is also possible.
Treatment of ovarian hyperhidrosis syndrome
- Ovarian hyper retardation syndrome caused by taking oral contraceptives (COCs), as a rule, does not require treatment. Menstruation recover independently 3-4 months after the abolition of COC.
- In some cases, anti-estrogens are prescribed, which in small doses stimulate the production of own estrogens, as well as gonadotropic (ovarian-stimulating) hormones of the pituitary (regulatory part of the brain), which leads to the restoration of the normal menstrual cycle (regular menstruation).
Complications and consequences
- Ovarian hyper retardation syndrome usually disappears without treatment within 3–4 months, which does not affect reproductive function in the future.
- However, this condition is an unfavorable development factor:
- hypertension (high blood pressure),
- atherosclerosis (deposits in the walls of blood vessels of fatty plaques, which narrows their lumen and disrupts blood circulation) in the future.
Prevention of ovarian hyper-inhibition syndrome
- Healthy lifestyle:
- rational and balanced nutrition (eating foods rich in vitamins, proteins, fats and carbohydrates, minerals),
- weight control,
- exclusion of excessive physical and psycho-emotional stress
- hardening of the body.
- Compliance with the scheme and rules of hormonal drugs.
- Regular observation at the gynecologist (2 times a year).
1. Gynecology: National leadership / Ed. V.I. Kulakov, G.M. Savelyeva, I. B. Manukhina. - GOETAR-Media, 2009.
2. Gynecology. Textbook for universities / Ed. Acad. RAMS, prof. G. M, Savelieva, prof. V. G. Breusenko. - GOETAR-Media, 2007.
3. Practical gynecology: a guide for physicians / V.K. Likhachev. - Medical Information Agency Ltd., 2007.
4. Gynecology. A textbook for students of medical universities / V. I. Kulakov, V. N. Serov, A. S. Gasparov. - “Medical Information Agency LLC”, 2005.
The causes of the syndrome
The main causes of the syndrome experts include:
- Reception for a long time COC (combined oral contraceptives).
- Radiation treatment in the presence of malignant tumors.
- Chemotherapy for cancer.
Prolonged use of OK affects the inner lining of the uterus. The modified surface of the endometrium does not respond to gonadotropic hormones, disrupting the menstrual cycle. This also applies to the condition of the ovaries. They lose their sensitivity to hormones, which causes secondary amenorrhea.
Risk factors are:
- Use of oral contraceptives (Rigevidon, Triziston and Miniziston).
- Insufficient production of pituitary hormones that affect the functioning of the ovaries.
Ovarian depletion syndrome is more common in women under 40 years of age. The number of estrogen decreases, there are signs of premature menopause, although, before the menstrual cycle failure was not observed. Despite the causes of ovarian hyper retardation, treatment will definitely be prescribed.
- Collecting anamnesis of the disease based on patient complaints.
- Analysis of heredity (whether similar problems were observed in close relatives).
- Finding out the gynecological history (previously transferred surgical gynecological interventions, number of pregnancies, as well as abortions, STDs).
- Refinement of the reproductive work (the beginning of the first menstruation, the duration and regularity of the cycle, the scarcity or profusion of menstruation).
- General examination of the patient (body type, volume of fat layer and its distribution, type of hair growth, appearance of colostrum from the mammary glands, visual examination of the development of the glands).
- Examination by the gynecologist of the genital organs (palpation). The size of the uterus, appendages, ovaries, and their pain are determined.
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs in order to exclude pregnancy, detect abnormal development, pathology of the ovaries.
- The work of the follicular apparatus of the gonads is monitored.
- Laboratory study of blood hormones. Typically, these are sex hormones and the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands.
- X-ray examination of the skull. Identifies possible pathologies of the pituitary and hypothalamus. MRI of the brain is carried out to determine neoplasms and the anatomical features of the brain.
- Ultrasound of the adrenal glands and the thyroid gland helps to exclude tumor neoplasms.
Treatment of the disease
If ovarian hyper-inhibition syndrome is triggered by oral medications, it is not necessary to treat it. The menstrual cycle can recover on its own. This will happen no earlier than the 4th month after completion of the COC reception. May be prescribed treatment with antiestrogens. They will stimulate the production of their own hormones. To stimulate the ovaries prescribed pituitary gonadotropic hormones. As a result of therapy, regular menstruation is restored.
With amenorrhea, combined with galactorrhea (the release of colostrum from the nipples), drugs are prescribed to reduce the production of the hormone prolactin. If a pituitary neoplasm is diagnosed, then radiation therapy and subsequent surgical intervention are indicated.
Amenorrhea can pass on its own within 6-8 weeks. The pathology of the reproductive (reproductive) function is not reflected at all. But the lack of a menstrual cycle can have adverse consequences:
- Increased blood pressure.
- Atherosclerosis (violation of the lumen of blood vessels by fatty plaques).
- Hirsutism (excessive hairiness).
In the syndrome of ovarian depletion or in the postmenopausal period, autonomic disorders appear. Vegetative symptoms suggest:
- hot flashes
- heart muscle pain
- excessive sweating
- numbness of the limbs.
There are these disorders due to the decrease in the content of the ovaries of sex hormones, which are responsible for the work of certain organs.
What functions do the ovaries in the body
The ovaries are one of the most important organs of the female reproductive system. It develops and matures the egg, which is why the activity of the ovaries is directly related to the menstrual cycle.
The ovaries are located in the pelvis to the left and right of the uterus. Their length is about 40 mm, width is about 30 mm, and thickness is no more than 10 mm. Of course, the size of the ovaries depends on the female age.
The structure of the ovaries is complex: the inside is a medulla with many vessels and capillaries that are needed to supply the outer cortical layer in which the follicles are formed and mature. It is in the follicle that the egg matures. The number of developing follicles is usually from 6-7 to 25-30, but in the middle of the cycle only one follicle remains (less often 2), it is called dominant. In it the egg cell continues to grow and develop until ovulation (the release of the egg into the uterus), the activity of the other follicles freezes.
The ovaries perform three main functions:
- Generative - the possibility of the formation of the egg, ready for fertilization.
- Vegetative - the development of primary and secondary female sexual characteristics.
- Hormone - the production of hormones by the ovaries necessary to prepare for the conception and pregnancy of a woman.
The ovaries produce three types of hormones:
- testosterone (male hormone).
Estrogens are needed for optimal functioning of the female internal organs (uterus, vagina, and the ovaries themselves), egg generation and proper carbohydrate-mineral metabolism. These are the most important female hormones.
Progesterone ensures the development and viability of the fetus, controls the course of pregnancy.
Testosterone is needed by a woman to strengthen the physical structure of the body (muscles, ligaments), the proper development of the body and the supporting system, in addition, it participates in the process of the production of female hormones.
The ability of a woman to conceive and carry out a child depends on the activity and health of the ovaries; this small organ performs a lot of work in the woman’s body.
The most common pathologies
Unfortunately, almost all diseases of the ovaries that are not cured in time or are not curable, threaten with infertility. Asymptomatic diseases are especially dangerous when nothing concerns a woman. Therefore, women are recommended to visit the gynecologist at least 1 time per year.
Often there are pathologies of the ovaries in women, regardless of her age.
Develops with the ingress and development of infection in the ovaries, often accompanied by the development of inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ligaments. Infection can be caused by viruses, microbes and simple organisms.
The inflammatory process in the ovaries is accompanied by a number of symptoms:
- Lower abdominal pain to the left or right.
- Increase in body temperature to 38-39 degrees.
- Malaise, headache, nausea.
- Discharge from the vagina with an unpleasant smell, their yellowish color indicates the presence of pus.
Inflammation of the ovaries is well treatable, after tests and examinations the doctor prescribes antibiotics of a certain group (penicillins, cephalosporins and others), and after a while the disease subsides. During treatment (on average up to a month), abstinence from sexual intimacy is recommended.
The most unpredictable disease, since there are almost no symptoms at an early stage. Ovarian cancer can metastasize to other nearby organs, so the disease is dangerous and unpredictable. Treatment is prescribed by an oncologist after ultrasound, tomography, tests to confirm the diagnosis.
Next, an operation is performed to remove a tumor or organ. Most often, in case of late detection of ovarian cancer, all organs of the female reproductive system are removed.
The disease is very common, it has many different types, most often it is surgically removed or carefully observed by a doctor until it gets worse.
The disease is often asymptomatic, detected with ultrasound. Of the complications of the disease are dangerous twisting legs cyst and rupture of its wall. They are already accompanied by severe lower abdominal pain, high fever and nausea.
They require immediate assistance (operation). Cysts can in most cases disappear on their own, and some can degenerate into malignant tumors.
Hypofunction and Hyperfunction of the Ovaries
Ovarian hypofunction is the inability of the body to produce the right amount of female hormones. At the same time, the entire menstrual cycle is disturbed: menstruations are irregular, ovulation happens much less frequently or is completely absent, therefore problems arise with the conception of a child.
Hypofunction is divided into primary and secondary. Primary - a violation of the ovaries during fetal development, that is, congenital. Secondary hypofunction occurs on the background of adverse conditions: stress, unhealthy diet, inflammatory and infectious diseases of the reproductive system, malfunction of the hypothalamus and pituitary.
Symptoms of hypofunction can be:
- with congenital pathology - late onset of menstruation, their irregularity, abnormal development of the mammary glands, the apparent underdevelopment of the external and internal genital organs of the girl, the absence or small amount of pubic hair and armpits.
- with secondary hypofunction - mental disorders, irregular periods, their absence, menopause syndrome at an early age, reduction of the uterus in size, infertility.
Hypofunction is not a disease, in the reproductive age (not congenital), it can occur unexpectedly and occurs quite often.
Ovarian hyperfunction in women is much less common. With ovarian hyperfunction, a greater number of hormones are produced than the body needs of a woman, that is, it is the opposite of hypofunction.
Disruption of the hormonal background does not allow follicles to mature, so ovulation does not occur, and pregnancy is also impossible. Due to the non-development of follicles, the ovaries are enlarged, follicular cysts begin to form.
Symptoms of ovarian hyperactivity are mild or absent altogether. Most often, a woman notices a failure of the menstrual cycle. An examination also shows an increase in the ovaries.
During hyperfunction, one of the hormones produced prevails. With an excess of androgens in women, the appearance of male signs is possible, with the predominance of female hormones premature aging occurs, the woman looks much older than her age.
Primary ovarian failure
Primary failure is determined by the cessation of menstruation, as well as its irregular cycle.
This is a huge problem for women of reproductive age, since the depletion of the ovaries does not allow for the production of eggs, which prevents conception.
Most often, the pathology happens in those women who experience constant stress, and also lead an unhealthy lifestyle.
However, cases have recently become more frequent when a perfectly healthy woman develops primary ovarian failure.
Depending on what the initial cause of the pathology, there are several types of ovarian failure:
- Dysgenesis of the genital glands - pathology implies the presence of aggressive factors, under the long-term influence of which the structure of the body of the ovary changes, which affects its functionality. This may be prolonged inflammatory processes that have a chronic course.
- Syndrome of early exhaustion of the gonads - the diagnosis involves the impact on the genitals of several aggressive factors (injuries, frequent surgical interventions, hormonal dysfunction, radiation). During the progression of pathology, a woman gradually loses the ability to become pregnant, as the cycle becomes anovulatory.
- Resistance of the genital glands - a completely healthy ovary produces the necessary number of follicles from which ovules could ovulate, however, the hormonal system does not perceive this process, therefore ovules cannot be fully developed. Gradually, the childbearing function fades away, and after 2-3 years, menopause begins, which is characterized by a complete cessation of menstruation, as well as a decrease in ovarian activity.
Ovarian failure may occur not only in mature women. There are frequent cases when girls 18-25 face this problem when more than a year they are not able to conceive a child.
Causes of pathology
Among the most common causes provoking the development of ovarian failure, there are:
- Autoimmune diseases - the body fails when the body's immune cells perceive hormones as alien and threatening cells, destroying them. The result is a hormonal imbalance that prevents the ovaries from working properly.
- Injury of the ovaries and pelvic organs as a result of falls, strokes, compression, and surgical operations.
- Inflammatory processes of the genital organs, which occur in a chronic form, causing violations of the integrity of the tissues of the ovary, which deprives it of normal functioning.
- Abuse of drugs that affect the hormonal system, especially the genital organs.
- Genetic abnormalities that originate at the stage of the formation of the sex glands during fetal development.
The disease acquires a particularly rapid course in cases where not one factor is detrimental, but several at once. In just 3-4 months, a woman can lose the ability to reproduce, although no complaints about their own health are manifested.
Mature teratoma or dermoid ovarian cyst is a benign growth that occurs in 20% of all types of ovarian cysts.
How the hypothalamic syndrome of puberty manifests itself and whether it is necessary to treat it, read here.
Herminogenic tumor of the ovary is a dangerous malignant neoplasm. The link http://gormonexpert.ru/zhelezy-vnutrennej-sekrecii/polovye-zhelezy/yaichniki/opuxoli-yaichniki/germinogennaya-opuxol.html information about the methods of diagnosis and treatment of a cunning disease.
Symptoms of ovarian failure
For various stages of ovarian failure, the disease and the root causes secrete excellent symptoms.
However, we can distinguish such a generalized clinical picture:
- Changes in the nature of vaginal discharge - discharge more scarce, does not change the consistency during the entire cycle.
- Itching and dryness of the vagina, which is explained by a change in the composition of the secretion produced.
- Reduced sexual desire, due to sudden changes in emotional state (due to problems with hormones).
- Frequent migraine-type headaches that occur after experiencing stress.
- Poor health in the absence of disease. Bad sleep, constant anxiety for any situation.
- Increased sweating, as well as a feeling of hot flashes, which is growing in the genital area and spreads throughout the body.
- Failure of the menstrual cycle, in which the monthly come not constantly.
- Amenorrhea - premature cessation of menstruation caused by dysfunction of the ovaries and the entire hormonal system.
- Oligomenorrhea - monthly come more often than twice a month, while the cycle is noticeably reduced to 10-15 days.
- Uncharacteristic behavior with bouts of aggression.
- Changes in the skin of the body, their dryness and lethargy.
It is not necessary that these symptoms manifest themselves. It is enough that the cycle is lost, against which a woman is not able to become pregnant.
Even small deviations from the schedule, delay or reduction of the cycle should serve as a reason for consultation with a specialist.
Ovarian Hypofunction and IVF
Since the ovaries, which work incorrectly, do not contribute to the maturation of follicles with eggs, the only way to become pregnant, if desired, is in vitro fertilization (IVF).
This procedure can help a woman get pregnant and carry a healthy baby.
It is produced in several stages:
- Preparatory - a woman is fully examined, and the chances of a favorable pregnancy occurring are assessed.
- Hormone therapy - hormones are artificially introduced into the body, which stimulate the ovaries to produce as many follicles as possible with the eggs.
- Intake of donor material - a pair makes a collection of germ cells: eggs and sperm, examining them for the presence of pathologies at the DNA level.
- Artificial insemination - in artificial conditions, the sex cells of a man and a woman are joined, and then placed in a special chamber where active cell division occurs.
- Examination of the embryo - the resulting zygote is examined for the presence of pathologies, after which only the strongest and healthiest embryos are isolated.
- Replanting - an embryo is introduced into the uterine cavity, after which 2 weeks are waited, for which it will be decided whether the embryo will take root or not.
But with IVF, there is not always a chance of getting pregnant. Therefore, with such a pathology you should not despair, but try to conceive a child again and again. The world knows miracles that cannot be explained to science. Infertile couples who were treated for years, gave birth to healthy children, contrary to all the laws of medicine. In this case, you need to hope only for the best, and also not to ignore the recommendations of the doctor.
Ovarian hyperfunction is a very rare phenomenon, unlike hypofunction, and is observed only in 10-15% of women. At the same time, this phenomenon is usually characterized as hypereprogenia or hyperestrogenia.
Hyperadrogenesis is the physiological condition of the female body, in which there is an increased production of androgens. When hyperestrogenic - increases the concentration of estrogen in the blood.
What can be caused by ovarian hyperfunction?
The reasons that cause the development of this condition are as follows:
- Excess hormone insulin in the body. It is this hormone that activates the synthesis of luteotropic hormone, and further androgens in the ovaries and adrenal glands.
- The presence of ovarian tumor formation, which can also synthesize an excess of androgens. So, for example, Leydig cells, called lecdigoms, synthesize the hormone testosterone.
- Enzyme deficiency. For example, a deficiency in the body of Sp-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase leads to an excess of dehydroepiandrosterone.
How does ovarian hyperfunction manifest?
Symptoms of ovarian hyperactivity are most often hidden, which sometimes makes it impossible to start treatment in a timely manner. Most often, women complain of irregular periods, as well as menorrhagia, which is caused by a prolonged increase in the level of estrogen in the blood, which in turn violates the periodic fluctuations in the content of progesterone.
However, in most cases, a woman learns about ovarian hyperfunction only after conducting laboratory tests. So in the blood and urine increases the level of androgens. In this case, the body of a woman begins to acquire male features: muscle mass increases, hypertrichosis is observed.
The result of this disorder is ovarian hypertrophy. This phenomenon is manifested primarily in increasing their size, which is confirmed by the results of ultrasound.
The cyst can safely be for a long time on the organ affected by pathology. But sometimes it bursts, or in other words, it breaks. How can you determine this condition, what are its symptoms and consequences - you will learn about this by reading our article.
Women often face unpleasant ovarian pain. According to statistics, pain in the right ovary occurs much more often than in the left. This is due to the structure of the internal organs of the body. So, what are the causes of pain on the right? You will learn about this by reading our article.
Premature depletion of the ovaries often means the arrival of early menopause. This is a pathological condition, and in most cases requires treatment for the prolongation of the functioning of the reproductive organs to the age at which natural menopause usually occurs. this is in our article.
Cyst is a pathology that occurs quite often in women of different ages, from adolescents to women of the beautiful half of humanity who have reached the age of menopause. In turn, these tumors have many forms. Today we will talk about the yellow body cyst.
Among the main factors that contribute to the development of hyperfunction are:
- Excessive amount of insulin. Insulin starts the production of androgens and luteotropic hormone in the appendages and adrenal glands.
- Tumor neoplasms in the ovaries, which increase the production of androgens from Leydig cells, called lecdigoms, which are responsible for testosterone production.
- Enzyme deficiency. Lack of RR-HSD causes an excess of dehydroepiandrosterone.
- Hereditary predisposition
- Oral contraception (birth control pills).
In some cases, the pathology occurs in women who like to drink cow's milk. Sometimes hormones are added to animals for food on farms. That is why in patients who consume large amounts of cow's milk, there are violations in the hormonal background.
Ovarian hyperfunction can be artificially called by injecting a hormonal drug. Such stimulation is performed during an IVF protocol to obtain multiple oocytes.
Symptoms of hyperactivity of appendages usually appear mild or do not occur at all. This is what prevents the time to start treatment. Often women note a failure of the menstrual cycle, there is menorrhagia, which occurs due to too high levels of estrogen in the blood.
Most often, the patient finds out about the presence of pathology after testing. Normal urine androgen levels are exceeded in urine and blood. Often, there are male signs on the body of a woman: hair growth increases, muscle mass becomes larger, and ovaries increased in size can be seen in the ultrasound diagnosis.
Varieties of the pathological process
Ovarian hyperactivity may manifest as hyperandrogenism or hyperestrogenism.
With hyperandrogenism, there is a high production of androgen. The disease can be expressed in varying degrees, it all depends on the characteristics of a particular organism. A large number of sex hormones are observed during puberty. In peripheral tissue, androgen is converted to estrogen. The woman has acne, hirsutism, seborrhea, excess weight, there may be failures in the menstrual cycle, ovulation does not occur, and infertility occurs.
When hyperestrogenia in the patient's blood appears an excess amount of estrogen. In girls, pathology is characterized by early puberty, disruptions in the menstrual cycle, acceleration. In women, menorrhagia occurs - prolonged and abundant uterine bleeding.
Treatment of ovarian hyperactivity can be conservative and operative.
Conservative treatment includes hormone therapy. In this case, the patient is prescribed estrogen-progestin drugs and anti-androgens - drugs that suppress excessive secretion of male sex hormones. In the absence of a result, doctors use minimally invasive therapy. The patient may be assigned diathermocoagulation or resection.
A new, but very effective method of ridding the pathological process is radiowave therapy. The procedure is gentle, does not affect the healthy tissues of the ovaries, without side effects and is carried out only for women whose tumors (if any) are not transformed into malignant ones.
Remember! Before starting treatment, the doctor must report the reason for the hormonal failure.
A radical way to combat hyperfunction is surgery. Be held in the following cases:
- When all other methods did not give the desired effect,
- If you suspect the presence of malignant tumors,
- The rapid deterioration of the patient,
- If the neoplasms were found to be benign, but then turned into malignant. Cancers will give metastases, because the high synthesis of hormones is an excellent medium for the reproduction of malignant cells.
After surgical treatment, hormone therapy is prescribed to stabilize the hormonal levels. After some time, blood tests are done to assess the effectiveness of the operation.
Healthy ovaries are the main condition for the conception of a child, favorable pregnancy and motherhood. Late treatment of ovarian hyperfunction can lead to infertility
Most Popular Pathologies
Unfortunately, almost all diseases of the ovaries that are not cured in a timely manner or that cannot be treated, threaten with sterility. Asymptomatic diseases are especially terrible, at a time when there is nothing disturbing a woman. Based on this, women are recommended to visit a gynecologist at least once a year.
Often there are pathologies of the ovaries in women, regardless of her age.
It begins with the ingress and development of infection in the ovaries, often accompanied by the development of inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ligaments. Infections can be caused by viruses, microbes and protozoa.
The inflammatory process in the ovaries is accompanied by a number of signs:
- Lower abdominal pain to the left or to the right.
- Increase in body temperature to 38-39 degrees.
- Malaise, headache, nausea.
- Discharge from the vagina with an unpleasant smell, their yellowish color indicates the presence of pus.
Inflammation of the ovaries is well treatable, after completing tests and examinations, the doctor prescribes antibiotics of a certain group (penicillins, cephalosporins and others), and after a while the disease subsides. During treatment (on average up to a month), abstinence from sexual intimacy is recommended.
The most unpredictable disease, since there are practically no signs at an early stage. Ovarian cancer can metastasize to other nearby organs, so the disease is dangerous and unpredictable. Treatment is prescribed by an oncologist at the end of an ultrasound scan, tomography, and tests to confirm the diagnosis.
Then surgery is performed to remove a tumor or organ. Much more often, in case of late detection of ovarian cancer, all organs of the reproductive system of a woman are removed.
The disease is very widespread, has a large number of different types, is much more often removed surgically or is marked by a doctor until it gets worse.
The disease is often asymptomatic, detected with ultrasound. Of the complications of the disease, twisting the leg of a cyst and tearing its wall are terrible. They are already accompanied by severe lower abdominal pain, high fever and nausea.
They require immediate assistance (operation). Cysts can usually disappear on their own, and some can be reborn in malignant tumors.
Will be able to develop in one of the parts of the ovary, characterized by painful attacks in the lower abdomen (dull pain), or not at all disturbing. When detected, an operation is assigned to remove the tumor.
Hypofunction and Hyperfunction of the Ovaries
Ovarian hypofunction is the inability of the body to produce the required amount of female hormones. Along with this, the whole menstrual cycle is disrupted: menstruations are irregular, ovulation happens much less frequently or is completely absent, based on this, troubles arise with the conception of a child.
Hypofunction is divided into primary and secondary. Primary - disruption of the ovaries during the development of the fetus, in other words congenital. Secondary hypofunction appears on the background of negative conditions: stress, unhealthy diet, inflammatory and infectious diseases of the reproductive system, malfunction of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
Symptoms of hypofunction can be:
- with congenital pathology - late onset of menstruation, their irregularity, improper development of the mammary glands, the apparent underdevelopment of the external and internal genital organs of the girl, the absence or small amount of pubic hair and armpits.
- For secondary hypofunction - mental disorders, irregular periods, their absence, menopause syndrome at an early age, uterine size reduction, infertility.
Hypofunction is not a disease, in the reproductive age (not congenital), it can appear unexpectedly and occurs quite often.
Ovarian hyperfunction in women is much less common. With ovarian hyperfunction, a greater number of hormones are produced than a woman’s body needs, in other words it is the opposite of hypofunction.
Violation of the hormonal background does not allow the follicles to mature, so ovulation does not occur, and therefore pregnancy is also impossible. Due to the non-development of follicles, the ovaries increase, follicular cysts begin to form.
Symptoms of ovarian hyperactivity are mild or absent altogether. Much more often a woman notices the failure of the menstrual cycle. Examination also shows an increase in the ovaries.
During hyperfunction, one of the produced hormones prevails. With an excess of androgens in women, the appearance of male indicators is likely, with the predominance of female hormones premature aging occurs, the woman looks significantly older than her age.
The main signs of pathology
It is noteworthy, but this syndrome has one single manifestation - the absence of monthly bleeding. Having come to an appointment with a gynecologist, a woman makes a complaint about the absence of menstruation. Nothing else bothers her.
When ovarian hyper retardation, there are no pains, signs of infection, or other symptoms that can alert, lead to ambiguous conclusions.
There are no signs of pregnancy or menopause, since these conditions are not associated with such a diagnosis. But when describing the symptoms is not so clear. A woman may be disturbed by:
- Excessive vaginal dryness, pain during intercourse.
- Hyperthermia (redness and burning sensation) in the genital glands.
- The presence of point hemorrhages mucous.
When referring to a gynecologist, a woman will have to go through a series of procedures that allow her to make an accurate diagnosis. The main methods of diagnosis and differentiation of the pathological condition:
It all starts with the collection of history and examination by touch of the reproductive system in two hands. Such an inspection provides accurate information about the state of the uterus and its ligamentous apparatus.
Possible complications and consequences
In the case of a prolonged absence of menstrual bleeding, the risk of developing certain diseases increases significantly. As a rule, it is:
- osteoporosis (increased bone fragility),
- arterial hypertension (stable increase in blood pressure),
- about atherosclerotic changes in the vessels (formation of plaques that reduce the lumen of the arteries).
Against the background of ovarian hyper-inhibition, reproductive problems often arise. A woman cannot realize herself as a mother. In this case, she needs psychological help.
Carrying out preventive procedures
To prevent the development of such problems, it is necessary to carefully monitor the health of the reproductive system. It is necessary to regularly check with a gynecologist, to lead a correct lifestyle, as well as:
- To give up bad habits: alcohol, nicotine and other stimulants are prohibited.
- Watch for weight, avoid extreme methods of losing weight.
- Control hormone supplements, do not exceed the allowable dosage.
- Monitor the state of the nervous, immune, endocrine and reproductive system.
- Visit the gynecologist 2 times a year, even if there are no complaints.
Cyclic processes in the body of women are extremely sensitive to change. Various factors can upset the balance, it will be difficult to restore the body to work, it will take a lot of time and effort.