Pediatric urology, andrology and proctology, treatment by a doctor


Urology is a very large section of modern medicine, which deals with the treatment of pathologies of the urinary system. It includes the bladder, kidneys, urethra, prostate gland, external genitals.

Previously, both adult and pediatric urologists were part of the surgical section of medicine. In the first decades of the twentieth century, surgery and urology were separated.

What do children's urologists do

Pediatric urology in modern medicine it is a section that is responsible for the treatment of diseases of the urinary organs in children. All processes that are characteristic of a child’s body are distinguished by certain anatomical and physiological features and patterns of flow. In addition, it has already been proven that many surgical interventions, in which congenital malformations and developmental abnormalities are corrected, are better performed in childhood. That is why any department of pediatric urology practices the treatment of a large variety of diseases. After all, most diseases of the urogenital organs that occur in adult patients are also observed in children. However, there are those diseases that manifest themselves exclusively in children. For example, bed-wetting - This is a disease that is characteristic only for children.

Any center for pediatric urology also offers diagnostic services, to which urologists are especially attentive. The fact is that small children are not able to describe in detail and fully the symptoms of the disease that bothers him. That is why pediatric andrology is also based on the extensive experience of doctors, who should always be able to correctly establish the diagnosis, based on rather scant information.

The main symptoms of urological diseases

Parents should pay attention to a number of signs that indicate disturbances in the functioning of the urogenital system. First of all, we are talking about the presence of changes in the results urine tests. However, even without laboratory tests, parents may notice that the baby’s urine has become cloudy, has changed color, and has got an unpleasant smell. Urine tests for children are carried out periodically - in the first months of life, and then with an interval of two years for preventive research.

Another common symptom that causes concern to the parents of the child is urination disorders. The child may complain of pain in the process of urination, in addition, he may urinate too rarely. But the most dangerous symptom is the complete absence of urination. Also a symptom of the disease is urinary incontinence. Sometimes in this case we are talking about enuresis - pathology requiring treatment.

The pain in the kidney area that the child complains of is also an approach to the doctor. However, children often cannot determine exactly where the pain manifests itself, simply pointing to the stomach. Sometimes kidney pain in a child accompanies abdominal distention and vomiting. With such signs, a doctor should be consulted immediately.

Sometimes parents themselves can detect a tumor in the child in the lumbar region or in the stomach. If a tumor formation is groped, it may be a kidney that is abnormally located, or an overflowing bladder. But consultation with the pediatric urologist must be passed.

Major urological diseases

The human urinary system consists of two kidneys, which are located in the lumbar region on both sides of the spine under the edge of the costal arch. The kidney is penetrated by the canaliculi, which open into the renal calyx and the pelvis, which passes into the ureter, which flows into the bladder.

In the process of diagnostics, the doctor-urologist determines various children's urological diseases. It should be noted that in young children, urination disorders are usually not defined as serious pathologists. Daytime or nocturnal incontinence up to two years of age is a natural process in a baby. Urinary incontinence It is considered to be a disease in girls who are 4 years old and in boys after five years of age.

Also, children's urologists are engaged in the determination and subsequent therapy of a number of diseases. These are different forms of bladder dysfunction, urinary tract infections, both acute and chronic, congenital malformations of the urinary system, as well as external genital organs.

According to medical statistics, almost every third child has some or other problems in the functioning or structure of the organs of the urogenital system. Quite often, the doctor states that the aggravation of the urological problem in a child is the result of an untimely visit to a specialist. At the same time, if children's urological diseases are detected immediately after the onset of the first symptoms or suspicions, the doctor can help correct both abnormalities in the development of the urinary system and contribute to the normal adaptation of a psycho-sexual nature. Therefore, doctors strongly advise parents to be attentive to their health and complaints.

When should I go to the urologist?

As a rule, most urological diseases in children are congenital. Acquired diseases are more commonly diagnosed in adult patients. Often, the developmental pathologies of this system can be determined in a child before birth or directly in the maternity hospital. If the child has anomalies of the development of the external genital organs, then the pediatrician will easily detect them immediately after the birth of the child and send the baby for an examination to the urologist. By the way, the pediatric urologist in the research process informs parents about how to care for the child’s genitals, since proper hygiene significantly reduces the risk of disease. For example, with improper care, a consequence of accumulation of urine and smegma residues under the foreskin of a boy can be acutebalanoposthitis.

In addition, doctors emit other diseases, because of the development of which parents are often forced to turn to a pediatric urologist. Dropsy testiclethe boy is often detected immediately after birth. However, doctors determine the natural state - dropsy of newborns, which provokes a strong squeezing of the testicles during labor. Throughout the month, this phenomenon passes. If after a month there is a periodic increase in the scrotum, then in this case surgery is needed, which is carried out at the age of 10 to 12 months.

Cryptorchidism diagnosed by undescended testicle from the abdominal cavity to the scrotum. Initially, an ultrasound or MRI is performed on a child to determine where exactly the testicle is located. The treatment is performed surgically, or hormones are prescribed for the child.

Varicocele - This is a pathology in which there is varicose veins of the testicle and spermatic cord. This disease is characteristic of adolescents. In boys aged 12-14, hormonal activity increases significantly, which leads to the development of varicocele. Treatment in modern clinics is carried out with the use of laparoscopy.

Hypospadias and epispadias - anomalies of the anatomy of the penis of congenital nature, when there is a displacement of the external opening of the urethra and the lower surface of the penis (determined hypospadias) or by top (definition epispadias). With such a pathology there is a strong curvature of the penis, as well as a person may suffer from urinary incontinence. Plastic surgery may be the solution to the problem, but urologists advise that it should be done as early as possible - at about one year old.

In addition to the common diseases described, pediatric urologists have to deal with more serious pathologies. These are, above all, anomalies that have obstructive nature (in this case, the outflow of urine is disturbed due to the presence of an additional vessel) and refluxing nature (there is a throw in the renal pelvis of the contents of the bladder). Bladder exstrophy - A very serious anomaly in which there is no front wall of the bladder. Treatment is also performed surgically, but such interventions necessarily take place in several stages.


In modern medicine, urological diseases in children are diagnosed using the latest techniques. For example, in recent years a separate section has been defined in urology - endoscopic urology. With the help of ultramodern devices and tools, both diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic operations are performed.

Appeal to specialists is indicated if parents suspect that diseases of the genitourinary system in children develop. This can be suspected if the baby has a violation in the process of urination, enuresis, regular back pain or in the abdominal area, frequent rises in body temperature, which are difficult to explain. It is also important to take into account changes in the urine of a child or the presence of certain changes in the analysis. If you have one or more problems from the induced list, you should definitely take the child to see a doctor. It is advisable that the child be consulted by the pediatric urologist. It is the urologist that diagnoses, prescribes treatment and recommends preventive measures in case of urinary system diseases in children. As a rule, consultation of a pediatric urologist involves additional research. Sometimes it is required that the baby be additionally examined by a surgeon or other specialists.

In modern medicine, diagnosis involves not only confirming the presence of diseases, but also their prevention, as well as the early detection of anomalies of urinary tract development of a congenital nature.

Prevention of urological diseases in children

Pediatric urologists strongly recommend adhering to a number of preventive measures that will significantly reduce the risk of developing urological diseases. First of all, parents should pay special attention to the features of the anatomy of the external genital organs of the child, since the pediatrician examines them only during preventive checks, and parents can do this regularly. If the doctor recommends an ultrasound, it must be done. At the first symptoms or signs that alarm parents, you should immediately contact the Department of Pediatric Urology for help.

About the main symptoms of ailments related to urology

Pediatric urology has gained much experience studying the symptoms. If we are talking about children, then parents should be especially attentive, especially you should be attentive to a number of signs that can speak about disorders in the work of the urinary organs. And here, first of all, you should carefully consider the results of urinary tests, when it comes to certain changes.

However, there is not always a need for laboratory studies; sometimes it is enough to evaluate the color of urine on your own.

It can become turbid, you should also pay attention to other external manifestations, for example, the appearance of a sharp unpleasant smell. It is very important to do a urinary analysis for young children on an ongoing basis, and it does not matter at all what kind of health the child has. At a minimum, one should take urine for analysis once every 2 years, and this despite the fact that the child feels well. Such preventive measures are simply necessary, childhood diseases should be treated in the early stages.

There is one more symptom, obviously very bad, which not rarely becomes a real nightmare for parents. It is about urination problems. Different factors can occur here - the baby may complain that he feels unpleasant sensations in the process of urination, while the urinary process is extremely rare. However, the most dangerous is when a child cannot urinate at all. Another painful symptom is urinary incontinence.

If in this case it is a question of enuresis, then the treatment is simply necessary, and in the shortest possible time, such children's diseases can not be delayed.

If the baby feels uncomfortable or just pain in the kidney area, then this is a very good reason to see a doctor. But there may be certain problems, because the kids just can not always clearly show and tell exactly where they feel pain. They can limit themselves to simply showing their tummy and sincerely not understanding why they are being asked in detail about where the pain hurts specifically and how it hurts. It hurts the tummy and that's it! It is not uncommon that pain in the kidneys can manifest along with abdominal distention, and even here severe vomiting can be added.

And here, of course, an appeal to the doctor should be immediate. Of course, we can talk about poisoning, but it is quite possible that these are some childhood diseases.

It sometimes happens that a child has a tumor in the lumbar region or in the abdomen. Moreover, such a tumor can be found by the parents themselves. When groping for education in the form of a tumor, it can be a kidney, the location of which is not correct, and it can also be a bladder, which is simply crowded. Whatever the case, urological consultation in this regard is simply mandatory.

The main illnesses of this type

The urinary system in the human body is formed from two kidneys, they are located in the lumbar region, on each side of the spine under the edges of the ribs.

All children's diseases associated with urology, the doctor determines as a result of accurate diagnosis. And here it is very important to note that if certain violations of the urinary process are observed in young children, then most often we are not talking about pathologies. If a baby is under two years old, then urinary incontinence is not a pathology either during the day or at night, that is, it is a completely natural process. But if we are talking about girls who are 4 years old and boys who are 5 years old, then we are talking about pathology, if urinary incontinence is still observed.

In addition, urologists should also determine what kind of therapeutic therapy will be used for such ailments. There may be dysfunction of the bladder, which can be of different types, the urinary tract may be affected by infection. The development of the urinary system can be subjected to a variety of defects, both congenital and acquired, both chronic and acute. Can suffer and organs that are outside.

The fact that 30 percent of children are subject to this kind of disease speaks eloquently about the spread of such diseases. Moreover, it is bad that very often the situation is aggravated by the fact that the treatment was simply started out of time. It is very important to identify in time the existing ailments, which at an early stage undergo much more effective treatment.

Here the specialist successfully corrects all the anomalies of the development of such a system, and in the medical process adaptation takes place, which is of a psycho-sexual nature. So, doctors strongly recommend parents to treat any changes in the health of children with heightened care, children's diseases are very insidious.

When should I see a doctor?

In most cases, urological ailments are innate, if we talk about illnesses of the acquired type, then we are talking about adults. It is very important to detect the presence of such pathologies in time, and this can be done when the baby is still in the womb or they are detected immediately after the birth of the baby. If the baby has certain abnormalities in the genitals, the doctor will immediately detect this, after the baby is born, after which the baby is immediately sent for examination to the urologist.

An experienced urologist, during the study puts parents aware of how to monitor the sex organs of the baby. The fact is that proper hygiene is an excellent prophylactic forgive the development of various anomalies. For example, if you do not properly care for the boys' foreskin, then urine residues may accumulate under it and this can cause acute balanoposthitis.

You can select a number of other ills that become a reason for seeking medical attention. For example, here we can talk about dropsy of the ovary, it often becomes the species immediately after the birth of the baby into the world. It is observed only in boys. However, there are states of a natural nature, that is, it is about dropsy of the newborn. This happens because the testicles are strongly compressed during labor. However, this phenomenon goes away on its own in a few weeks. But if a month after the birth of the baby the scrotum is constantly increasing, then there is a need for surgical intervention, it must be done until the child is one year old.

Если яички не могут опуститься в мошонку из брюшной полости, то речь идет о крипторхизме. Здесь сначала надо провести УЗИ или МРТ, это нужно для точного определения места яичка. It uses a surgical method of treatment, can also be appointed hormones.

If varicose veins of the testicles are observed, then we are talking about a pathology called varicocele. Most often it is subject to teenagers. The fact is that when boys turn 12-14 years old, the activity of hormones increases significantly, which contributes to the development of the disease. If we talk about treatment, then most often used laparoscopy.

Sometimes the penis is subject to congenital abnormalities; here we are talking about diseases such as epispadias and hypospadias. Such pathologies are characteristic of the curvature of the shape of the penis, this can cause urinary incontinence. Here it is best to have plastic surgery, but doctors strongly recommend that it be performed as early as possible, when the child has not yet turned a year.

There is a place and pathologies that are much more dangerous. Here we are talking more often about obstructive pathologies and refluxing ones. An exstrophy of the bladder can be observed, which is very serious, that is, the child’s bladder is simply without a front-type wall. Here, the treatment process is carried out by surgical intervention, but this process is carried out in stages.

How diagnostics and prevention are made

Modern medicine and pediatric urology andrology, and children's nephrology has on its armament a number of the most modern techniques that allow you to accurately diagnose the disease. In the nephrological science today uses methods that help to detect the disease very early. That is why the endoscopic type of urology has recently begun to be used. Moreover, both diagnostic and therapeutic operations are performed here.

Doctors should be approached when parents, on certain grounds, decided that negative changes had begun in the child’s health. Here it is necessary to pay attention to violations of any type, when it comes to the urinary process, constant pain in the abdomen and lower back, often the body temperature rises, and all this defies explanation.

It is very important to take into account the color of the urine of the baby, as well as certain changes in its analysis. If there is at least one such problem, then the trip to the clinic should be immediate. It is strongly recommended to consult a pediatric urologist.

Such a specialist carries out diagnostics, chooses a method of treatment, and also tells about preventive measures when illnesses of this type are observed. Most often, after urological consultation, a number of studies should be conducted. It so happens that the participation of a surgeon and other specialists is necessary. Often, pediatric proctology or coloproctology comes into play when it comes to forced proctological procedures.

However, one should not think that the tasks of diagnostics consist only in identifying diseases, it is also about their prevention and the earliest possible detection of urinary tract abnormalities.

It is very important to adhere to certain preventive measures, then the risk of urological diseases is significantly reduced. And here the role of parents is very important. They must closely monitor the features of the anatomy of the baby’s genitals. After all, a pediatrician is examined only periodically, while parents have the opportunity to examine everything on a regular basis.

It is not uncommon for an ultrasound examination to be carried out with suspicions. And you should always be attentive to all the negative symptoms that cause an immediate visit to the doctor.

Causes and consequences

Pediatric urology deals with infectious, inflammatory and hereditary diseases of the urogenital system, which, unattended, can lead to the development of prolonged inflammatory processes, failure of the kidneys and urinary system, a significant reduction in the quality of life of the child. In addition, the pathologies of development of the penis and testicles in boys can be cured relatively painlessly in the early stages, and in the later ones they require long and exhausting treatment, which may not have the desired effect.

Urological diseases in children most often develop due to the following reasons.

  1. Congenital abnormalities. Chronic kidney problems in parents - a reason to show the kid to the doctor once again. In addition, most of the urological diseases associated with the incorrect development of the penis and testicles, also manifests itself at an early age.
  2. Infection. Every child is at risk of an infectious disease - and among them are those that affect the urinary system and kidneys.
  3. Violation of the rules of hygiene. The accumulation of urine residues and smegma under the foreskin of boys, the long stay of a child in a wet diaper are the most frequent examples of hygienic problems that lead to urological problems.
  4. Hypothermia, especially due to the fact that the child was long in a wet diaper.

Diseases in urology in children are characterized by the following symptoms:

  • increased urination (a healthy child urinates 20-25 times a day for up to six months, then 10-15 times a year before),
  • urinary retention or the complete absence of urination - a good reason to immediately seek medical attention,
  • change in color, odor, urine transparency,
  • fever, vomiting, bloating,
  • probing for a tumor or thickening in the lower back or abdomen,
  • boy's anxiety when touching the scrotum or penis.

Causes of Cystitis

The development of cystitis is associated with such factors:

  1. Acute and Chronic Urogenital Infections
  2. Hypothermia
  3. Non-compliance with personal hygiene
  4. Candidiasis
  5. Sometimes causes can be worms and pinworms.

Not in this list in the first place are infections. For example, acute cystitis in infants can cause improper care.

The second place is a fungal infection - Candida. In infants, this fungus provokes thrush.

Due to hypothermia, cystitis appears only if the body already has a nidus of chronic inflammation. At the initial stage, so-called descending cystitis may develop when the renal pelvis infections are infected. If you notice urine retention in your baby, this can be a clear signal to the development of an inflammatory process in the mucous membranes of the urinary tract. Pathogenic microflora joins inflammation, which contributes to the development of cystitis.

The development of cystitis can contribute to some drugs. Do not write off and the cause of cystitis, as infection during surgery. Stones in the urinary tract also contribute to the development of cystitis.

The risk group includes children who:

  • suffer from chronic diseases of internal organs
  • have urolithiasis
  • born with malformations of the genitourinary system
  • have reduced immunity

Signs of cystitis in children

Most often, these symptoms are summarized. Cystitis in children is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • pain in lower abdomen
  • urination increased
  • the child is in pain while urinating
  • slightly elevated temperature
  • in advanced cases in the urine pus is detected
  • dark urine

Urinalysis reveals many epithelial cells, leukocytes are also elevated, but there is no protein in the urine, and its density is normal.

Cystitis in a child may be chronic or acute.

Acute form has a severe course, clearly manifested. With proper and timely treatment, the symptoms quickly disappear. Chronic cystitis in children, it is characterized by remissions and exacerbations; it can be sluggish, almost without showing itself. Most often, the disease takes a chronic course due to late diagnosis, improper treatment or self-treatment. In this case, microbes constantly multiply and for a long time they live in the urea, delivering a lot of trouble to the child. This happens for several reasons.

In children under one year, cystitis may take a chronic course due to difficulties in diagnosing (the manifestations are not specific, and urination frequency is difficult to determine, because infants urinate often enough). In addition, young children (especially girls) are extremely difficult to collect urine for analysis, because of this, the diagnosis may be delayed, and the disease can take a chronic course.

In no case can not self-medicate. In this case, you will be able to get rid of the symptoms, but the reason for them will remain and will definitely be felt soon!

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Does your child have urinating problems (he often goes “small”, does this process cause painful or just unpleasant feelings)? Enuresis became problem number 1? Does the child constantly complain of pain in the abdomen and lower back? His temperature often rises, and the external genitals began to change, and the color of urine did not acquire a characteristic shade? You should immediately contact your pediatric urologist!

Pediatric and adolescent urology is a huge medical section that studies the anatomical and morpho-functional state of the urinary tract and external genital organs in children and adolescents.

Methods of modern diagnostics aimed at the prevention and detection of various anomalies (including congenital). If your child has not yet learned to go to the toilet on his own at the age of two, he cannot control his natural needs, then this may be an elementary enuresis. In this case, the problem is worth paying due attention.

Pediatric urologist treats:

  • A variety of forms of bladder dysfunction
  • Acute and Chronic Urinary System Infections
  • Congenital abnormalities of the urinary system
  • Anomalies of the development of the external genital organs

Unfortunately, a third of children suffer from various forms of abnormalities in the urogenital system. Often the causes of complications is the untimely appeal of parents for the help of a specialist. Only in time for the diagnosis, as well as the skillful adjustment of various defects of the urogenital system can preserve the functional abilities of the kidneys and their tissues, allow normalizing the psycho-sexual adaptation of the baby in adulthood.

From the moment of the birth of the baby, each parent should closely monitor his health and development, be knowledgeable in these matters in order to react to problems in time and understand that something is wrong.

On our website we will tell about the most common and specific problems that can affect every child. Among them:

  • Urolithiasis disease
  • Enuresis
  • Neurogenic disorders of the bladder
  • Infectious diseases of the urinary tract
  • Congenital and acquired malformations of the reproductive system
  • Inguinal hernia
  • Dropsy and cysts of the spermatic cord
  • Varicocelle
  • Phimosis and Cryptorchidism

If you find any abnormalities in your baby, do not panic and immediately sound the alarm! Be calm, because the psychological state of your child depends on your actions and behavior.